The use of animal models of aortic stenosis (AS) remains essential to further elucidate its pathophysiology and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. The waved-2 mouse AS model has been proposed; data have indicated that while aortic regurgitation (AR) is effectively induced, development of AS is rare. We aimed to evaluate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) and vitamin D supplementation in this model. HFD and subcutaneous vitamin D injections were initiated at the age of 6 weeks until the age of 6 ( = 16, 6-month treatment group) and 9 ( = 11, 9-month treatment group) months. Twelve waved-2 mice without supplementation were used as control. Echocardiography was performed at 3, 6 and 9 months. Blood serum analysis (calcium, 1,25(OH) D and cholesterol), histology and immunohistochemistry (CD-31, CD-68 and osteopontin) were evaluated at the end of the experiment (6 or 9 months). Total cholesterol and 1,25(OH) D were significantly increased relative to the control group. HFD and vitamin D supplementation did result in improvements to the model, since AS was only detected in 6 (15.3%) mice (2 in the 3 groups) and AR was developed in the remaining animals. Echocardiographic parameters, fibrosis, thickness, inflammation and valvular calcification, were not significantly different between the 6-month treatment and control groups. Similar results were also observed in the 9-month treatment group. These results suggest that HFD and vitamin D supplementation have no effect in the waved-2 mouse model. This model essentially mimics AR and rarely AS. Further studies are needed to find a reliable animal model of AS.
A new rat model of cerebral infarction was developed to elucidate the contribution of vascular endothelial cell during focal cerebral infarction formation. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the model group, sham operation group, and control group for indexes observation of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dyeing, neurological deficit, plasma tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) content, and 6-keto-prostaglandin (6-keto-PGF(1alpha)) content. (1) The highest neurological score appeared at 6 h after operation, descending significantly at sequential time. (2) Using TTC dyeing and optical microscope technique, pathological changes in brains were observed. (3) Compared with control group and sham operation groups, there was a decrease in tPA activity of model rats at the initial 12 h after injection of sodium laurate (P < 0.05), PAI activity decreased markedly in the model group at 24 h after inje
To study the effects of Shenggu injection (SGI) on mRNA expression of vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) in rat osteoblasts in vitro and to explore its possible molecular mechanisms in promoting fracture healing. Rat osteoblasts cultured in vitro were stimulated with SGI according to the protocol. The expression levels of VEGF mRNA in the cells in every group were examined by reverse-transcriptase ploymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When osteoblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of SGI for 5 days, the expression of VEGF mRNA peaked with 1 mg/ml SGI on the 5th day. When treated with 1 mg/ml SGI from the 1st to the 5th day, the expression of VEGF mRNA increased gradually with the increase of culturing time. SGI could promote significantly the expression of VEGF mRNA in rat osteoblasts in vitro. The levels of expression of VEGF mRNA changed along with different concentrations and stimulating time of SGI.
To study the effects of total alkaloids (TA) extracted from Rhizoma Coptis Chinensis on experimental gastric ulcer models. Four kinds of experimental ulcer models were established respectively by water-immersion stress, intragastric ethanol, acetic acid erosion, and pylorus ligation. The anti-ulcer effects of TA were evaluated, and compared with that of berberine (Ber) and cimetidine (Cim). TA showed significant inhibitory effects on ulcerative formation induced by water-immersion stress, intragastric ethanol, and pylorus ligation in dose-dependent manner, and showed therapeutic effect on acetic acid erosion-inducing ulcer, in comparison with the control group. The anti-ulcer activity of Ber was less than TA containing equal content of Ber. TA significantly reduced the free acidity, total acidity and total acid output, but didn't affect the gastric juice volume, gastric pepsin activity, adherent mucus quantity of stomach wall and free mucus dissolving in gastric juice. The suppressive activities of TA on gast
Phytochemicals, orally administered substances, are found to undergo presystemic metabolism mainly in the intestine. Although early researches confirmed the role of intestinal bacteria in phytochemical presystemic metabolism, along with the development of molecular biology in investigating intestinal metabolism, a breakthrough has been won in research into metabolizing enzymes and transporters in intestine, which demands more attention and further studies. Recently, Cytochrome P450 3A has been found to be the most effective enzyme in mediating both oxidative (PhaseI) and conjugative (PhaseII) metabolism in the intestine. The present review summarizes the current findings correlated with the effect of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A on phytochemical presystemic metabolism, which provides a good basis for further research on phytochemical pharmacokinetics.
