Intellectual capital (IC) is a strategic resource of an organization, which can enable the organization to obtain competitive advantage in the fierce market competition. In China's economic transformation, agricultural companies need to rely more on IC to achieve sustainable development. Based on the data of Chinese agricultural listed companies, this paper uses Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC (TM)) model incorporating three components (i.e. capital employed, human capital, and structural capital), and examines the impact of IC and its three components on financial performance. The lagged effect of IC is also examined in the additional analysis. The results show that earnings quality is determined by capital employed efficiency (CEE), human capital efficiency (HCE), and structural capital efficiency (SCE); profitability is positively related to CEE and HCE; companies' efficiency is positively correlated with CEE and negatively correlated with HCE. The results also suggest that IC is an important factor to promote the growth of Chinese agricultural companies. Agricultural companies should pay more attention to the role of structural capital. Additionally, the lagged human capital is the most significant determinant of future financial performance of Chinese agricultural companies.
Despite the recognised advantages of organic farming, concerns remain over the differences in organic farms' productivity and financial sustainability compared to conventional farming competitors. We analyse primary data obtained from 301 farms-148 organic and 153 conventional-across three districts of central Punjab, Pakistan, in order to assess the aforementioned concern in the specific country context. This is undertaken through evaluating the yield and viability of both farming methods' cultivation of wheat as a major crop under two types of irrigation sources. We identified that cultivating organic crops is at least as advantageous as traditional crops regardless of the former's low yields, given the lower production expenditure and higher commodity prices. Nevertheless, both kinds of farming suffer from a 'middle man' cartel. Furthermore, organic crops' return on investment of organic crops is also significant, indicating that farmers may obtain loftier returns through transitioning from conventional crops to organic crops. Overall, organic wheat's input costs are 19.09% lower than conventional crops. Moreover, canal irrigation has a significant positive effect on maintaining soil fertility and system sustainability as opposed to ground water. Regarding organic farming's individual and social advantages, we propose that facilitating organic farming can guarantee sustainable agricultural farming methods through enhancing surface water storage and supply. Organic farming's initial acceptance by farmers commercially will be fundamentally affected by organic consumer demand and market prices, which will ultimately determine whether organic farming production endures.
This study includes the dwarf pear farms which apply and do not apply good agricultural practices in Bursa Province of Turkey. The basic purpose of this study was to make the economical comparison of the enterprises which applied and did not apply good agricultural practices in terms of productivity and profitability. Total of 22 dwarf pear producers who applied good agricultural practices were interviewed and data were gathered by using questionnaire method in Bursa province. In the same provinces, the same survey was also conducted with the same number of producers which did not apply good agricultural practices. When good agriculture practices subsidy amount was added, total production costs, gross production value, gross profit, net profit and breakeven point per hectare were determined to be respectively as 24916.67 $, 28114.16 $, 14080.07 $, 3197.49 $ and 38864 kg in the enterprises which applied good agricultural practices. The same indicators were determined to be respectively as 26758.16 $, 28620 $, 12839.08 $, 1861.84 $ and 45738.50 kg in the enterprises which did not apply good agricultural practices. Gross labor productivity, net labor productivity, gross capital productivity, net capital productivity, gross factor productivity and net factor productivity were calculated as 8.67 $, 0.99 $, 0.57 $, 0.06 $, 1.13 $ and 0.13 $, respectively in pear farming by applying good agricultural practices whereas they were determined as 3.98 $, 0.26 $, 0.56 $, 0.04 $, 1.07 $ and 0.07 $ in pear farming by not applying good agricultural practices. According to the results, dwarf pear farming was determined to be more profitable in the enterprises which applied good agricultural practices.
