Insulin resistance is common in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D), in which circulating insulin levels are frequently increased. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence points to a link between insulin resistance and cancer. The mechanisms for this association are unknown, but hyperinsulinaemia (a hallmark of insulin resistance) and the increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) appear to have a role in tumor initiation and progression in insulin-resistant patients. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit the hepatic synthesis of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), whereas both hormones stimulate the ovarian synthesis of sex steroids, whose effects, in breast epithelium and endometrium, can promote cellular proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, an increased risk of cancer among insulin-resistant patients can be due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage DNA contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, it is possible that the abundance of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients may promote systemic inflammation which can result in a protumorigenic environment. Here, we summarize recent progress on insulin resistance and cancer, focusing on various implicated mechanisms that have been described recently, and discuss how these mechanisms may contribute to cancer initiation and progression.
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane, deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile, binding action of bile by fibre, and production of short-chain fatty acids by oligosaccharides. The present paper reviews the mechanisms of action of anti-cholesterolemic potential of probiotic microorganisms and probiotic food products, with the aim of lowering the risks of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases.
This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (n = 275 and 129, resp.) and one control group (n = 151). We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, miR-148a, miR-210, miR-27a, miR-29a, miR-26a, miR-27b, miR-25, miR-200a); several of these miRNAs were linked to apoptosis and beta-cell networks. Furthermore, we identified miR-25 as negatively associated with residual beta-cell function (est.: -0.12, P = 0.0037), and positively associated with glycaemic control (HbA1c) (est.: 0.11, P = 0.0035) 3 months after onset. In conclusion this study demonstrates that miR-25 might be a "tissue-specific" miRNA for glycaemic control 3 months after diagnosis in new onset T1D children and therefore supports the role of circulating miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for tissue physiopathology and potential intervention targets.
Diabetes causes metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, and these changes suggest a role for inflammation in the development of diabetic retinopathy. These changes include upregulation of iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, caspase 1, VEGF, and NF-kappa B, increased production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, IL-1 beta, and cytokines, as well as increased permeability and leukostasis. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors or genetically modified animals, an increasing number of therapeutic approaches have been identified that significantly inhibit development of at least the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, especially occlusion and degeneration of retinal capillaries. A common feature of a number of these therapies is that they inhibit production of inflammatory mediators. The concept that localized inflammatory processes play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy is relatively new, but evidence that supports the hypothesis is accumulating rapidly. This new hypothesis offers new insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and offers novel targets to inhibit the ocular disease. Copyright (C) 2007 Timothy S. Kern.
Oxygen metabolism is essential for sustaining aerobic life, and normal cellular homeostasis works on a fine balance between the formation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress, a cytopathic consequence of excessive production of ROS and the suppression of ROS removal by antioxidant defense system, is implicated in the development of many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes and its complications. Retinopathy, a debilitating microvascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of acquired blindness in developed countries. Many diabetes-induced metabolic abnormalities are implicated in its development, and appear to be influenced by elevated oxidative stress; however the exact mechanism of its development remains elusive. Increased superoxide concentration is considered as a causal link between elevated glucose and the other metabolic abnormalities important in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants have beneficial effects on the development of retinopathy, but the results from very limited clinical trials are somewhat ambiguous. Although antioxidants are being used for other chronic diseases, controlled clinical trials are warranted to investigate potential beneficial effects of antioxidants in the development of retinopathy in diabetic patients.
Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The hypothalamus is a key region which possesses reciprocal connections between the higher cortical centres such as reward-related limbic pathways, and the brainstem. Furthermore, the hypothalamus integrates a number of peripheral signals which modulate food intake and energy expenditure. Gut hormones, such as peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, and ghrelin, are modulated by acute food ingestion. In contrast, adiposity signals such as leptin and insulin are implicated in both short- and long-term energy homeostasis. In this paper, we focus on the role of gut hormones and their related neuronal networks (the gut-brain axis) in appetite control, and their potentials as novel therapies for obesity.
