Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical that is widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy food-can coatings. Following several studies that have reported adverse effects of BPA over the past decade, other bisphenol analogues, such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and bisphenol B (BPB), have been gradually developed as substitutes for BPA in several applications. Nevertheless, few studies have reported on the occurrence of compounds other than BPA in foodstuffs. In this study, 289 food samples (13 categories: cereals and cereal products, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and milk products, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies/snacks, beverages, cooking oils, condiments, and others), collected from nine cities in China, were analysed for eight bisphenol analogues using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPA and BPF were found widely in foodstuffs at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 299 ng g -1 (mean = 4.94 ng g -1 ) and from below the LOQ to 623 ng g -1 (mean = 2.50 ng g -1 ), fresh weight, respectively. The highest total concentrations of bisphenols (∑BPs: sum of eight bisphenols) were found in the category of vegetables that included canned products (mean = 27.0 ng g -1 ), followed by fish and seafood (16.5 ng g -1 ) and beverages (15.6 ng g -1 ). ∑BP concentrations (mean = 2-3 ng g -1 ) in milk and milk products, cooking oils, and eggs were low. Food samples sold in metallic cans contained higher mean ∑BP concentrations (56.9 ng g -1 ) in comparison with those packaged in glass (0.43 ng g -1 ), paper (11.9 ng g -1 ), or plastic (6.40 ng g -1 ). The daily dietary intakes of bisphenols were estimated, based on the mean concentrations measured and daily consumption rates of foods, to be 646 and 664 ng kg -1 bw day -1 for men and women, respectively.
Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.
Food storage containers with embedded silver as an antibacterial agent promise longer durability of food. For risk assessment the release of this silver into the stored food and resulting human exposure need to be known. For the purpose of exposure assessment, silver migration from commercial plastic containers with declared content of 'nano-' or 'micro-silver' into different food simulants (water, 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, olive oil) was quantitatively determined by ICP-MS and the form of the released silver was investigated. The highest migration of silver was observed for the acidic food simulant with 30 ng silver cm −2 contact surface within 10 days at 20°C. In a second and third use cycle, migration dropped by a factor of up to 10, so that the maximum cumulated release over three use cycles was 34 ng cm −2 . The silver release over time was described using a power function and a numerical model that simulates Fickian diffusion through the plastic material. The released silver was found to be in ionic form, but also in the form of silver nanoparticles (around 12%). Consumer exposure to the total amount of silver released from the food containers is low in comparison with the background silver exposure of the general population, but since natural background concentrations are only known for ionic silver, the exposure to silver nanoparticles is not directly comparable with a safe background level.
Mycotoxin analysis is usually carried out by high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column cleanup or in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. These methods normally involve determination of single compounds only. EU legislation already exists for the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and patulin in food, and legislation will come into force for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the fumonisins in 2007. To enforce the various legal limits, it would be preferable to determine all mycotoxins by routine analysis in different types of matrices in one single extract. This would also be advantageous for HACCP control purposes. For this reason, a multi-method was developed with which 33 mycotoxins in various products could be analysed simultaneously. The mycotoxins were extracted with an acetonitrile/water mixture, diluted with water and then directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system. The mycotoxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and detected using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) and tandem MS, using MRM in the positive ion mode, to increase specificity for quality control. The following mycotoxins could be analysed in a single 30-min run: Aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 , ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, α-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, sterigmatocystin, cyclopiazonic acid, penicillic acid, fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 , diacetoxyscirpenol, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalanone, ergotamin, ergocornin, ergocristin, α-ergocryptin, citrinin, roquefortin C, fusarenone X, nivalenol, mycophenolic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The limit of quantification for the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was 1.0 µg kg −1 and for deoxynivalenol 50 µg kg −1 . The quantification limits for the other mycotoxins were in the range 10-200 µg kg −1 . The matrix effect and validation data are presented for between 13 and 24 mycotoxins in peanuts, pistachios, wheat, maize, cornflakes, raisins and figs. The method has been compared with the official EU method for the determination of aflatoxins in food and relevant FAPAS rounds. The multi-mycotoxin method has been proven by the detection of more than one mycotoxin in maize, buckwheat, figs and nuts. The LC-MS/MS technique has also been applied to baby food, which is subject to lower limits for aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A, ergot alkaloids in naturally contaminated rye and freeze-dried silage samples.
