The Life cycle of maize stem borer, (Swinhoe) was studied in conditions. Development of stem borer undergoes following stages like egg, larvae, pupa and moth. The egg incubation period ranged from 3 to 6 days, larval stage was observed in five instars. The mean value of I, II, III, IV and V instars showed 3.8 ± 0.16, 5.2 ± 0.02, 6.1 ± 0.06, 7.35 ± 1.5, and 10.12 ± 0.29 days, respectively and complete larvae period ranged from 42 to 49 days. Pupae stage was observed in 8–9 days. The pre-mating and mating period was found at 9.10 ± 1.20 and 5.14 ± 1.08 h while egg laying period in 4.1 ± 1.32 days respectively. Fecundity rate of stem borer is from 262 to 657 eggs. The life span of adult male (3-7) and female (3-8) days was observed with a mean of 6.30 ± 0.85 and 5.10 ± 0.69 days respectively. Life cycle of stem borer gets completed in 47 to 51 days. Development of quality insects in required quantities at different developmental stages and their timely supply plays an inevitable role particularly for insect-breeding resistant programs. Hence to meet these challenges we had tried to standardize an artificial diet with cost effective to rear under conditions.
An ecological corridor, with both ecological and cultural functions, is a symbol of urban ecological or green civilization, and has therefore become one of the major topics in the fields of landscape ecology, urban ecology, and ecological planning. On the one hand, along with the prominent contradiction between regional ecological protection and economic development, as well as between the growing ecological demands of urban residents and the destruction of natural ecosystems, the construction of urban ecological corridors is very challenging. On the other hand, with contemporary urbanization and ecological civilization development, the standards and requirements for the construction of urban ecological corridors are set higher and higher. Constructing an urban ecological corridor is therefore particularly important, and must adopt a spatial approach that balances the relationship between ecological protection and economic development. In this study, the classification of urban ecological corridors was firstly conducted according to the structural or functional differences. Secondly, research progress on the construction of urban ecological corridors was systematically summarized and the main inadequacies were indicated. Following the analysis of the main methods employed in the construction of urban ecological corridors, existing methods were classified into three kinds, i.e. qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and spatial analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of subjective judgment, suitability and sensitivity analysis, network analysis, and minimum cost path analysis were compared. To provide theoretical support for the construction and management of urban ecological corridors, four key research directions were also pointed out, i.e. the identification of key nodes of urban ecological corridor, the determination of the width of urban ecological corridor, the measurement of integrated effect of urban ecological corridor, and the multi-scale integration of urban ecological corridor. The present study will aid in accelerating and improving the process of ecological corridors construction in China's new-type urbanization.
Soil physicochemical properties and microbes are essential in terrestrial ecosystems through their role in cycling mineral compounds and decomposing organic matter. This study examined the effect of stand age on soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure in wolfberry ( L.) fields, in order to reveal the mechanism of soil degradation due to long-term stand of . The objective of the study was achieved by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis of soil samples from fields in Zhongning County, Ningxia Province—the origin of . Five stand ages of were selected, < 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 years (three plots each). The results showed that soil bulk density increased slightly with increasing stand age, while no clear trend was observed in soil pH or total salinity. As the stand age increased, soil organic matter and nutrients first increased before decreasing, with the highest levels being found in year 9. There was an amazing variety of PLFA biomarkers in soil samples at different stand ages. The average concentrations of total, bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete PLFAs in the surface soil initially decreased and then increased, before decreasing with the stand age in summer. The PLFA concentrations of major microbial groups were highest in year 9, with the total PLFA concentrations being 32.97% and 10.67% higher than those in years < 1 and 12, respectively. Higher microbial PLFA concentrations were detected in summer relative to autumn and in the surface relative to the subsurface soil. The highest ratios of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial (G /G ) and fungal to bacterial (F/B) PLFAs were obtained in year 6, on average 76.09% higher than those at the other four stand ages. The soil environment was most stable in year 6, with no differences between other stand ages. Therefore, soil microbial community structure was strongly influenced by the stand age in year 6 only. The effect