The advent of the laser has placed stringent requirements on the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications. Their high-power performance is generally governed by three distinct steps, firstly the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms); secondly, followed by a temperature increase and response governed primarily by thermal properties and finally the element's thermo-optical and thermomechanical response, e. g., distortion, stress, birefringenous fracture, etc. All of which needs to be understood in the design of efficient, compact, reliable and versatile high-power systems, under a variety of operating conditions such as pulsed, continuous wave, rep-rated or burst mode of varying duty cycles.
Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing landfills in qadaa are temporary and/or non-conforming to the environmental conditions. In order to determine landfill site, several criteria were examined such as urban centers, land use, airports, pipes, power lines, railways, roads, slope, streams, surface water, industrial areas, oil pipes, liquid gas pipes, soil types are prepared. MCDA was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion. Each map layer was prepared using GIS and the final suitable map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to the results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field site check was performed to determine the accuracy and suitability of the candidate sites.
A hurricane initiation mechanism, believed to be new, is proposed for the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean. It starts with an outbreak of warm dry air from the Sahara Desert moving out over a fairly large region of ocean just west of the big bulge of Africa. Critical to the hypothesis is the experimental fact that heat diffuses significantly slower in air than water vapor does. In summer and early fall the desert air of the outbreak is warmer than the ocean surface it first encounters. Thus this air layer is cooled from below, which is initially stabilizing. However, water vapor diffuses up into the dry air faster than the air’s heat diffuses down to the sea surface, all over the generating region simultaneously. Consequently, a horizontally large layer of air somewhat above the sea surface becomes buoyant (less dense) and rises up as a unit, and the pressure of this layer decreases by the perfect gas law. Then the water vapor in the ascending air condenses around dust particles brought in from the desert, releasing heat and producing an additional upward acceleration of the already ascending air. Atmospheric pressure lowers further in accordance with Bernoulli’s law: where the (vertical) speed is greatest, the pressure is least. Measurements are suggested to validate the hypothesis if they do not already exist.
In this paper, mathematical model for cell growth and biofuel production under synthetic feedback loop is discussed. The nonlinear differential equations are solved analytically for the maximum production of biofuel under synthetic feedback. The closed-form of analytical expressions pertaining to the concentrations of cell density, repressor proteins, pump expressions, intracellular biofuel and extracellular biofuel are presented. The constant pump model is compared with feedback loop model analytically to know the biofuel production. The numerical solution of this problem is also reported using Scilab/Matlab program. Also, the analytical results are compared with previous published numerical results and found to be in good agreement.
Contamination of land could occur during the extraction and handling of materials containing high levels of naturally occurring radionuclide materials. These radionuclides find their ways into the food chain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ~(40)K, ~(226)Ra, and ~(232)Th in heart, liver, kidney, lungs, spleen and beef of cattle slaughtered and consumed in a tin mining area of Jos Plateau, Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The activity concentration of ~(40)K is the highest in all the samples. The annual effective dose to man through the ingestion of the radionuclides in the organs was estimated. The mean annual effective doses calculated are 35.35 ± 13.84, 57.89 ± 38.27 and 46.93 ± 10.28 μSv?y~(?1) for heart, liver and kidney, respectively. Those of lungs, spleen and meat are 28.44 ± 15.70, 48.34 ± 28.85 and 41.24 ± 3.56 μSv?y~(?1), respectively. These are of the order of two magnitudes higher than those obtained for food in Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Nursery experiment was carried out at Ibadan, Nigeria between May 2004 and October 2005 to evaluate the use of plantain as a permanent cocoa nursery shade crop. Ibadan is located between latitude 07?10'N and longitude 03?52'E and lies at an altitude of about 122 metres above the sea level. The treatments consisted of six shade regimes provided by plantain spaced at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and, 3.1 m apart, the control had no shade at all (open planted cocoa). Each treatment had one hundred cocoa seedlings planted in polythene bag filled with topsoil and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications. Data on vegetative growth of cocoa seedlings