We report on the design, verification and performance of MUMAX3, an open-source GPU-accelerated micromagnetic simulation program. This software solves the time-and space dependent magnetization evolution in nano-to micro scale magnets using a finite-difference discretization. Its high performance and low memory requirements allow for large-scale simulations to be performed in limited time and on inexpensive hardware. We verified each part of the software by comparing results to analytical values where available and to micromagnetic standard problems. MUMAX3 also offers specific extensions like MFM image generation, moving simulation window, edge charge removal and material grains. (C) 2014 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Graphene sheets that are now routinely obtained by the exfoliation/reduction of graphite oxide exhibit Raman spectra unlike traditional graphene systems. The general attributes of the Raman spectra of these ‘wrinkled graphene’ are first reaffirmed by evaluating the spectra of samples prepared by seven different exfoliation-reduction methods. These graphene sheets exhibit highly broadened D and G Raman bands and in addition, have a modulated bump in place of the conventional 2D (G′) band. It is shown that the high wavenumber ‘bump’ can be resolved into the conventional 2D band and several defect activated peaks such as G*, D+D′ and 2D′. The broad G band could also be deconvoluted into the actual G band and the D′ band, thereby attributing the broadening in the G band to the presence of this defect activated band. Two additional modes, named as D* at 1190 cm-1 and D** at ∼1500 cm-1 could be identified. These peculiar features in the Raman spectrum of ‘graphene’ are attributed to the highly disordered and wrinkled (defective) morphology of the sheets. The affect of defects are further augmented due to the finite crystallite size of these graphene sheets. The dispersion in the band positions and peak intensities with respect to the laser energy are also demonstrated.
In this paper Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is used to investigate the rotating flow of viscoelastic fluid bounded by a stretching surface. This model is a modified version of the classical Fourier's law that takes into account the interesting aspect of thermal relaxation time. The boundary layer equations are first modeled and then reduced to self-similar forms via similarity approach. Both analytical and numerical solutions are obtained and found in excellent agreement. Our computations reveal that velocity is inversely proportional to the viscoelastic fluid parameter. Further fluid temperature has inverse relationship with the relaxation time for heat flux and with the Prandtl number. Present consideration even in the case of Newtonian fluid does not yet exist in the literature. (C) 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
In the present analysis incompressible two dimensional mixed convection flow of MHD Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The governing highly nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using a similarity approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations are found by using a shooting method. Effects of various parameters are displayed graphically for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Also quantities of practical interest i. e skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented graphically and tabularly. (C) 2015 Author(s).
Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near- field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near- field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near- field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. (C) 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
We examine the carrier lifetime evolution of block-cast multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers under illumination (100 mW/cm2) at elevated temperature (75°C). Samples are treated with different process steps typically applied in industrial solar cell production. We observe a pronounced degradation in lifetime after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 900°C. However, we detect only a weak lifetime instability in mc-Si wafers which are RTA-treated at 650°C. After completion of the degradation, the lifetime is observed to recover and finally reaches carrier lifetimes comparable to the initial state. To explain the observed lifetime evolution, we suggest a defect model, where metal precipitates in the mc-Si bulk dissolve during the RTA treatment.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating clusters of cancer and stromal cells have been identified in the blood of patients with malignant cancer and can be used as a diagnostic for disease severity, assess the efficacy of different treatment strategies and possibly determine the eventual location of metastatic invasions for possible treatment. There is thus a critical need to isolate, propagate and characterize viable CTCs and clusters of cancer cells with their associated stroma cells. Here, we present a microfluidic device for mL/min flow rate, continuous-flow capture of viable CTCs from blood using deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. We show here that a DLD array device can isolate CTCs from blood with capture efficiency greater than 85% CTCs at volumetric flow rates of up to 10 mL/min with no effect on cell viability.
The present analysis concentrates on the boundary layer flow of Maxwell fluid over a stretching sheet with variable thickness. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is used instead of classical Fourier's law to explore the heat transfer characteristics with variable thermal conductivity. Suitable transformations are employed to achieve the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions of the momentum and energy equations are obtained. Behavior of various pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions are analyzed and discussed. (C) 2015 Author(s).
This work addresses the stagnation point flow of carbon nanotubes over an impermeable stretching cylinder with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Modern heat transfer technique (i.e., Newtonian heating) and Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and water are used to explore the impacts of heat transfer characteristics. Two types of CNTs are used as nanoparticles (i) Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and (ii) multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived via homotopic procedure. Impacts of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are discussed graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. (C) 2015 Author(s).
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a layered semiconductor which has become very important recently as an emerging electronic device material. Being an intrinsic semiconductor the two-dimensional MoS2 has major advantages as the channel material in field-effect transistors. In this work we determine the electronic structures of MoS2 with the highly accurate screened hybrid functional within the density functional theory (DFT) including the spin-orbit coupling. Using the DFT electronic structures as target, we have developed a single generic tight-binding (TB) model that accurately produces the electronic structures for three different forms of MoS2 - bulk, bilayer and monolayer. Our TB model is based on the Slater-Koster method with non-orthogonal sp3d5 orbitals, nearest-neighbor interactions and spin-orbit coupling. The TB model is useful for atomistic modeling of quantum transport in MoS2 based electronic devices.
The size-dependent elasticity of a series of nickel cantilever microbeams was investigated experimentally for the first time. The experimental results revealed that the dimensionless natural frequencies of the cantilever microbeams increase to about 2.1 times with the beam thickness decreasing from 15 to 2.1 μ m . Furthermore, based on the strain gradient elasticity theory (SGT) and by using the differential quadrature method (DQM) and the least square method (LSM), the experimental results were interpreted and the material length scale parameters in the scale of micron in elastic range were obtained. This investigation will be useful and helpful for the theoretical and numerical simulation of micro-structures and important for the design of the MEMS/NEMS.