of stand age on soil G /G and microbial community structure varied with season and depth; there was little effect for F/B in the 20–40 cm soil layer. Principal component analysis revealed no correlations between microbial PLFA concentrations and total salinity in the soil; negative correlations were noted between soil pH and F/B in summer ( < 0.01), as well as between soil pH and fungal PLFA in autumn ( < 0.05). Moreover, microbial PLFA concentrations were correlated with soil organic matter (mean = 0.7725), total nitrogen (mean = 0.8296), total phosphorus (mean = 0.8175), available nitrogen (mean = 0.7458), and available phosphorus (mean = 0.7795) ( 0.01). On the whole, the soil ecosystem was most stable in year 6, while soil organic matter, nutrients, and microbial PLFA concentrations were maximal in year 9; thereafter, soil fertility indices and microbial concentrations decreased and soil quality declined gradually as the stand age increased. Therefore, farmers should reduce the application rate of fertilizers, especially compound or mixed fertilizers, in fields; organic or bacterial manure can be applied increasingly to improve the soil environment and prolong the economic life of .
Soil carbon (C) storage plays an important role in the mitigation of atmospheric CO emission. Soil C pools under different vegetation are distinct and need to be investigated. However, there are still large quantities of data shortages, which should be remedied by field and systematic studies. Soil was collected at 0–10 cm depth from subtropical natural vegetation and plantations both in southeast China and southeast Queensland, Australia, respectively. Soil samples were assayed for soil organic C; organic N and inorganic N; and mineralization of SOC; total C, N, and P; and pH. Our results suggested soil C concentrations in natural vegetation ranged from 6.25% to 9.20%, whereas soil C concentrations in plantations ranged from 1.08% to 2.69%. No significant differences were found among vegetation along altitudinal gradients, whereas plantations with different tree species had different soil C concentrations, being higher in broadleaf-species plantations than in coniferous-species plantations. But there were no differences in soil C between single-species plantations and mixed-species plantations. Soil C concentrations in plantations were correlated with soil moisture, soil pH and dissolved organic C concentrations; Whereas soil C concentrations in natural vegetation were significantly correlated with soil moisture, soil pH and NO concentrations. These results can contribute to the remedy of data shortages and provide the data necessary for model projections and informed decisions in the future.
a fungal pathogen causing Brown Spot of Rice is one of the disastrous biotic factors responsible for 16–43% yield in rice. To control in vitro fungal growth of this pathogen, four fungicides viz. Mencozeb, Thiophanate Methyl, Iprovalicarb + Propineb and Propineb were used with four different concentrations: 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. Plant extracts of five species as , , , and were also tested with three doses (5, 10 and 15 ml). While, 24 isolates of Bacterial isolates were investigated for their antagonistic effect. The in vitro results of the four fungicides contributed that Mancozeb and Thiophanate Methyl inhibited the colony growth at the higher doses (150 and 200 ppm) with no linear colony growth. However, Propineb was found moderately effective at (5.00 mm) and Iprovalicarb + Propineb was less effective (7.25 mm). Similarly, the in-vitro efficacy of the five plant extracts against at different doses revealed that and were more effective at high doses (00.00 mm, 2. mm). Also, (4.62 mm) (18.00 mm) and (12.00 mm) performed better as compared to the control (40.00 mm). The results revealed that out of 24 isolates, 4 isolates of bacteria has inhibited the linear colony growth of up to 1-2 mm. This study can be useful for controlling the fungal disease as the two fungicides Mancozeb and Thiophanate Methyl were more effective and the and plant extracts were highly effective against the brown spot of rice. Biocontrol also reduced leaner colony
From January 2015 to February 2017, urine samples was collected from twelve captive female Amur tigers during both their mating (or receptive) periods and the first four weeks after mating at the Hengdaohezi Feline Breeding Center (FBC) in China. A radioimmunoassay was applied to determine the progesterone levels in the urine samples. The relationship between progesterone levels and pregnancy in Amur tigers was assessed according to whether the tigers gave birth in the end. Results showed that average progesterone levels increased significantly ( < .05) after mating for all female tigers having parturition. And the minimum value of progesterone levels of them during the fourth week after mating was consistently higher than 0.21 ng/mL, the maximum value in mating period of all female tigers. However, there were no significant differences in progesterone levels between mating period and the first four weeks after mating of the female tigers having no parturition. Therefore, early pregnancy in captive Amur tigers can be diagnosed when urine progesterone concentrations attain a level higher than 0.21 ng/mL for seven days in a row after mating.