were taken on monthly basis, while plantain height, girth, number of leaves, bunch weight, number of fingers and market value of each treatment were evaluated. Light intensity under each of the treatment was taken using light meter. Result showed that cocoa seedlings under plantain shade planted at 1.0 m and 1.5 m apart were higher in height relative to control and other treatments considered, shade regimes provided by spacing at 3.1 × 3.1 m and 2.5 m × 2.5 m apart on the other hand produced higher values for stem diameter and leaf area respectively compared to other treatments, the least values were recorded under 1.0 m × 1.0 m apart. Seedlings under 2.5 m and 3.1 m spacing were significantly (p > 0.05) higher for these parameters than other treatments. Higher incidence of weed was also recorded from the control. Plantain bunch obtained from 2.5 m and 3.1 m apart was higher than other treatments in terms of weight, number of fingers and market value, while the control (no plantain shade) did not give any economic returns. Hence, plantain planted at spacing of 2.5 m or 3.1 m apart could be recommended to the cocoa farmers in Nigeria as nursery shade instead of conventional method of using bamboo and palm fronds yearly without any additional economic return.
A revised phase diagram for water shows three distinct fluid phases. There is no continuity of liquid and gas, and no "critical point" on Gibbs' density surface as hypothesized by van der Waals. A supercritical colloidal mesophase bounded by percolation transition loci separates supercritical liquid water and gas-phase steam. The water phase is bounded by a percolation transition (PA) of available volume, whereas steam is bounded by the loci of a percolation transition (PB) at a density whereupon a bonded molecular cluster suddenly percolates large distances. At the respective percolation densities, there is no barrier to nucleation of water to steam (PA) or steam to water (PB). Below the critical temperature, the percolation loci become the metastable spinodals in the two-phase coexistence region. A critical divide is defined by the interception of PA and PB the p-T plane. Critical parameters are obtainable from slopes and intercepts of pressure-density supercritical isotherms within the mesophase. The supercritical mesophase is a fourth equilibrium state besides ice, water and steam. A thermodynamic state function rigidity (dp/dρ)T defines a distinction between liquid and gas, and shows a remarkable symmetry due to an equivalence in number density fluctuations, arising from available volume and molecular clusters, in liquid and gas respectively. Following an earlier debate in these pages "Fluid phases of argon: A debate on the absence of van der Waals' critical point" Natural Science 5 (2) 194-206 (2013)], we here report further debate on a science of criticality applied to water and steam (APPENDIX 1).
Sedentary crop-livestock mixed farming is the predominant agricultural land use in Central Himalaya upland and largely rainfed; agrochemicals are not used at all. Farmers focus on increasing yields with poor soil fertility management practices resulted in sharp decline in production of pea crop in the study site. Therefore in present study options are being looked into devising some conservation strategies that increase yields of pea while reducing harm to soil biodiversity at a local scale here. The present study explores the efficiency of P. excavatus as endemic earthworm species for vermicomposting, the potential utilization of Conventional oak based farmyard manure (FM-O); Conventional pine based farmyard manure(FM-P); Earthworm fed - Cow dung + oak leaves based vermicompost (VC-O); Earthworm fed - Cow dung + pine leaves based vermicompost (VC-P); freshly fallen leaf litter (LM) on pea crop productivity and soil faunal diversity in agricultural system, and if the changed soil faunal biodiversity scenario in any way affected the crop production. The higher uptake of nitrogen, higher germination percentage enhanced seedling growth, early emergence flower, increase number of pods, seed, husk, and root biomass was significantly higher in plants which received VC-O followed by VC-P as manure input treatments. The change in the diversity of soil micro arthropods in relation to quality change in organic residues input in experimental plots and expressed as the Simpsons diversity index showed that the diversity of soil fauna is related to improvements in soil conditions resulting from nutrient manipulations through vermicompost and conventional compost treatments. This response of soil biota to increased production most likely represents an increase in the availability of resources through addition of vermicompost when compared to other compost treatments. Alternatively, an increase in predators and therefore predation, could, increase the diversity of its prey, thereby decreasing dominant competitors and reducing the possibility of competitive exclusion, but this needs further studies. Chronosequence study during cropping season indicated that the composition and abundance of soil fauna in agricultural fields changed considerably with time under cultivation. This technology has now been adopted by the farmers in the area once again for growing the pea crop.