A total of 24 German beer brands was analysed for the contents of microplastic fibres, fragments and granular material. In all cases contamination was found. Counts ranged from 2 to 79 fibres L -1 , from 12 to 109 fragments L -1 and from 2 to 66 granules L -1 . The results show a high variability between individual samples and samples from different production dates. Possible sources of this contamination with foreign materials are discussed.
Concentrations of 24 elements including metals in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured and dietary exposures estimated. Composite samples for the 20 TDS food groups (bread, fish, fruit, etc.) were collected from 24 UK towns and analysed for their levels of aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, germanium, indium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, strontium, thallium, tin, and zinc. Concentrations of each of the elements in the food groups were lower than or similar to those reported in the previous TDS survey, conducted in 2000, with the exception of aluminium, barium, and manganese. Dietary exposures to the 24 elements were estimated for UK consumers and compared with previous estimates made over the last 30 years in order to examine any trends in exposure to these elements in the typical UK diet. Population exposures to the elements have generally declined over time, and exposures to most of these elements remain at low levels. The independent UK Government scientific Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) commented on the estimated dietary exposures, taking into account their previous evaluations (in 2003 and 2008), and identified no major concerns for the health of consumers, but did advise that there was a need for more information on aluminium and barium, and also commented that dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and to lead should continue to be reduced.
Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg −1 , while a mean value of about 10 µg kg −1 was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.
This paper presents a comprehensive performance study of polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites, obtained by solvent casting, containing a novel silver-based antimicrobial layered silicate additive for use in active food packaging applications. The silver-based nanoclay showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Despite the fact that no exfoliation of the silver-based nanoclay in PLA was observed, as suggested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments, the additive dispersed nicely throughout the PLA matrix to a nanoscale, yielding nanobiocomposites. The films were highly transparent with enhanced water barrier and strong biocidal properties. Silver migration from the films to a slightly acidified water medium, considered an aggressive food simulant, was measured by stripping voltammetry. Silver migration accelerated after 6 days of exposure. Nevertheless, the study suggests that migration levels of silver, within the specific migration levels referenced by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), exhibit antimicrobial activity, supporting the potential application of this biocidal additive in active food-packaging applications to improve food quality and safety.
The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg -1 of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.
Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol are processing contaminants found in a wide range of edible oils. While both 3 MCPD and glycidol have toxicological properties that at present has concerns for food safety, the published occurrence data are limited. Occurrence information is presented for the concentrations of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in 116 retail and/or industrial edible oils and fats using LC-MS/MS analysis of intact esters. The concentrations for bound 3-MCPD ranged from below the limit of quantitation (
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are toxic for human and livestock. They undergo a metabolic toxication process in the liver which is the first target organ for PA poisoning. Worldwide many episodes of human PA intoxications are well reported. In many cases the reason for these intoxications has been PA contamination in food. The main tools for analysing food and fodder on PA content are based on GC and HPLC separation, followed by MS(-MS) detection. Actual incidents with toxic PA are the 'Jacobaea vulgaris (syn. Senecio jacobaea) problem' in Europe and the 'Ageratum conyzoides problem' in Ethiopia.
An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin and metabolites, including 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-4-glucoside, α-zearalenol-4-glucoside, β-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate in maize, wheat, oats, cornflakes and bread. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v) followed by a hexane defatting step. After filtration, the extract was evaporated and the residue was redissolved in mobile phase for injection. The mobile phase, which consisted of a mixture of methanol and water with 10 mM ammonium acetate, was adjusted to pH 3 with glacial acetic acid. A sample clean-up procedure was not included because of the low recoveries of free and masked mycotoxins and their differences in polarity. The method allowed the simultaneous determination of 13 Fusarium mycotoxins in a one-step chromatographic run using a Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Quattro Premier XE mass spectrometer. The method was validated for several parameters such as linearity, apparent recovery, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, expanded measurement uncertainty and specificity. The limits of detection varied from 5 to 13 ng g −1 ; those for the limit of quantification from 10 to 26 ng g −1 . The results of the performance characteristics of the developed LC-MS/MS method were in good agreement with the criteria mentioned in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 401/2006. Thirty samples of a variety of food and feed matrices were sampled and analysed between July 2010 and January 2011.