Trees outside Forest (TOF) play a critical role in conservation of floristic diversity apart from being reservoirs of other ecosystem services. TOF includes all the trees, attained 10 cm or more diameters at breast height, available on lands, which is not notified as forests. The present study was conducted in the Pundibari campus of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya to document the available tree diversity and their potential uses and ecosystem services. A total of 1816 numbers of individuals with dbh ≥ 10 cm of 95 woody perennials species were inventoried belonging to 79 genera and 38 families. The contribution among number of individuals was dominated by with (9.19%). The overall dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 11 species followed by Arecaceae and Meliaceae. The contribution of inventoried 95 species was dominated by forestry tree species followed by road isde plantation, fruit crops and plantation crops respectively. The highest number of individuals among forestry plantation was for (121) followed by (114) and (95). The documented species were dominated by endemic flora (66.31%) and exotic flora (33.68%). Majority of the species (54) were of timber value, followed by food (50), fodder (36) and ethno-medicine (39). Based on the contribution to ecosystem services all the 95 species have the potential to sequest carbon followed by 46 species to provide beautification in the form of avenue/ornamental/roadside. The tree species richness and their potential ecosystem services documented in the present study can be a baseline study for further assessment of such landscapes and their significance under threatning environmental conditions.
In order to harvest potential yield of eggplant and to find a suitable sowing time and phosphorus level for eggplant, an experiment was conducted at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in February 2013. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements. There were two factors i.e. Phosphorus levels and dates of Sowing. Phosphorus levels were assigned to the main plot while sowing dates were kept in the subplot. The data on Number of branches plant , Days to flowering Days to fruiting, Number of fruits plant and Yield Plot were significantly affected by phosphorus level and date of sowing. While the data on plant height was not significant, and overall results showed that early sowing date (February 25) produced significantly good results as compared to the rest of the sowing dates. Moreover, phosphorus level was also significantly affected the experimental parameters. Phosphorus level (70 kg ha ) produced significantly best results in all the parameters followed by Phosphorus level (100 kg ha ) in almost all the parameters. Thus it is concluded that early sowing of bringel (eggplants) is recommended with phosphorus level (70 & 100 kg ha ).
is one of the favorite fuelwood trees of Jandool valley District Dir (lower). The tree is of prime importance in the area, therefore, a phytosociological study was carried out to know the current status of at different sites of two locations (Maskini & Zardari Banda) during September to November 2017. During the survey, 28 quadrates of size (10 × 10) were randomly constructed, 14 in each site. The survey data showed that plant density of was higher in Zardari Banda than Maskini at the middle site as compared to base and top The results showed that plant of Maskini and Zardari Banda had little difference in term of height, while in case of sites the maximum plant height was recorded at top of Zardari Banda and base site of site Maskini Plant of Maskini and Zardari Banda had different girth at different sites. More number of cut plants was recorded at the base and middle of both locations, while less number of cut plants was noted at the top. The number of seedlings and soil physiochemical attributes like soil texture, class, electrical conductivity, organic matter, lime, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content was better in Zardari Banda as compared to Maskini. Due to large variations in both locations and sites, the study provided very helpful knowledge to the scientific community about forest trees to design a solid integrated approach for proper management and protection from overuse of the species in the target area. In future, similar survey studies should be carried out for timely information and resolution of issues related to forest trees.