In the Strategic Cost Management framework, cost drivers are important not only to understand one organization cost structure, but also the relative cost position considering its value chain and competitors. In Brazilian agribusiness, the soybean is a major export item, and the understanding regarding its cost drivers may help producers to plan and manage its costs properly. The aim of this study is to identify the main cost drivers of soybean production and investigate its effects on producers cost structure. This paper discuss the elementary concepts from agribusiness and cost drivers within strategic cost management framework, and analyze data from the five most relevant sites in Brazilian soybean production, considering crops during 2010 and 2016. The main cost drivers identified are location, scale and capacity, technology, experience and learning, timing, relations in value chain, producer's capital structure and institutional factors. The effects of this cost drivers on producers represent relevant differences considering producer's location.
The objective of this research was to investigate the levels of adoption and management accounting practices in the farming cooperatives of the Parana State. The Brazilian agribusiness sector presented an accumulated growth rate of 4.28% in the period from January to October 2016, evidencing its importance in resumption of the Brazilian economic growth. The research population is composed by 64 farming cooperatives from Parana. The research is aligned to the Abdel-Kader and Luther (2008) and Guerreiro et al. (2011) studies, whose questionnaires were adapted for this study. To the potential respondents were sent a link and returned 38 valid questionnaires. The data collected were treated using descriptive statistics means, variance and standard deviation. In the surveyed sample 58.6% of the farming cooperatives employ up to 100 employees. The remaining respondents, 13.5% up to 500, 5.4% up to 1000 and 21.6% up to 3000 employees. The findings of this study are in line with those of some previous studies regarding the adoption and use of more traditional accounting practices. The majority of the farming cooperatives studied in Parana use to a higher degree the managerial accounting practices listed in the evolutionary stages 1 and 2 of IFAC (1998), but also using some practices of stages 3 and 4. In relation to the most contemporary tools such as target costing, Economic Value Added (EVA) and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) findings suggest low level of adoption and utilization. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that there is still a paradox between the set of tools available in the literature and those practiced by the organizations.
The objective of the present study is to relate the critical success factors (CSFs) for agri-business incubation with business performance. The seven CSFs considered for agri-business incubation are: MI: Clear and Unambiguous mission; EE: Entry and Exit policy; NW: Networking Strategy; AS: Assessment process of the tenant in BI; FC: Facilities provided to tenant firms; SC: Services offered to the tenant firms; and MS: Manager's skill, experience and expertise. The data collected from 60 Business Incubations in India and PLS has been used for thorough analysis for the proposed model with relating Agri-business CSFs with Business performance. The results of Structural Equation modeling highlight that the outcome of business performance varies significantly with Facilities, Networking, and Services. Managerial Skills mediate between Assessment and Business Incubation performance. MI: Clear and Unambiguous mission has also emerged as significant CSF influencing BI performance in agri- business. Entry and Exit policy has a lower path coefficient, but it is significant. This study highlights that Entry and Exit policy needs to be improved, while services, networking and facilities may be enhanced for improving performance in Agri-Business.
The objective of this study is to verify the economic-financial viability of milk and swine farming activities in a rural property. The research is characterize as objectives as exploratory, in relation to the procedures as a case study and with a qualitative approach to the problem. Data were collected from January to December 2016, after the analysis was performed using the TIR, TMA, VPL and Payback indices. It was found that the milk activity will provide a return on investment in a period of 3.22 years and with a profit for the owner of R$ 137,153.00 over a projected period of 10 years, with an internal rate of return of 31.55% showing that milk production is viable, mainly due to the quantity sold using the existing structure. Therefore, for swine production considering the same period of analysis, it is not viable, the analyzes showed that in a period of 10 years it is not possible to recover the value of the invested capital, the VPL shows a negative of R$ 48,446.37, this result was obtained due to the quantity and value obtained per animal marketed in the structure and period analyzed. The results showed that accounting is an essential tool for business management and decision making. Through its indicators it is possible to evaluate which investment will provide a return to the investor, that way opting for the best alternative.