The incidence of obesity and overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world as well as in those countries transitioning to first world economies, and this represents a major global health problem. Concern is rising over the rapid increases in childhood obesity and metabolic disease that will translate into later adult obesity. Although an obesogenic nutritional environment and increasingly sedentary lifestyle contribute to our risk of developing obesity, a growing body of evidence links early life nutritional adversity to the development of long-term metabolic disorders. In particular, the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and excess maternal weight gain has been associated with a heightened risk of obesity development in offspring in addition to an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications. The mechanisms that link maternal obesity to obesity in offspring and the level of gene-environment interactions are not well understood, but the early life environment may represent a critical window for which intervention strategies could be developed to curb the current obesity epidemic. This paper will discuss the various animal models of maternal overnutrition and their importance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered obesity risk in offspring.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common human endocrine disease and is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic islet beta-cell failure. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a central contributor to beta-cell failure in the evolution of T2DM. As reviewed elsewhere, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by beta-cell mitochondria as a result of metabolic stress activate several stress-response pathways. This paper focuses on mechanisms whereby ROS affect mitochondrial structure and function and lead to beta-cell failure. ROS activate UCP2, which results in proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and this leads to reduced beta-cell ATP synthesis and content, which is a critical parameter in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, ROS oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial cardiolipin and other phospholipids, and this impairs membrane integrity and leads to cytochrome c release into cytosol and apoptosis. Group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) appears to be a component of a mechanism for repairing mitochondrial phospholipids that contain oxidized fatty acid substituents, and genetic or acquired iPLA(2)beta-deficiency increases beta-cell mitochondrial susceptibility to injury from ROS and predisposes to developing T2DM. Interventions that attenuate ROS effects on beta-cell mitochondrial phospholipids might prevent or retard development of T2DM.
Aim. Based on the previously established method, we developed a better and stable animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by high-fat diet combined with multiple low-dose STZ injections. Meanwhile, this new model was used to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of berberine. Method. Wistar male rats fed with regular chow for 4 weeks received vehicle (control groups), rats fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks received different amounts of STZ once or twice by intraperitoneal injection (diabetic model groups), and diabetic rats were treated with berberine (100 mg/kg, berberine treatment group). Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were carried out. Moreover, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured to evaluate the dynamic blood sugar and lipid metabolism. Result. The highest successful rate (100%) was observed in rats treated with a single injection of 45 mg/kg STZ, but the plasma insulin level of this particular group was significantly decreased, and ISI has no difference compared to control group. The successful rate of 30 mg/kg STZ twice injection group was significantly high (85%) and the rats in this group presented a typical characteristic of T2DM as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and blood lipid disorder. All these symptoms observed in the 30mg/kg STZ twice injection group were recovered by the treatment of berberine. Conclusion. Together, these results indicated that high-fat diet combined with multiple low doses of STZ (30mg/kg at weekly intervals for 2 weeks) proved to be a better way for developing a stable animal model of type 2 diabetes, and this new model may be suitable for pharmaceutical screening. Copyright (C) 2008 Ming Zhang et al.
Aim. Despite the beneficial effects of dietary restriction (DR) on lifespan, age-related diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, its effects on type 2 diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. This study examined the renoprotective effects of DR in Wistar fatty (fa/fa) rats (WFRs). Methods. WFRs were treated with DR (40% restriction) for 24 weeks. Urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, renal histologies, acetylated-NF-kappa B (p65), Sirt1 protein expression, and p62/Sqstm1 accumulation in the renal cortex, as well as electron microscopic observation of mitochondrial morphology and autophagosomes in proximal tubular cells were estimated. Results. DR ameliorated renal abnormalities including inflammation in WFRs. The decrease in Sirt1 levels, increase in acetylated-NF-kappa B, and impaired autophagy in WFRs were improved by DR. Conclusions. DR exerted antiinflammatory effects and improved the dysregulation of autophagy through the restoration of Sirt1 in the kidneys of WFRs, which resulted in the amelioration of renal injuries in type 2 diabetes.
