The objective of this study was to develop an adaptive thermal comfort equation for naturally ventilated buildings in hot–humid climates. The study employed statistical meta-analysis of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) RP-884 database, which covered several climatic zones. The data were carefully sorted into three climate groups including hot–humid, hot–dry, and moderate and were analyzed separately. The results revealed that the adaptive equations for hot-humid and hot-dry climates were analogous with approximate regression coefficients of 0.6, which were nearly twice those of ASHRAE and European standards 55 and EN15251, respectively. The equation using the daily mean outdoor air temperature had the highest coefficient of determination for hot–humid climate, compared with other mean temperatures that considered acclimatization of previous days. Acceptable comfort ranges showed asymmetry and leaned toward operative temperatures below thermal neutrality for all climates. In the hot–humid climate, a lower comfort limit was not observed for naturally ventilated buildings, and the adaptive equation was influenced by indoor air speed rather than indoor relative humidity. The new equation developed in this study can be applied to tropical climates and hot–humid summer seasons of temperate climates.
The global trend towards urbanisation explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on enersy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian wind/ thermal comfort, pollutant dispersion and wind-driven rain are of interest. Urban Physics is a well- established discipline, incorporating relevant branches of physics, environmental chemistry, aerodynamics, meteorolosy and statistics. Therefore, Urban Physics is well positioned to provide keycontributions to the current urban problems and challenges. The present paper addresses the role of Urban Physics in the study of wind comfort, thermal comfort, energy demand, pollutant dispersion and wind-driven rain. Furthermore, the three major research methods applied in Urban Physics, namely field experiments, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations are discussed. Case studies illustrate the current challenges and the relevant contributions of Urban Physics.
This study is a post-occupancy evaluation of residential satisfaction in Oniru Estate, Lagos, Nigeria. It conceived residents’ satisfaction as a measure of people’s attitudes towards certain aspects of their residential environment. The very important role of certain physical quality or characteristics of the environment as a dominant predictor of satisfaction is emphasized. Apart from the measurement of residential satisfaction through post-occupancy evaluation, it also utilized respondents’ satisfaction scores as indices for evaluating the performance of residential development in the study area. Analysis was done using Chi-square statistics ( =0.05 with a level of significance of 0.000) to confirm the relationship between the quality of housing physical environment and level of residents’ satisfaction. The results show and confirm that the quality of certain physical characteristics in the housing environment is imperative thereby influencing the level of residents’ housing satisfaction. The need to consider relevant inputs emanating from the end-users or occupants of residential developments in the planning, design and development of satisfactory dwellings is highlighted.
Cooling is one of the major concerns in building tropical houses. This problem is exacerbated by the heat gain of the roof, which constitutes 70% of the total heat gain. The passive cooling technique is one of the innovative practices and technologies that provide buildings with comfortable conditions through natural means. Reflective and radiative processes are the methods used to decrease heat gain by facilitating the elimination of excess heat in a building׳s interior to maintain a comfortable environment. Given that the potential of these techniques vary from region to region, their application in the tropics should be examined. Exploring these approaches in detail allows us to rethink how to effectively adapt these techniques to overcome the build-up of heat in modern tropical houses in Southeast Asia. This study reviews the physical characteristics of these approaches to guide architects and building designers. Results indicate a great reduction in operational cost. However, the significant differences in the performance of colour and material properties should be considered, given that the selected approach strongly affects the required thermal conditions of a building.
The Adaptive Solar Facade （ASF） is a modular, highly integrated dynamic building facade.The energetic behavior as well as the architectural expression of the facade can be controlled with high spatio-temporal resolution through individually addressable modules. We present the general design process, the current mechanical design, and simulation results on photovoltaic power production and building energy consumption. We introduce the controller concept and show results on solar tracking as well as user interaction. Lastly, we present our current and planned prototypes.
Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software namely IES was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.
This paper examines the architectural and Landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress aLLeviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives： healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches （Landscape design, spatial design and green design） are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.
Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an emerging modeling approach. In the past two decades, agent-based models have been increasingly adapted by social scientists, especially scientists in urban and geospatial studies, as an effective paradigm for framing the underlying problems of complex and dynamic processes. As a result, the literature of ABM research is growing rapidly, covering a diverse range of topics. This paper presents a systematic literature review of ABM research, and discusses both theoretical issues such as ABM definition and architecture, and practical issues such as ABM applications and development platforms. A comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography is presented.