The objective of this study was to analyze the articles published in the periodical Custos e @gronegocio online, from 2005 to 2018, from the perspective of the meta-study, totaling 572 articles. The technique used was microanalysis, through the categorization of the data. The results show that there is a growing series of publications, whose authorship precedes from abroad, thus identifying the internationalization of the periodical, from 2010. Regarding the articles of international origin, those of Turkey, Serbia and China stand out. The most prolific authors were Alceu Souza, Altair Borgert, Mevlut Gul. Regarding keywords, the highest frequencies were "Cost", "Production", "Management", "Value" and "Price". There were found 85 agribusiness sectors, of which the most representative were: Livestock of Milk, Cattle Breeding, Soybean Cultivation, Coffee Cultivation and Family Farming. Regarding the themes, was found 70 different, with greater representation in Production Costs, Financial-Economic Planning, Performance Analysis and Bibliometric Analysis. It was identified 59 management tools used, the main ones being the structuring activities for costing, absorption costing, costing by activities, variable costing and opportunity cost.
In face of the advance of information technology and the emergence of Internet in the 21st century, the advance of technology and transportation has the demand and supply of agricultural products no longer be restricted to various countries or certain areas. It becomes urgent to ensure the quality (guarantee), integrity, safety, diversity, and relevant information (service) of agricultural products. Consumers' consumption ideas and habits have been largely changed. The marketing principles simply stressing on "quality" and "price satisfaction" could no longer satisfy customers' requirements. The circulation and supply processes of agricultural products therefore should be controlled to ensure the excellent quality. The agricultural product supply chain management is relatively important. Taking Nanping City Supply and Marketing Cooperatives as the research sample, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to evaluate the efficiency in this study. The variable data are acquired from open statistical data. The research results are summarized as below. 1. One DMU presents strong execution efficiency on agricultural product supply chain, showing the better agricultural product supply chain; 4 DMUs reveal the agricultural product supply chain execution efficiency in 0.9 similar to 1, showing that the agricultural product supply chain execution efficiency could be easily promoted; 5 DMUs appear the agricultural product supply chain efficiency lower than 0.9, which is obvious inefficient. 2. Sensitivity analysis is used for finding out key factors in the execution of agricultural product supply chain in order to understand the sensitivity to efficiency. The sensitivity factors contain production cost, labor cost, response efficiency, and profit. Finally, suggestions are proposed according to the results. It is expected to enhance the quality, logistic, and information system of agricultural product supply chain, during the integration and innovation of agricultural product supply chain, for the coordination and integration to more effectively execute the frequent transaction.
In 2016 as bearer plants their changed measurement basis for historical cost to the investment at fair value, following IASB accounting regulations. This constitution is based on criticisms to the use of the fair value for biological assets without active market, that is the case of the carrier plants. In this regard, the present work has the objective of investigating and analyzing the individual and aggregate impacts of the change in the measurement of bearer plants in Brazil, considering internal and external users. An event study was applied to evaluate the behavior of the market after a norm change, comparing the abnormal returns of the companies with bearer plants, as companies that have biological assets, but without carrier plants. In addition, a descriptive statistic was performed to evaluate a change in the fair value of companies with bearer plants, before and after the change in the standard. Finally, an individual analysis through an interview in the Usina Sao Martinho application, one of the largest in the sugarcane industry in Brazil. The event study showed signs that the alteration of the norm influenced positively as companies with bearer plants. There was a reduction in the volatility of the result after the change in the standard, which may favor external users, for example, to improve the estimates of market analysts. These limited results based on the measurement of the carrier plants resulted in a positive impact on the capital market (external users). As for the interview, a Sao Martinho company evaluated positively a change, with a decrease in the subjectivity of information; That is, as carrier plants. With this, conclusions that have a basis of measurement of the carrier plants to well evaluated by the counters of the company. Finally, this work shows that there is still room for recognition, measurement and disclosure of CPC 29 or IAS 41, in view of the deficiencies of the standard and its unfavorable implications for the capital market
This work had as main objective to analyze the characteristics of the publications on the theme Controllership, in Brazilian accounting journals, that possess Qualis B5 or higher, in the period between the years 2012 and 2016. This is a descriptive, quantitative and bibliometric research. The analysis was made from a sample of 23 national periodicals of Accounting and 41 papers. The results indicate that: the year 2014 was the most productive and the Ambiente Contabil Journal was the most active periodical. The author Ilsen Maria Beuren was the most prolific and most cited in the works. Researchers and readers interested in the topic should prioritize the keywords: "Controllership", "Congress", "Teaching", "Theory" and "Accounting" in their electronic searches for articles in the area. Regarding the gender 57% of the authors are men and 43% are women. On the methodological aspects, it was evidenced that most of the research is descriptive, with quantitative approach and documentary strategy.