Energy and water availability are essential for biodiversity maintenance. In addition to the independent effects of water and energy on biodiversity, recent studies clarified that the effects of interaction between water and energy availability were indispensable. In this exercise, by combining the species presence information and the environmental predictors, we produced species distribution models at 20 × 20 arc-minute resolution for 193 Theaceae species. Initially, the ordinary least square (OLS) regression was used to examine the stationary relationships between Theaceae diversity and climate. The statistical effects of water and energy on species diversity were detected using Geographically Weighted Regression analysis (GWR). Furthermore, the contour plots were used to view the statistical effects of the water and energy interaction on species diversity. The OLS results suggested that both energy and water availability are related to Theaceae species diversity. In GWR regression, the spatial variation of energy and water showed high explanatory power to the diversity pattern of Theaceae species. The patterns in the residuals of both OLS and GWR regression varied geographically. Therefore, the results of GWR regression were kept for further analysis. The value of diversity-water slopes decrease changed from positive to negative in extremely wet regions; In extremely dry conditions, the value of diversity-energy slopes decrease faster than other regions. Our results support the following findings: 1) the latitudinal distribution of Theaceae species was limited by thermal tolerance, which support the freezing-tolerance hypothesis in macro-ecology; 2) Theaceae species diversity are sensitive to the instability of precipitation, while the limitation from energy availability is weak; 3) the effects of water and energy on species diversity are strong in dry regions. Those findings can provide further implications for Theaceae species conservation under climate change scenarios.
Variability in climate context is causing direct effects on reducing crops production. Possible strategies to counteract the impact of climate change is to configure the sowing time of crops and to seek out crop cultivars that are adapted to extreme climatic conditions of a specific ecological zone. Experiments were conducted at three ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan i.e. (i. Agronomy Research Farm, The University Agriculture Peshawar ii. Agriculture Research Institute, Mingora, Swat iii. Farmers field, Karak, during the summer season, 2017–2018). Experiment was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement having four replications. Maize cultivars i.e. local open pollinated varieties (Azam, Jalal) and two hybrids (CS-200, CS-220) were sown on different dates starting from May 25 to July 25 with twenty days interval. Analysis of the data showed that early sowing (25th May) of maize in all zones (Karak, Peshawar and Swat) resulted in maximm emergence m , early emergence, highest leaf area, leaf area index, maximum light interception and higher chlorophyll content. However, delay in sowing time from 15th June onward in all zones resulted in lower emergence m , delay in emergence, reduced leaf area, leaf area index, lower light interception and chlorophyll content. Maize hybrids (CS-200 and CS-220) exhibited maximum emergence m , days to emergence, leaf area, chlorophyll content and light interception. At all zones (Karak, Peshawar and Swat) early sowing of maize hybrids (25th May to 15th June) is recommended for maintaining proper emergence parameters and improved leaf configuration for efficient resources utilization.
Pakistan has rich history of indigenous folk medicine, and of the 6000 species of higher plants found in the country 12% are used in medicinal formulations. This immensely important knowledge of folk practices to cure different ailments has been learned after centuries and is mostly verbally communicated. Therefore, a field study was designed to investigate the plant biodiversity and accumulate the indigenous knowledge about the uses of plants of Tehsil Oghi, District Mansehra, Pakistan. A total of 141 local inhabitants were interviewed through a structured questionnaire followed by multivariate approaches to evaluate the data based on the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). Plants specimen were preserved, mounted and labeled on the herbarium sheets, cataloged and deposited for voucher numbers in Herbarium, Government Post , Mansehra, Pakistan. In present study, a total 104 species belonging to 88 genera and 54 families were recorded from the study area; herbaceous growth form dominated the study area with 56 species, followed by trees with 30 species and shrubs 14 species. Among all 54 families, Rosaceae species were dominant with 12 species, followed by Asteraceae with 8 species. Out of the reported 104 species, 94 plant species are medicinal, 22 plant species are edible fruits, 37 plant species are fuel wood, 24 plant species are timber wood, 38 plant species are fuel wood, 9 plant species are vegetables, while 34 plant species are ornamental. The present study revealed the importance of the flora of this unexplored area and also provides the baseline study for future biological, phytochemical and pharmacological experimentations.