Salivary cortisol role in response to strong stressors implied in extreme exercises and in sport practice was investigated with the aim to verify the claimed benefits that steers winter swimmers to self-prescribe the trials. Specific biochemical data allow to study a variety of stressors in sports and physical exercises, including extreme ones as winter swimming. Salivary cortisol behavior was examined in winter swimmers trials and canoe, canoe-polo competitions and comparisons of results between days with and without performances were reported. Cortisol circadian rhythm in sedentary subjects was collected as control. All the subjects were selected after anamnesticclinical checks to evaluate their physiological conditions. The circadian cortisol behavior was reported in days with competitions and trials as well as between these events. Abrupt cortisol concentration changes were detected at the time of the trials and competitions: surprisingly, large increasing and decreasing concentrations were detected in both groups. Moreover, in winter swimmers, cortisol concentration remained fairly elevated in the evening of the trial days. In days without competitions, the usual cortisol circadian rhythm was recovered in sportsmen whereas cortisol concentrations persisted at high levels up to the evening in winter swimmers. The view that an extreme sport-like exercise as the winter swimming may well pose some treats ranging from subclinical aspects up to dismetabolic pathologies and even cardiovascular risks is strengthened by results of cortisol trends, suggesting to check physiological conditions. Results demonstrate that well-being feeling can be in contrast to the claimed improvements of health.
We discuss the generalized Lagrange structure of a deformed Minkowski space (DMS), M, namely a (four-dimensional) generalization of the (local) space-time based on an energy-dependent "deformation" of the usual Minkowski geometry. In M, local Lorentz invariance is naturally violated, due to the energy dependence of the deformed metric. Moreover, the generalized Lagrange structure of M allows one to endow the deformed space-time with both curvature and torsion.
The impact of noise barriers on gaseous air-pollution dispersion was examined using the highresolution CLMM (Charles University LES (Large Eddy Simulation) Microscale Model). The dispersion of a mixture of nitrogen oxides (denoted as NO_X-a mix of NO and NO_2) was computed, providing the simulation in which wind direction is approximately perpendicular to the noise barriers. The barriers were assumed to be straight and infinitely long, with a height of 3 m. Dispersion of NO_x was modeled for situations with no noise barriers along the highway, barriers on both sides, and for a single barrier on the upwind and downwind sides of the highway. The modelling results are presented and discussed in relation to previous studies and the implications of the results are considered for pollution barriers along highways.
The Ou MC decrescendo phenomenon (OuDP) involves the placing of the contralateral hand of the examiner on the acute abdomen of female patients (Ou MC manipulation), which results in an alleviation of pain 1]. Two front-end observations showed that placement of the contralateral hand on the acute abdomen of women alleviated pain (78 of 81 women or 96.3%), while placement of the ipsilateral hand did not (0 of 39 women or 0%). This method named as Ou MC handing remedy (HR) was used to observe the immediate and cumulative effects of OuDP on 38 cases, of which 27 were self-administered and 11 were administered by the therapist. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years (standard deviation, 22.9 years). Five minutes after initial self-administered HR, there was pain alleviation in 14 cases and symptoms or signs beyond pain improved for another 6 cases while 7 cases unevaluated. Final results showed 9 cured, 5 with partial remission and the remaining 13 with complete remission. Five minutes after initial therapist-administered HR, pain alleviation was found with 10 cases while 1 case unevaluated. The final results showed 7 cases cured, 2 with partial remission, and 2 with complete remission. The resolution of non-infectious conditions (23/ 38) with OuDP is consistent with the restoration of normal tissue function, which seems to contribute to pain alleviation and defense against infections and tumors. Interestingly, the OuDP is capable of being invoked by either the patient or the therapist. These findings warrant further investigation.