This paper provides a systematic literature review on simplified building models. Questions are answered like: What kind of modelling approaches are applied? What are their (dis)advantages? What are important modelling aspects? The review showed that simplified building models can be classified into neural network models (black box), linear parametric models (black box or grey box) and lumped capacitance models (white box). Research has mainly dealt with network topology, but more research is needed on the influence of input parameters. The review showed that particularly the modelling of the influence of sun irradiation and thermal capacitance is not performed consistently amongst researchers. Furthermore, a model with physical meaning, dealing with both temperature and relative humidity, is still lacking. Inverse modelling has been widely applied to determine models parameters. Different optimization algorithms have been used, but mainly the conventional Gaus–Newton and the newer genetic algorithms. However, the combination of algorithms to combine their strengths has not been researched. Despite all the attention for state of the art building performance simulation tools, simplified building models should not be forgotten since they have many useful applications. Further research is needed to develop a simplified hygric and thermal building model with physical meaning.
This paper discusses the response of the thermal insulation lining of rigid foam polyurethane (PU) derived from castor oil ( ) in heat conditions, based on dynamic climate approach. Liners have been widely used, because the coverage of buildings is responsible for the greatest absorption of heat by radiation, but the use of PU foam derived from this vegetal oil is unprecedented and has the advantage of being biodegradable and renewable. The hot wire parallel method provided the thermal conductivity value of the foam. The thermogravimetric analysis enabled the study of the foam decomposition and its lifetime by kinetic evaluation that involves the decomposition process. The PU foam thermal behavior analysis was performed by collecting experimental data of internal surface temperature measured by thermocouples and assessed by representative episode of the climatic fact. The results lead to the conclusion that the PU foam derived from castor oil can be applied to thermal insulation of roof systems and is an environmentally friendly material.
This paper is a comprehensive study on the progress in research on Chinese urbanization. On the basis of the concept and connotation of Chinese urbanization defined by Chinese scholars, the paper systematically collects the research results on the issues concerning urbanization in China from the different approaches of demography, geography, city planning, economics and history, reviewing the process of research on Chinese urbanization made both domestically and internationally. In this paper, the domestic studies fall into five periods as follows: the initial period of research on urbanization in China (1978–1983); the period with both domestically constructed and borrowed theories on urbanization (1984–1988); the period of research on leading urbanization factors and localization (1989–1997); the period with the research greatly promoted by the government (1998–2004); and the period featuring flourishing studies on the science of urbanization in China (2005 till today). In contrast, the overseas research on Chinese urbanization can be divided into three periods: the period studying the history of urbanization in China (before the 1970s); the systematic research on Chinese urbanization (1970–1999); and the comprehensive research on Chinese urbanization (2000 till today). The paper focuses on the key results of research on Chinese urbanization, including nine issues as follows: the guidelines and road for urban development in China, the features of Chinese urbanization, the mechanism driving the growth of Chinese urbanization, the process of Chinese urbanization, the spatial patterns of Chinese urbanization, the urbanization in rural areas in China, the comparison of urbanization in China and other countries, and globalization and regional urbanization. Moreover, the paper also summarizes key academic activities and important events concerning Chinese urbanization, including documents, activities, and events of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the State Council, National Development and Reform Commission, the State Ministry of housing and Construction, the State Ministry of Civil Affairs, the State Ministry of Science and Technology, and National Fund on Science, as well as major international cooperation projects and conferences, concluding that the studies of Chinese urbanization have distinct characteristics, that is, foreign scholars have conducted many studies on Chinese urbanization, while the studies made by Chinese scholars in the field mainly feature practicability, and the interaction between Chinese and foreign scholars as well as the application of international practice in China yield satisfactory fruits. However, there are also several problems in the studies of Chinese urbanization, such as the ambiguity in understanding the concept of urbanization, the lack of fundamental statistics, the emphasis on the research of actual phenomena and the neglect of theoretical exploration, the focus on regional urbanization and the inadequate studies on national and global background. China is in the transitional period from planned economy to market-oriented economy, making it hard for the direct introduction and application of the framework of urbanization that emerged in developed capitalist countries. At the same time, the domestic framework of urbanization created under the conditions of previous planned economy is also inapplicable. Therefore, the promotion of Chinese urbanization faces a series of theoretical issues. In comparison with the western developed countries and most developing countries, Chinese urbanization faces more complicated backgrounds and more problems. The theories and framework of urbanization developed in both developed and most developing countries cannot be directly applied in China. So the research purpose in China is to form unique theories on urbanization based on actual conditions and characteristics in this country and the research shall adopt a multiple approach focusing on the impact of the progress of society, economy, population, politics, culture, environment, technology and public policies on Chinese urbanization.
The paper deciphers the Chinese literature to English speaking scholars and bridges the gap between China and the western countries on the topics of therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens. Three parts of contents are included in the paper. Firstly, four schools of theories explaining how and why nature can heal, are introduced based on the studies in western countries with the examination of terminology used. In the second part, 71 publications in Chinese are systematically reviewed, with 19 significant studies analyzed in details, including focus areas, the research method, and major findings. In the final part, Chinese studies are evaluated in relation to the theories in western countries.