To investigate the effect of Astragalus injection (AI) on plasma levels of apoptosis-related factors in aged patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Seventy-two CHF patients were randomly divided into the AI group (36 cases) treated with AI and the control group (36 cases) treated with conventional treatment. Plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with monoclonal anti-human antibodies. Besides, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grading was assessed according to improved symptoms and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were assessed by echocardiogram after 4 weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment, NYHA grading was markedly improved in the two groups, but it was significantly better in AI group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). As compared wit
To clarify whether the acupoints of Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) have specific actions other than non-acupoints to bone. Forty Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups: Sham operated (sham) group; Ovariectomized (OVX, model) group; non-acupuncture group; OVX, needling on Zusanli and Sanyinjiao (Acp-A) group; OVX, needling on the reverse sides of Zusanli and Sanyinjiao (Acp-B) group; OVX, periostineal stimulation on the same height as points of Zusanli and Sanyinjiao (Acp-C) group. The experiment was continued for 23 weeks and then all animals were sacrificed. OVX had a significantly higher body weight and lower bone mineral density (BMD) on the lumbar vertebrae, total femora and tibiae than sham rats, however, Acp-A showed a higher BMD compared with the other OVX groups. On the other hand, bone weights, bone strength and bone morphometry such as trabecular volume, trabecular separation, labeled width and bone formation rate also showed the same improvements in Acp-A as compared to the o
To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Yinxing Damo (YXDM) combined with Betahistine Hydrochloride Injection (BHI) on vertebra basilar artery ischemic vertigo (VBIV). Ninety patients with VBIV were randomly divided into two groups; 45 patients (the treated group) were treated with YXDM and BHI intravenous dripping, once a day for 14 days. Another 45 patients (control group) were treated with Xueshuantong and BHI intravenous dripping, once daily for 14 days. The clinical syndromes and the index of the transcranial Doppler (TCD) and hemorheology were observed. The total effective rate was 100% in the treated group, which was better than that in the control group 90.5%, (P < 0.05). The indexes of TCD and hemorheology in the treated group were obviously improved after treatment, (P < 0.01). YXDM combined with BHT injection had better effect in treating patients with VBIV is an ideal drug for VBIV.
To study the relative specialty of the acupoints of Baihui (DU20), Shuigou (DU26) and Shenmen (HT7) in treating vascular dementia (VD). Fifty patients suffering from VD were divided into 5 groups randomly and treated by conventional acupuncture for hemiplegia, or conventional acupuncture plus needling in DU20, DU26, HT7 respectively or simultaneously. Clinical symptoms were observed, and the scales such as Hasegawa's dementia scale-recension (HDS-R), activities of daily living (ADL) and functional activities questionnaire (FAQ) were used for assessment before and after acupuncture treatment. The scores were processed statistically. DU20 and HT7 could improve the abilities of memory, orientation, reaction and reduce adamancy and trance. Besides, DU 20 was helpful in improving the abilities of understanding, calculating and social adapting. While DU26 is helpful in treating retardation, failure in daily activities, trance and poor memory. The combination of the 3 acupoints could improve the intelligence and soc
Ischemic stroke is a common clinical emergency, with thrombolysis and neuroprotection as its cardinal treatment, and nowadays the latter is more and more stressed by stroke researchers. On the basis of pathophysiology and ischemic cascade of ischemic stroke, we now try to analyze the conceivable mechanism of intervention by tradition Chinese medicine (TCM) and hopefully provide experience for experimental and clinical research in the future.
To compare the therapeutic effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang ( GNK) with that of hormone replacement treatment (HRT) on climacteric female rats with osteoporosis, and to investigate the roles of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Climacteric female rats with osteoporosis were chosen and divided into three groups (GNK group, HRT group and control group). Apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells was measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Serum level of estradiol (E(2)), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT) technology was used to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in bone. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by double energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). In the climacteric rats, BMD, serum E(2), ER mRNA expression in bone decreased remarkably, and serum FSH, LH and apoptosis of o
To assess the efficacy of the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Capsules worked out by Prof. Deng in improving quality of life of CHD patients of qi deficiency with phlegm and blood stasis syndrome. According to the WHO's diagnosis criteria of CHD, a total of 93 stable angina patients were divided into 3 groups using the single blinded method. The groups were evenly distributed into CHD Capsule treated group (CHDC), isosorbide dinitrate control group (ID), and Compound Prescription Danshen Droplet Pills control group (CPDDP). Two courses of treatment lasting for 6 months were given. During the courses of treatment, the following parameters were observed: clinical symptoms of angina pectoris, ECG change, treadmill exercise test, 36 items in short form of health survey (SF-36) and Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) scale. After 6 months of treatment, all the three groups showed good curative effect in angina pectoris, ECG and treadmill exercise test, differences between them had no statistical significance. The CH
To observe the clinical efficacy and mechanism of Zhuyu Tongfu (ZYTF) Serial Recipe combined with acupuncture and massotherapy in treating hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH). One hundred and eighteen patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage, on the basis of conventional Western medicine treatment, were randomly divided into ZYTF combined with acupuncture and massotherapy group (treated group) and simple Western medicine group (control group); the clinical efficacy, neurofunction deficit scoring (NDS) alterations and hematoma absorption rate of both groups were observed, and also the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, plasma lipid peroxidase (LPO) content, erythrocyte glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, hematocrit (Ht) and the whole blood viscosity (Va) change were also observed. In the treated group, the clinical efficacy, NDS improvement and hematoma absorption rate were superior to that of the control group; comparison between the two groups after treatment showed that plasma SOD act
To investigate the molecular mechanisms and effective target points of lipid-lowering drug, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and study the effect of curcumin on the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in macrophages in mice. Macrophages in mice were treated with curcumin, which was purified from the ethanolly extraction of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae for 24 h. The LDL receptors expressed in the macrophages were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assay of DiI labeled LDL uptake by flow cytometer. It was found for the first time that 10 micromol/L-50 micromol/L curcumin could obviously up-regulate the expression of LDL receptor in macrophages in mice, and a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated. One of the lipid-lowering mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, was completed by the effect of curcumin through the up-regulation of the expression of LDL receptor.