Ancient Arabs have recognized metallic and mineral ores, including their fluid inclusions which were still considered as a new scientific fields in the 70's last century. They discovered metallic ores (gold, silver, copper), in inhabited areas and in delta and river crosses, using different techniques for exploration and exploitation. Metallic industry flourished during the Islamic period, silver and gold were used as currency for commercial exchanges. Meteorites were also recognized by Ancient Arabs. They collected them in the deserted areas, and used them for arms manufacturing, as sabers and daggers. The more famous of these arms is the Damask saber steel, known reputedly Jaohar. It has an extraordinary mechanical properties, and exceptional sharp cutting edge. The Jaohar blades were forged directly from fall meteorites, at temperature of 80?C, using a sophistical thermomechanical of forging, annealing to refine the steel, and giving it this exceptional quality and superelastic behavior. Meteorites using by Ancient Arabs come back to 400 years ago, as confirmed by a recent research on two meteorites samples, presented in Aleppo museum, found in Ras Shamra, and Umm El Maraa, in Syria.
The objective of this paper is to calculate the third virial coefficient in Hartree approximation, Hartree-Fock approximation and the Montroll- Ward contribution of plasma by using the Green's function technique in terms of the interaction parameter ξ, and used the result to calculate the quantum thermodynamic functions for one and two component plasma in the case of nλ_(ab)~3<<1, where ab λ_(ab)~2=h~2/m_(ab)KT = is the thermal De Broglie wave-length. We compared our results with others.
Brownian motion was discovered by the botanist Robert Brown in 1827, and the theoretical model of Brownian motion has real-world applications in fields such as mathematics, economics, physics and biology. It is the presumably random motion of particles suspended in a liquid or a gas that results from their bombardment by fast-moving atoms or molecules, but the exact mechanism of Brownian motion still remains one of the unresolved mysteries in physics. Here circadian and seasonal changes in long-term macroscopic anisotropic (asymmetric) Brownian motion of a toluidine blue colloid solution in water in two dimensions were identified, suggesting that such an anisotropic Brownian motion may be related to an effect of the directional movement of "Universe field", and thereby providing new interpretations and potential applications of Brownian motion.
This paper studies the problems of mathematical description of physical processes in open non-equilibrium atmosphere. It is proposed that the mathematical description should be based on the idea that properties of an open system are determined by the properties of its elements and external constraints. It is also explained why atmosphere should be represented by an open non-equilibrium system of gas and radiation. Difference between physical processes in the above mentioned system and equilibrium atmosphere is given. The modification of equations of non-equilibrium thermodynamics for a system of gas and radiation is proposed. Possible ways for further development of tools of non-equilibrium thermodynamics are considered.
The empirical (biochemical, the PCR method) and computational (quantum-chemical, PM3) methods have shown the ability of polysaccharides to catalyze the polymerization of amino acids and nucleotides within the physiologically acceptable temperature range. The possibility of nucleotide aminoacylation in the presence of polysaccharides has been established. The suggestion has been made that abiogenic aminoacylation of nucleotides by polysaccharides served as the prototype of the original aminoacylpre- tRNA-synthetase activity and subsequently determined the formation of the modern mechanism of genetic information transfer via three biopolymer types-nucleic acids, proteins and polysaccharides.
This article is devoted to the study of the composition, diversity and distribution of non-native plant elements to the intercontinental regions of Asia on an example Trans-Baikal territory. The number of non-native plants in the Trans-Baikal areas is determined by the degree of urbanization, favorable climate and the availability of skidding ways proximal to their vicinity.