Understanding and analyzing the cost drivers associated with each organization becomes relevant as these factors directly influence competitiveness. In this context, the objective of the article is to identify the follow-up of the cost drivers and to understand the interrelationships existing between them in a dairy company located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It is a unique case study, of a descriptive and qualitative nature, developed in 2016 and 2017. Regarding the relevance in the costs, the technology displayed a significative capacity of influencing the others. Among the execution cost drivers, all the subjects analyzed in the study are followed by the organization, presenting the time determinant as the major influencer in the costs. Regarding the interrelationships, the technology and institutional factors were the one's wich presented more interrelationships intensity with other determinants.
Cost accounting is intended to produce information for the various managerial levels of an entity, it seeks to assist the function of determining performance, planning, operations and decision-making. In this way, this cost accounting branch provides advantages for the organization by setting itself as a competitive advantage. In view of the above, the study has the following problems: What are the determinants of cost management practices used by the salt industry? Having as general objective, to identify the determinants of the cost practices used by the saline industry in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. In relation to the methodological aspects, it is a descriptive study, regarding the procedures a data survey was used, considering the quantitative nature of the problem, considering as a sample the salting industries of the State of Rio Grande do Norte. The results point out the determinants of costs such as, cost analysis and monitoring, absorption costing method, cost planning, profit margin and variable costs. The article contributes to a greater understanding and understanding about the relevance of cost accounting, especially its indispensable practices in the management of organizations. In addition to the theoretical contribution, we highlight the managerial contribution, through the disclosure of cost determinants, also helping organizations to identify and use the determinants of cost practices in order to bring improvements to the activities and consequently maximize profit.
This work aimed to analyze the costs of reverse logistics of packaging of pesticides to generate a cost driver and provide important information for the links in the logistics chain that work with this type of solid waste. For the development of the research, a multisite study was carried out with the links that are related to the reverse logistics of the packaging of pesticides and that has a legal obligation on the correct destination of this residue, especially the resale representatives, the rural producer and the agrochemicals industry. The results provide important information for these links in their decision making, to enable the creation and better management of their reverse logistics process, and the mapping of the identified flows allows us to understand how the correct destination of the containers of pesticides, including reusing the returned material. In addition, we presented the various cost drivers that are part of this reverse logistics process, notably transport, administrative, packaging and storage costs, which have a direct influence on the final cost composition. It is important to note that, unlike other studies that indicate transport and storage costs as the most representative in the total logistic cost composition, this study showed that administrative costs have the highest value, representing 47% of the total. Another relevant result was the cost of reverse logistics of agricultural pesticide packaging, R$ 1,868.13 per ton.
This paper investigates if board of director's age impact earnings management activities which will make a contribution to this very actual topic. Our sample is consisting of all Serbian agriculture companies listed on the Belgrade Stock Exchange for the period of 2013-2016. For detecting earnings management practices we have used the Performance ADJ Jones Model, which is showed as the most appropriate for companies in our sample. The results show that there is no impact of board of director's age on earnings management practices. We also find no evidence of impact of chairman's age on earnings management practices. Relationship between gender diversity and earning management practices has not been found; even when a woman is the chairman no relationship between the variables was revealed. The women made 22% of the whole members of the boards, and 55% of boards are mixed-gender. But we have discovered that the women members of the boards of directors are significantly younger than men members. In 42.11% of mixed-gender boards, the woman is the youngest member of the board of directors, while in 60.87% of mixed-gender boards, women are younger than the average age of the members of these boards. This finding throws new light on gender studies.