an economic and medicinal plant is restricted to limited areas due to deforestation, overgrazing, low regeneration, slow rate of germination, unsuccessful germination from cuttings and dormancy. Hence to cope with the issue of seed dormancy various and experiments were designed. The accidental breaking of seed through fungi ( ) is also reported for the first time in current study. Different techniques used for breaking of dormancy are mechanical, chemical treatments (priming, scarification, stratification, ethanol, sulphuric acid, organic matter treatment, hot water) and tissue culture. Seeds were treated through various experiments in field, green house and laboratory. The scarified seeds placed on Murashige and Skoog medium for proliferation and callus production was 60% proliferation. Explants (Meristematic tissues) from field and tubes were inoculated on M. S (Murashige and Skoog medium) + 2, 4-D+ Kinetin. Meristematic tissues collected from field shows 10% callus formation and meristematic tissues from tubes show significant result (70% callus formation). Our study concludes that the best suitable media for callus preparation of is Murashige and Skoog medium. Moreover, propagation of cutting is not possible. Development of callus explant from test tube was found to be more promising than field. Interestingly, fungi can break dormancy of and found to promote growth significantly.
Phosphorus unavailability and lack of organic matter in calcareous soils under semiarid climates are the major reasons for low crop productivity. A field experiment was conducted at The Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar (semiarid climate), during summer 2015. The objective of the research was to investigate the effect of plant residues, organic and inorganic phosphorus management on improving yield and yield components of hybrid maize (CS-200) with (+) and without (−) phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement, using three replications. A combination of plant residues and phosphorus sources were used as mainplot factor, and phosphate solubilizing bacteria were used as a subplot factor. The results revealed that plant residues, phosphorus sources and phosphate solubilizing bacteria significantly affected all parameters under study except number of plants at harvest. Application of legume residues (Faba bean) increased ear length (22.9 cm), grains row (46) and ear (419), 1000 grains weight (365 g), grain yield (6175 kg ha ) and shelling percentage (83) as compared to paper mulberry and garlic residues. Phosphorus application at the higher rate of 120 kg ha from inorganic source (single super phosphate) was superior in terms of higher ear length (24.4 cm), number of grains row (48) and ear (455), 1000 grains weight (380 g), grain yield (6558 kg ha ), harvest index (42.7%) and shelling percentage (83%) than the lower rate of phosphorus (60 kg P ha ). Inoculation of maize seeds with beneficial microbes (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) significantly increased ear length (22.9 cm), number of grains row (45) and ear (413), 1000 grains weight (364 g), grain yield (6237 kg ha ), harvest index (41.8%) and shelling percentage (82) than without seed inoculation. On the basis of our results from this study, we concluded that application of faba bean residues, 120 kg P ha as single super phosphate along with seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria could improve yield and yield components of hybrid maize under semiarid climates.
This study carried out to identify certain microbial allelochemicals with antifungal activity of some rhziobacterial isolates against fungi. The fungicidal activity of isolated microbe metabolites was compared based on inhibition % of fungal growth. Results showed that ethyl acetate crude extracts with two concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm) of (SC) and (S4) were the most efficient isolates recorded inhibition % 33.62 and 52.59% followed by S4 ( (ATCC 14579) which achieved inhibition % 33.62 and 46.55% at the same concentrations, respectively. After 4 days. The constituents analyzed by LC-MS/MS and FTIR of the ethyl acetate extracts of the ATCC19374 were afforded aminobutyric acid, 1,4-benzoquinone, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, tryptophan amino acid, Succinic acid and ferulic acid. While, the secondary metabolites of ( ATCC 14579 extract were aminobutyric acid, 1,4-benzoquinone, coumaric acids, sinapic acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid. Results indicated that the isolates of ATCC19374 and ATCC 14579 could be use as a good element in plant root rot pathogen management.