Laser-based white lighting offers a viable option as an efficient and color-stable high-power solid-state white light source. We show that white light generation is possible using blue or near-UV laser diodes in combination with yellow-emitting cerium-substituted yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) or a mixture of red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors. A variety of correlated color temperatures (CCT) are achieved, ranging from cool white light with a CCT of 4400 K using a blue laser diode to a warm white light with a CCT of 2700 K using a near-UV laser diode, with respective color rendering indices of 57 and 95. The luminous flux of these devices are measured to be 252 lm and 53 lm with luminous efficacies of 76 lm/W and 19 lm/W, respectively. An estimation of the maximum efficacy of a device comprising a blue laser diode in combination with YAG:Ce is calculated and the results are used to optimize the device.
By systematically comparing the magnetic properties of the Ta/CoFeB/Ta and MgO/CoFeB/MgO structures with and without a submonolayer of MgO, Ta, V, Nb, Hf and W inserted in the middle of the CoFeB layer, we have proved that the observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Ta/CoFeB/MgO sandwiches is solely originated from the CoFeB/MgO interface with the Ta buffer acting to enhance the CoFeB/MgO interface anisotropy significantly. Moreover, replacing Ta with Hf causes the CoFeB/MgO interfacial PMA further enhanced by 35%, and the CoFeB layer with perpendicular magnetization has a much larger critical thickness accordingly, leaving a wider thickness margin for the CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction optimization. Also the sputter deposited thin Hf films are amorphous with low surface roughness. These results will ensure the Hf/CoFeB/MgO more promising material system for PMA device development.
Present work is made to study the effects of double stratified medium on the mixed convection boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell fluid induced by an inclined stretching cylinder. Flow analysis is conceded in the presence of heat generation/absorption. Temperature and concentration are supposed to be higher than ambient fluid across the surface of cylinder. The arising flow conducting system of partial differential equations is primarily transformed into coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. Numerical solutions of resulting intricate non-linear boundary value problem are computed successfully by utilizing fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm with shooting technique. The effect logs of physical flow controlling parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are examined graphically. Further, numerical findings are obtained for two distinct cases namely, zero (plate) and non-zero (cylinder) values of curvature parameter and the behaviour are presented through graphs for skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. The current analysis is validated by developing comparison with previously published work, which sets a benchmark of quality of numerical approach.
Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-linearly stretching sheet. Non-linear temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter. (C) 2015 Author(s).
To shed light on the mechanism responsible for the weak ferromagnetism in undoped wide band gap oxides, we carry out a comparative study on ZnO thin films prepared using both sol-gel and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods. Compared with the MBE samples, the sol-gel derived samples show much stronger room temperature ferromagnetism with a magnetic signal persisting up to ∼740 K, and this ferromagnetic order coexists with a high density of defects in the form of zinc vacancies. The donor-acceptor pairs associated with the zinc vacancies also cause a characteristic orange-red photoluminescence in the sol-gel films. Furthermore, the strong correlation between the ferromagnetism and the zinc vacancies is confirmed by our first-principles density functional theory calculations, and electronic band alteration as a result of defect engineering is proposed to play the critical role in stabilizing the long-range ferromagnetism.
This paper presents a novel dual serial vortex-induced vibration energy harvesting system for enhanced energy harvesting. It consists of two identical cantilever-based piezoelectric vortex-induced vibration energy harvesters, which are successively installed in one plane (which is paralleled with the wind flow direction) of the wind tunnel. The Lattice Boltzmann method is employed to predict the strength of vortex-induced vibrations and the pressure distribution around the circular cylinders of the harvesters. The numerical results qualitatively explain the influence of the space distance on the energy harvesting performance of the presented system. Experimental results verify the numerical analysis and demonstrate a higher energy harvesting efficiency of the presented system over its traditional single harvester. In detail, experimental results indicate that the effective wind speed range and the output power area of a coupled harvester in the presented system can be as many as 2.67 times and 6.79 times of that of the traditional single harvester, respectively.
Present study addresses the three dimensional flow of Jeffrey fluid. Flow is induced by a porous stretching sheet. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is used to form energy equation. Appropriate transformations are employed to form system of ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Impact of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature is examined. It is noted that by increasing the ratio of relaxation to retardation times the velocity components are decreased. Temperature distribution also decreases for larger values of thermal relaxation time.
Though widely used in modelling nano-and micro-structures, Eringen's differential model shows some inconsistencies and recent study has demonstrated its differences between the integral model, which then implies the necessity of using the latter model. In this paper, an analytical study is taken to analyze static bending of nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen's two-phase local/nonlocal model. Firstly, a reduction method is proved rigorously, with which the integral equation in consideration can be reduced to a differential equation with mixed boundary value conditions. Then, the static bending problem is formulated and four types of boundary conditions with various loadings are considered. By solving the corresponding differential equations, exact solutions are obtained explicitly in all of the cases, especially for the paradoxical cantilever beam problem. Finally, asymptotic analysis of the exact solutions reveals clearly that, unlike the differential model, the integral model adopted herein has a consistent softening effect. Comparisons are also made with existing analytical and numerical results, which further shows the advantages of the analytical results obtained. Additionally, it seems that the once controversial nonlocal bar problem in the literature is well resolved by the reduction method. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers), multi-layer (4-10 layers) and thick-layer (>10 layers) graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.