The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring to develop diabetes and/or obesity at adulthood. This "fetal programming", due to intrauterine diabetic milieu, is termed as "metabolic memory". In gestational diabetes as well as in macrosomia, the complications include metabolic abnormalities, degraded antioxidant status, disrupted immune system and potential metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Furthermore, there is evidence that maternal obesity may also increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. However, women with GDM possibly exhibit greater macrosomia than obese women. Obesity and diabetes in pregnancy have independent and additive effects on obstetric complications, and both require proper management. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity is essential for maternal and offspring's good health. Increasing physical activity, preventing gestational weight gain, and having some qualitative nutritional habits may be beneficial during both the pregnancy and offspring's future life.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress are key contributors in the development of diabetic complications. The FOXOfamily of forkhead transcription factors including FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 play important roles in the regulation of many cellular and biological processes and are critical regulators of cellular oxidative stress response pathways. FOXO1 transcription factors can affect a number of different tissues including liver, retina, bone, and cell types ranging from hepatocytes to microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes to osteoblasts. They are induced by oxidative stress and contribute to ROS-induced cell damage and apoptosis. In this paper, we discuss the role of FOXO transcription factors in mediating oxidative stress-induced cellular response.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated liver function tests results, after the commonly investigated causes have been excluded, and frequently coexists with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because the conditions have common risk factors. As both T2DM and NAFLD are related to adverse outcomes of the other, diagnosis and valuation of fatty liver is an important part of the management of diabetes. Although noninvasive methods, such as biomarkers, panel markers, and imaging, may support a diagnostic evaluation of NAFLD patients, accurate histopathological findings cannot be achieved without a liver biopsy. As it is important to know whether steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis are present for the management of NAFLD, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis and evaluation. Therefore, new investigations of the pathogenesis of NAFLD are necessary to develop useful biomarkers that could provide a reliable noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy.
Objective. To investigate the association between type 2 diabetes, glucose-lowering therapies (monotherapy with either metformin, sulphonylurea or insulin) and cancer risk in Taiwan. Methods. Using Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes database of 1,000,000 random subjects from 2000-2008, we found 61777 patients with type 2 diabetes (age >= 20 years) and 677378 enrollees with no record of diabetes. Results. After adjusting for age and sex, we found patients with diabetes to have significantly higher risk of all cancers (OR: 1.176; 95% CI: 1.149-1.204, P < 0.001). Diabetic patients treated with insulin or sulfonylureas had significantly higher risk of all cancers, compared to those treated with metformin (OR: 1.583; 95% CI: 1.389-1.805, P < 0.001 and OR: 1.784; 95% CI: 1.406-2.262, P < 0.001). Metformin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of colon and liver cancer compared to sulphonylureas or insulin treatment. Sulfonylureas treatment was associated with an increased risk of breast and lung cancer compared to metformin therapy. Conclusions. Taiwanese with type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of breast, prostate, colon, lung, liver and pancreatic cancer. Those treated with insulin or sulfonylureas monotherapy are more likely to develop colon and liver cancer than those treated with metformin.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary subcellular organelle where proteins are synthesized and folded. When the homeostasis of the ER is disturbed, unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in ER stress. In response to ER stress, cells activate a set of tightly controlled regulatory programs, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), to restore the normal function of the ER. However, if ER stress is sustained and the adaptive UPR fails to eliminate unfolded/misfolded proteins, apoptosis will occur to remove the stressed cells. In recent years, a large body of studies has shown that ER stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in numerous human diseases, such as diabetes and neurogenerative diseases. Moreover, emerging evidence supports a role of ER stress in retinal apoptosis and cell death in blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. In the present review, we summarize recent progress on ER stress and apoptosis in retinal diseases, focusing on various proapoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways that are activated by the UPR, and discuss how these pathways contribute to ER stress-induced apoptosis in retinal cells.