Fish farming practiced in small farms is an important income alternative for local communities and the absence of bioeconomic information may make this activity unfeasible. The objective of this study was the feasibility analysis of the production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) in family farms located in the Atlantic Forest area of Ribeira Valley, state of Sao Paulo. It was verified that the average profitability when investing in these ventures is 11% with a profitability index of R$ 3.00, and the average period of return on investment is 6.8 years. The average net present value was thousand reais, indicating that it is feasible to invest in this productive activity, as long as the bioeconomic variations inherent in each production unit are considered.
The purpose of this article is to check what are the elements considered in the formation of the selling price of certified organic food from family farmers in the city of Ponta Grossa. In this case study the farmers were interviewed participants of a producer Association of organic, in order to be able to get the main items related to cost management of organic food sold. The results of interviews indicate that the farmers of Ponta Grossa mainly produce vegetables and fruits, and the sales channels most used are the green city fair and the government programs PAA and PNAE. Although members cannot negotiate food prices delivered to government programs, these programs are responsible for the purchase of large amount organic food produced, enabling farmers to be able to formulate a more highest price used in other marketing channels, such as the local market, and so get a bigger profit. In this way, it appears that the diversification of production is essential for organic farmers associated with the region evaluated can negotiate all your organic food production.
The study sought to verify how contingency factors, environment and strategy influence the Management Control Systems of an Agricultural Cooperative. It is a descriptive research, case study and qualitative. The object of study included an Agricultural Cooperative. We conducted interviews with 10 managers, documental analysis and observations. Nvivo (R) software and word clouds, built using the Wordle application, were used to aid data analysis. The main results showed that the environment was characterized by market demands, government plans, dollar prices, laws, competition, exports, climate, crises, bilateral agreements, which influence the Management Control Systems. Two strategic approaches (cost leadership strategy and differentiation strategy) were identified, influencing Management Control Systems in different ways.
The objective of this work is to establish a framework for agricultural activity in terms of financial accounting, that is, the measurement of biological assets and agricultural products, as well as analyse the importance of cost management in the agricultural activity. A qualitative methodology was followed, based on a normative analysis and a literature review of scientific articles on the subject. We found that several authors defend the application of the cost criterion in the measurement of these assets, given the difficulties of calculating fair value in the absence of active markets for certain assets. However, current Portuguese accounting standardization presents fair value (net of selling costs) as a criterion to be applied in the measurement of this type of elements, with cost being a criterion to be applied only exceptionally, in the case of biological assets whose fair value cannot be reliably determinable. Regarding the cost management of agricultural activity, we conclude that, due to the lack of knowledge and / or training and the difficulty of its application, taking into account the risk and uncertainty of this activity, many agricultural managers do not make an adequate management of the costs.
This work aimed to demonstrate the importance-performance relationship of controlling for decision-making in dairy farming, reported by this activity producers of the municipality of Alfredo Chaves-ES. The empirical research was developed with the application of a structured questionnaire to eighty four (84) milk from this county. In general, it is concluded through the analysis of the literature on the subject, that rural accounting, more specifically controlling, is a control instrument of extreme relevance for the good performance of agribusiness companies, including milk production. However, through the data collected from milk producers, it was possible to identify that controlling is perceived as very important for decision making, according to literature, while its practical use has been little avowed. When these results are analyzed from the Slack's Matrix (SLACK, 2002), the controlling tools and attributes studied are in a worrisome situation for the matrix standards, indicating the need for urgent action to improve this situation.