The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985-2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site-year-variety combinations) varied with phenological phase, but exceeded 2190, 227, 2076 and 1506 for winter wheat, spring wheat, spring oats and maize, respectively. The data were used to fit simple crop development models, assuming that the duration of the period until flowering depends on temperature and day length for wheat and oats, and on temperature for maize, and that the duration of the period from flowering to maturity in all species depends on temperature only. Species-specific base temperatures were used. Sowing date of spring cereals was estimated using a threshold temperature for the mean air temperature during 10 days prior to sowing. The mean estimated temperature thresholds for sowing were 6.1, 7.1 and 10.1°C for oats, wheat and maize, respectively. For spring oats and wheat the temperature threshold increased with latitude. The effective temperature sums required for both flowering and maturity increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the period from flowering to maturity. Changes in timing of cereal phenology by 2040 were assessed for two climate model projections according to the observed dependencies on temperature and day length. The results showed advancements of sowing date of spring cereals by 1-3 weeks depending on climate model and region within Europe. The changes were largest in Northern Europe. Timing of flowering and maturity were projected to advance by 1-3 weeks. The changes were largest for grain maize and smallest for winter wheat, and they were generally largest in the western and northern part of the domain. There were considerable differences in predicted timing of sowing, flowering and maturity between the two climate model projections applied.
Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L −1 for D3G and 8.4 µg L −1 in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L −1 for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L −1 for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L −1 D3G and 12.4 µg L −1 DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L −1 D3G, 89 µg L −1 DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.
A method based on QuEChERS extraction and LC-quadrupole-Orbitrap™ MS detection was established utilising an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with and without fragmentation. A full-scan acquisition event without fragmentation (resolving power 70 000) was followed by five consecutive fragmentation events (variable data independent acquisition - vDIA; resolving power 35 000) where all ions from the full-scan range are fragmented. Compared with fragmentation in a single event (all-ion fragmentation - AIF), this improves both selectivity and sensitivity for the fragment ions, which is beneficial for screening performance and identification capability. The method was validated, using the data from the same measurements, for two types of analysis: quantitation/identification and qualitative screening. The quantitative validation, performed according to the guidelines in SANCO/12571/2013, tested the performance of the method for 184 compounds in lettuce and orange at two spiking levels: 10 and 50 ng g −1 . The validation showed that the vast majority of the compounds met the criteria for trueness and precision set in the SANCO guidance document. In the qualitative validation the same 184 compounds were used to test the untargeted screening capabilities of the method. In this validation the compounds were spiked at three levels into 11 different fruit and vegetable matrices, which were measured twice on separate days. Taking all data from the qualitative validation together, an overall detection rate of 92% was achieved at the 10 ng g −1 level, increasing to 98% at 200 ng g −1 . A screening detection limit (as defined in the SANCO guidelines) of 10 ng g −1 could be achieved for 134 compounds. For 39 and two pesticides the SDL was 50 and 200 ng g −1 , respectively. For the other nine compounds no SDL could be established. The identification (ion ratio) criteria as recommended in the SANCO document could be met for 93% of the detected pesticide/matrix/concentration combinations. The outcome of both validations shows that the described method can be used to combine quantitative analysis and the identification of frequently detected pesticides (so far typically done using triple quadrupole MS/MS) with a qualitative screening to be used for a wide range of less frequent detected compounds in one measurement.
The fate of five Fusarium toxins - deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes - was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 µg kg −1 ), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).
Deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (D3G), a phase II plant metabolite of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), occurs in naturally Fusarium-contaminated cereals. In order to investigate the frequency of occurrence as well as the relative and absolute concentrations of D3G in naturally infected cereals, 23 wheat samples originating from fields in Austria, Germany and Slovakia as well as 54 maize samples from Austrian fields were analysed for DON and D3G by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Both analytes were detected in all the 77 field samples. DON was found at levels from 42 to 4130 ng g −1 (977 ± 1000 ng g −1 on average). The D3G concentrations in all cereal samples were in the range 10-1070 ng g −1 (216 ± 253 ng g −1 on average), corresponding to about 5-46 mol% of their DON concentrations (15 ± 8 mol% on average).
In recent years climate changes recorded in temperate regions of Europe have led to aflatoxin (AF) contamination of maize. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of weather conditions on levels of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B 2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G 1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G 2 (AFG2) in 180 maize samples collected from the main maize-growing regions (Western Bačka, North Banat, South Banat and Central Serbia) in Serbia after harvest in 2015. The concentrations of AFs were determined by a validated HPLC method with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The presence of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 was detected in 57.2%, 13.9%, 5.6% and 2.8% of maize samples in the concentration ranges of 1.3-88.8 µg kg - 1 , 0.60-2.8 µg kg - 1 , 1.8-28.5 µg kg - 1 and 2.1-7.5 µg kg - 1 respectively. The recorded smaller amount of precipitation and especially higher air temperatures during the summer of 2015 were favourable for AF production, which resulted in 32.2% and 21.1% of samples being unsuitable for human consumption, since AFB1 and the sum of AFs concentrations were above 5.0 and 10.0 µg kg - 1 respectively. Furthermore, the findings in this study indicate that the microclimate conditions in the investigated regions had a great influence on the contamination frequency of maize with AFs. The highest percentage of samples unsuitable for human consumption, considering both AFB1 and total AFs content were 72.5% and 51.5% respectively from Central Serbia, whilst the lowest percentages of 15.6% and 6.2% respectively were found in Western Bačka. These findings confirmed that maize should be continuously monitored in order to protect human and animal health from the harmful effects caused by AFs contamination.
In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals' consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States' dietary data were assembled into the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. In this paper an overview of the methodologies and protocols employed in the different national dietary surveys is provided. Specifically, details about dietary assessment methods, interview administration, sampling design, portion size estimation, dietary software, evaluation of under-reporting and non-dietary information collected are described. This information is crucial to evaluate the level of accuracy of food consumption data and to anticipate and acknowledge the utmost important sources of heterogeneity of national databases included in the Comprehensive Database. The Comprehensive Database constitutes a unique resource for the estimation of consumption figures across the European Union and represents a useful tool to assess dietary exposure to hazardous substances and nutrient intake in Europe. Nevertheless, the many substantial methodological differences that characterise the Comprehensive Database are acknowledged and critically discussed.
Advances in health economics have proven useful in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions, where the benefit usually takes the form of improved health outcomes rather than market outcomes. The paper performs health-based cost-effectiveness analyses of two potential aflatoxin control strategies in Africa: (1) pre-harvest biocontrol, using atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus competitively to exclude toxigenic strains from colonizing maize in Nigeria; and (2) post-harvest interventions in a package to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in groundnuts in Guinea. It is described how health benefits gained from each intervention, in terms of fewer aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cases, can be compared with the costs of implementing the interventions. It is found that both interventions would be extremely cost-effective if applied widely in African agriculture. That is, the monetized value of lives saved and quality of life gained by reducing aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma far exceeds the cost of either biocontrol or the post-harvest intervention package to achieve those health benefits. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratio (CER; gross domestic product multiplied by disability-adjusted life years saved per unit cost) for biocontrol in Nigerian maize ranged from 5.10 to 24.8; while the estimated CER for the post-harvest intervention package in Guinean groundnuts ranged from 0.21 to 2.08. Any intervention with a CER > 1 is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be 'very cost-effective', while an intervention with a CER > 0.33 is considered 'cost-effective'. Aside from cost-effectiveness, public health interventions must be readily accepted by the public, and must have financial and infrastructural support to be feasible in the parts of the world where they are most needed.