To observe the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract injection (GB) in treating early diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty DN patients were divided into two groups, the treated group were treated by GB and Western medicine, and the control group were given Western medicine alone. The study lasted for 4 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood pressure, 24 h urinary albumin excretion (UAE), endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), blood lipids and hemorheology indices were examined before and after the study. Compared with the control group, UAE were significantly decreased (P 0.05). GB is effective in treating early DN through decreasing urinary albumin excretion rate, regulating blood lipids, improving renal function and hemorheology.
To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12 +/- 5.54 vs 61.43 +/- 5.37, P < 0.05). The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9 +/- 5.1% vs 2.5 +/- 5.5%, P < 0.05). QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acou
To evaluate the effect of Yufeining, a traditional Chinese medicine, on induced sputum interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at the stable phase. Thirty-six patients with COPD were divided into trial group (18 cases) and control group (18 cases) randomly. The trial group was treated with Yufeining pills taken orally for half a year; the control group was not given any medicine. Routine lung function was recorded before and after treatment. Total cell count (TCC), differential cell counts (DCCs) and IL-8 in induced sputum were determined at the baseline and 6 months later. The indices of lung function improved significantly after 6 months' treatment in trial group (P < 0.05); TCC and absolute neutrophil count decreased significantly compared with baseline in the trial group (P < 0.05); Sputum IL-8 concentration dropped significantly after 6 months' treatment, from a mean of 5.216 +/- 2.914 microg/L to 4.222 +/- 2.140 microg/L (P < 0.05). There were insignificant cha
To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of Safflower Yellow injection (SYI) in treating coronary heart disease angina pectoris (CHD-AP) with Xin-blood stagnation syndrome (XBSS). Adopted was the multi-centered, randomized, positive parallel controlled method, 448 patients with CHD-AP-XBSS were enrolled and divided into two groups, 336 in the tested group treated with SYI and 112 in the control group treated with Salvia injection by intravenous dripping once a day for 14 days, so as to observe the conditions of angina, electrocardiogram, and therapeutic effect on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms as well as the safety of the treatment. The significantly effective rate and total effective rate in the tested group were 60.06% (194/323) and 91.02% (294/323) respectively; Those in improvement of TCM symptoms were 40.18% (129/321) and 75.23% (243/323) respectively, which were better than those in the control group (P < 0.01). SYI Injection is effective and safe in treating CHD-AP-XBSS.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are the two most common joint diseases, and they have characterization of synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction, associated with the accumulation of numerous catabolic mediators and inflammatory cells in the synovial space and surrounding soft tissues. How these factors are cleared and if the “clearance” process contributes to pathogenesis of arthritis are not known. Recently, we found the existence of the peri-articular lymphatic system in mouse joints. The blockade of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic draining function accelerates while stimulation of lymphatic function attenuates the severity of joint tissue lesions in mouse models of RA and OA. More importantly, we noticed the similarity between the dysfunction of lymphatic drainage in arthritic joints and “Bi” theory of Chinese medicine (CM), and demonstrated that several Bi disease-treated herbal drugs directly affect the function of lymphatic endothelial cells. Here we review the advances about the interactions between joint inflammation and changes in the peri-articular lymphatic system and discuss our view of linking “Bi” theory of CM to lymphatic dysfunction in arthritis.