This paper reviews the research, policy proposals and recommendations, implemented policies, and programs on sustainable transportation since 2000, with regional focus on the US, using the UK (related to the European Union if appropriate), and Canada as references. The paper finds that the concept of sustainable transportation has been given increased attention in all places. There are significant variances between the research, policy proposal, and implementation. Efforts made towards sustainable transportation, and the focus of the efforts at entities within and outside the US also vary notably. As a whole, the US did more research on sustainable transportation than the reference countries and it even undertook several studies of sustainable transportation practices in West Europe. The US federal government is less aggressive than its foreign counterparts in marketing and implementing sustainable transportation. This is evidenced by a lack of overarching federal policy (mandate) on and a universal working definition for sustainable transportation, and absence of a gateway and dedicated website to market and disseminate the idea of sustainable development in general and sustainable transportation in particular.
Urban structure and landscape cause an artificial temperature increase in cities, known as the urban heat island effect. The magnitude of such urban-rural temperature difference varies in daily and seasonal basis. Daily patterns of urban heat accumulation in Adelaide is under investigation. In this paper, East-West air temperature profile of Adelaide metropolitan area was mapped in 60 journeys alongside a straight cross route connecting Adelaide Hills to the West Beach under clear sky between 26 July and 15 August 2013. The most intense urban-rural temperature differences of 5.9 ℃ occurred during midnight in Adelaide. However, maximum urban heat variation occurred during the late afternoon when the near-surface urban heat fluctuates by 2 ℃ between the CBD East and Western Parklands. During summer heatwaves, the afternoon heat stress limits public life vibrancy in Adelaide. Increased urban greenery can facilitate resilience to heat by providing shadow and evaporative cooling. A better under- standing of daily urban heat variations and the cooling effect of urban greenery assists urban poticy making and public life management in the context of climate change.
Open public spaces provide venues for cultural, recreational events and promote informal social contact between citizens. Successful outdoor spaces promote comfort and invite people to stay outdoors. Provision of thermal comfort outdoors present a challenge, as an extended range of environmental conditions must be dealt with. The present study examines whether climatic characteristics in Dublin facilitate exercising tong-term outdoor activities during summer, and investigates the extent to which urban planning and the resulting urban morphology of the built environment influences microclimates created, from the viewpoint of wind environment. Microclimates at Grand Canal Square have been simulated by ENVI-met. Wind velocity has been expressed in relation to that of the ＂background＂ climate in order to verify if the site has a wind protecting character or to the contrary, it enhances airflow. The results show for the dominant wind directions （W, SW, S） that 60% higher wind velocity than at Dublin Airport can occur around building corners and at restricted flow sectionspreventing any kind of long-term outdoor activity during a ＂typical＂ day. S and SW winds cause 15%-20% acceleration at the W waterfront area. Windy urban environment can call forth a limited frequentation of urban space.
George Town is a significant World Heritage Site in the Straits of Malacca. This paper examined the evolution of urban morphology in George Town within geography, politics, economy, and culture in a horizontal dimension and layer upon layer in a vertical dimension. In this study, to ensure the objectives are achieved, qualitative methods will be applied including several approaches such as literature review, interpretation of archives chronologically, maps study, census returns, trade directories, photographs and postcards, and urban master plan study. The research is based on the analysis of urban construction, land use, economic development, and municipal policies. First, study the urban morphology in a specific period, and construct the inner layer structure in each period. Second, an analogy is drawn among the evolution of the urban morphology by time-scale, this section focusses on the historical conjunctures and events related to the urban construction. An important contribution can be made to the conservation and management of urban built heritage in George Town, on the one hand, explaining the evolution of urban morphology by examining George Town's physical and spatial environment, and in turn, on the other hand, understanding about the physical and spatial environment by examining the urban morphology.
Despite the multidisciplinary networks involved in refurbishment of complex building projects, the lack of BIM adoption signifies lack of real BIM benefits towards acceptance of BIM within Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). To this end, this study empirically examines the potential real benefits between traditional network and BIM network for a real-time refurbishment case study project, through agent-based simulation modelling. A social network analysis theory is adapted to model the project interaction networks and a BIM prototype network. An assessment of the main stakeholders for BIM perception is carried out. We offered three prototype interaction networks for comparison of real BIM benefit. An agent-based Bayesian network model is used to simulate the propagation of design error within the project networks. The result of the analysis show that BIM project diffuses error efficiently, while stakeholders recovers faster and nearly at the same time than traditional network. The optimised network shows better performance to the traditional network, when there is early involvement of subcontractors. The main contribution of this study is providing a novel approach to compare real benefits for traditional method to BIM method for refurbishment project and to provide avenue for project stakeholders to optimise their interaction through adoption of BIM.