In the present study, intensive investigation was made on the effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) of on the seed germination yield biochemical and pigment characteristic of under laboratory conditions and in pots. Different concentrations such as 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of SLF were prepared using distilled water. The seeds were soaked in 10 h for each SLF concentration then placed in separate Petri plates. Similarly, water soaked seeds were used as controls. Application of a lower concentration (20%) of SLF Showed maximum seed germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root and shoot length, number of branches, leaf area, number of pods and content of total chlorophyll, chl a, and chl b, protein, carbohydrate and lipids were observed. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that the SLF of could serve as an alternative bio-fertilizer as is eco-friendly, cost-effective, deliver substantial economic and environmental benefits to farmer.
Among the various topographical factors, effects of altitudinal factor on species diversity, richness, composition and biological functions patterns are considerable. This study was done to investigate plant species richness along altitudinal gradient in the Asalem watershed basin, northern forests of Iran. For these purpose, 13 altitudinal transects were established from 100 to 2500 m, according to altitude ranges within 200 m intervals. Data collection was done in 216 circular plots of 1000-m area with a distance of 150 m from each other. In total, 576species of 325 genus and 96 families were recorded. The highest number of species was belonged to Asteracese، Fabaceae and Lamiaceae families. The results indicated that forbs with 414 species belong to54 families and ferns with 31 species belong to10 families were the largest and smallest group of plants in study area respectively. In herbaceous layer, the mean number of species was increased along altitudinal gradients ( ≤ 0.005). The lowest and highest value of species number was belonged to 500 and 2500 m altitudes, respectively. Generally, there was a gradual decline of species number at 100 to 500 m. Fitted models indicated that variation patterns at altitudinal gradients were significant and the proposed polynomial model had a high conformity with changes of species richness. The lowest value of species number in woody layer was belonged to 1900 m altitude and 2100 m had the highest value. Three peak points were recorded at the beginning, middle and the end of gradient, respectively. Sinusoidal models showed a correlation between species richness and altitudinal changes by high coefficient of determination. Results of β –diversity indicated that species change rate was fixed at 700 m altitude, but it was decreased by increasing altitude. Fluctuations of β diversity were followed of the sinusoidal models. In the study area, destructive factors including road construction, tourism and over-exploitation are a serious threat for the ecosystem and this study can be considerable to develop targeted strategies for conservation of plant diversity. In addition, study of habitat conditions in each altitudinal gradients is necessary to reconstruction stands with low species diversity and appropriate species selection to establish stands with high density.
The Himalayas are one of the youngest and richest ecosystems on earth with a variety of species and forest types due to the varying altitude, topographic, and climatic conditions. The present study was aimed to investigate the floristic composition and biological spectrum of Keran valley, a region nestled in the northwestern frontiers of Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. Floristically, a total of 183 species were recorded, out of which 55 were aliens. Herbaceous growth form was dominant (67%) and therophytes were the dominant (37%) life form. Likewise, mesophylls (34%) followed by nanophylls (29%) and microphylls (27%) were major leaf size categories; and the simple leaf lamina type was recorded in majority of the species (65%). Almost 1/3rd of the total species pool was growing in the forest habitats, while as the 2/3rd occur within the rest 9 habitat types which were largely human-modified. The vegetation phenology observed during different seasons revealed that most of the species were dominant in summer season (37%), followed by spring (29%), autumn (21%) and winter (13%). The present study provides baseline information on the plant diversity in this hitherto unexplored region of northwestern Himalaya.