The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder worldwide. Its prevalence ranges 10-24% in the general population, reaching 60-95% and 28-55% in obese and diabetic patients, respectively. Although the etiology of NAFLD is still unclear, several lines of evidences have indicated a pathogenetic role of insulin resistance in this disorder. This concept has stimulated several clinical studies where antidiabetic drugs, such as insulin sensitizers including metformin, have been evaluated in insulin-resistant, NAFLD patients. These studies indicate that metformin might be of benefit in the treatment of NAFLD, also in nondiabetic patients, when associated to hypocaloric diet and weight control. However, the heterogeneity of these studies still prevents us from reaching firm conclusions about treatment guidelines. Moreover, metformin could have beneficial tissue-specific effects in NAFLD patients irrespective of its effects as insulin sensitizer.
Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) mediates retinal inflammation, gliosis, and apoptosis in experimental diabetes. Here, we investigate the temporal response of Muller glia to high glucose (HG) and TXNIP expression using a rat Muller cell line (rMC1) in culture. We examined if HG-induced TXNIP expression evokes host defense mechanisms in rMC1 in response to metabolic abnormalities. HG causes sustained up-regulation of TXNIP (2 h to 5 days), ROS generation, ATP depletion, ER stress, and inflammation. Various cellular defense mechanisms are activated by HG: (i) NLRP3 inflammasome, (ii) ER stress response (sXBP1), (iii) hypoxic-like HIF-1 alpha induction, (iv) autophagy/mitophagy, and (v) apoptosis. We also found in vivo that streptozocin-induced diabetic rats have higher retinal TXNIP and innate immune response gene expression than normal rats. Knock down of TXNIP by intravitreal siRNA reduces inflammation (IL-1 beta) and gliosis (GFAP) in the diabetic retina. TXNIP ablation in vitro prevents ROS generation, restores ATP level and autophagic LC3B induction in rMC1. Thus, our results show that HG sustains TXNIP up-regulation in Muller glia and evokes a program of cellular defense/survival mechanisms that ultimately lead to oxidative stress, ER stress/inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis. TXNIP is a potential target to ameliorate blinding ocular complications of diabetic retinopathy.
This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kidney glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy), using a semiquantitative rating from 0 (absent/normal) to 3 (severe and extensive damage). Vascular lesions were scored from 0-2. Sitagliptin in the diabetic rats promoted an amelioration of glycemia, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs, accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia. Furthermore, together with urea increment prevention, renal lesions were ameliorated in the diabetic rats, including glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, chronic low-dose sitagliptin treatment was able to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, which might represent a key step forward in the management of T2DM and this serious complication.
Objective. Data from randomized clinical trials with metabolic outcomes can be used to address concerns about potential issues of cardiovascular safety for newer drugs for type 2 diabetes. This meta-analysis was designed to assess cardiovascular safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Design and Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized trials of GLP-1 receptor agonists (versus placebo or other comparators) with a duration >= 12 weeks, performed in type 2 diabetic patients. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (MH-OR) was calculated for major cardiovascular events (MACE), on an intention-to-treat basis, excluding trials with zero events. Results. Out of 36 trials, 20 reported at least one MACE. The MH-OR for all GLP-1 receptor agonists was 0.74 (0.50-1.08), P = .12 (0.85 (0.50-1.45), P = .55, and 0.69 (0.40-1.22), P = .20, for exenatide and liraglutide, resp.). Corresponding figures for placebo-controlled and active comparator studies were 0.46 (0.25-0.83), P = .009, and 1.05 (0.63-1.76), P = .84, respectively. Conclusions. To date, results of randomized trials do not suggest any detrimental effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular events. Specifically designed longer-term trials are needed to verify the possibility of a beneficial effect.