Atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors such as MoS2 hold great promise for electrical, optical and mechanical devices and display novel physical phenomena. However, the electron mobility of mono-and few-layer MoS2 has so far been substantially below theoretically predicted limits, which has hampered efforts to observe its intrinsic quantum transport behaviours. Potential sources of disorder and scattering include defects such as sulphur vacancies in the MoS2 itself as well as extrinsic sources such as charged impurities and remote optical phonons from oxide dielectrics. To reduce extrinsic scattering, we have developed here a van der Waals heterostructure device platform where MoS2 layers are fully encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride and electrically contacted in a multi-terminal geometry using gate-tunable graphene electrodes. Magneto-transport measurements show dramatic improvements in performance, including a record-high Hall mobility reaching 34,000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) for six-layer MoS2 at low temperature, confirming that low-temperature performance in previous studies was limited by extrinsic interfacial impurities rather than bulk defects in the MoS2. We also observed Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in high-mobility monolayer and few-layer MoS2. Modelling of potential scattering sources and quantum lifetime analysis indicate that a combination of short-range and long-range interfacial scattering limits the low-temperature mobility of MoS2.
Combining the electronic properties of graphene(1,2) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)(3-6) in hybrid heterostructures offers the possibility to create devices with various functionalities. Electronic logic and memory devices have already been constructed from graphene-MoS2 hybrids(7,8), but they do not make use of the photosensitivity of MoS2, which arises from its optical-range bandgap(9). Here, we demonstrate that graphene-on-MoS2 binary heterostructures display remarkable dual optoelectronic functionality, including highly sensitive photodetection and gate-tunable persistent photoconductivity. The responsivity of the hybrids was found to be nearly 1 x 10(10) A W-1 at 130 K and 5 x 10(8) A W-1 at room temperature, making them the most sensitive graphene-based photodetectors. When subjected to time-dependent photoillumination, the hybrids could also function as a rewritable optoelectronic switch or memory, where the persistent state shows almost no relaxation or decay within experimental timescales, indicating near-perfect charge retention. These effects can be quantitatively explained by gate-tunable charge exchange between the graphene and MoS2 layers, and may lead to new graphene-based optoelectronic devices that are naturally scalable for large-area applications at room temperature.
Ultraviolet photodetectors have applications in fields such as medicine, communications and defence(1), and are typically made from single-crystalline silicon, silicon carbide or gallium nitride p-n junction photodiodes. However, such inorganic photodetectors are unsuitable for certain applications because of their high cost and low responsivity (<0.2 AW(-1))(2). Solution-processed photodetectors based on organic materials and/or nanomaterials could be significantly cheaper to manufacture, but their performance so far has been limited(2-7). Here, we show that a solution-processed ultraviolet photodetector with a nanocomposite active layer composed of ZnO nanoparticles blended with semiconducting polymers can significantly outperform inorganic photodetectors. As a result of interfacial trap-controlled charge injection, the photodetector transitions from a photodiode with a rectifying Schottky contact in the dark, to a photoconductor with an ohmic contact under illumination, and therefore combines the low dark current of a photodiode and the high responsivity of a photoconductor (similar to 721-1,001 AW(-1)). Under a bias of <10 V, our device provides a detectivity of 3.4x10(15) Jones at 360 nm at room temperature, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of existing inorganic semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors.
Majorana modes are zero-energy excitations of a topological superconductor that exhibit non-Abelian statistics 1-3 . Following proposals for their detection in a semiconductor nanowire coupled to an s-wave superconductor 4,5, several tunnelling experiments reported characteristic Majorana signatures 6-11 . Reducing disorder has been a prime challenge for these experiments because disorder can mimic the zero-energy signatures of Majoranas 12-16, and renders the topological properties inaccessible 17-20 . Here, we show characteristic Majorana signatures in InSb nanowire devices exhibiting clear ballistic transport properties. Application of a magnetic field and spatial control of carrier density using local gates generates a zero bias peak that is rigid over a large region in the parameter space of chemical potential, Zeeman energy and tunnel barrier potential. The reduction of disorder allows us to resolve separate regions in the parameter space with and without a zero bias peak, indicating topologically distinct phases. These observations are consistent with the Majorana theory in a ballistic system 21, and exclude the known alternative explanations that invoke disorder 12-16 or a nonuniform chemical potential 22,23 .
Femtosecond nonlinear optical imaging with nanoscale spatial resolution would provide access to coupled degrees of freedom and ultrafast response functions on the characteristic length scales of electronic and vibrational excitations. Although near-field microscopy provides the desired spatial resolution, the design of a broadband high-contrast nanoprobe for ultrafast temporal resolution is challenging due to the inherently weak nonlinear optical signals generated in subwavelength volumes. Here, we demonstrate broadband four-wave mixing with enhanced nonlinear frequency conversion efficiency at the apex of a nanometre conical tip. Far-field light is coupled through a grating at the shaft of the tip, generating plasmons that propagate to the apex while undergoing asymptotic compression and amplification, resulting in a nonlinear conversion efficiency of up to 1 x 10(-5). We apply this nonlinear nanoprobe to image the few-femtosecond coherent dynamics of plasmonic hotspots on a nanostructured gold surface with spatial resolution of a few tens of nanometres. The approach can be generalized towards spatiotemporal imaging and control of coherent dynamics on the nanoscale, including the extension to multidimensional spectroscopy and imaging.
Three-dimensional macrostructures (3DMs) of graphene and graphene oxide are being developed for fast and efficient removal of contaminants from water and air. The large specific surface area, versatile surface chemistry and exceptional mechanical properties of graphene-based nanosheets enable the formation of robust and high-performance 3DMs such as sponges, membranes, beads and fibres. However, little is known about the relationship between the materials properties of graphene-based 3DMs and their environmental performance. In this Review, we summarize the self-assembly and environmental applications of graphene-based 3DMs in removing contaminants from water and air. We also develop the critical link between the materials properties of 3DMs and their environmental performance, and identify the key parameters that influence their capacities for contaminant removal.