From 1637 to 1642, Gushri Khan of the Qosod, which was a clan of the Oyirad Mongols, conquered Amdo, Kham, and Central Tibet with his Oyirad allied troops, then he united the Tibetan Plateau and established ＂the Qosod Khanate courtTM From then on, four descendants in Gfishri Khan＇s lineage acted as Khans at Lhasa one after another, and Lha-bzang Khan （reigned 1703-1717） was the last of them.
The Ming Dynasty was one of the important periods of cultural exchange and amalgamation between Han Chinese and Tibetans. Along with the governance of Tibet and other Tibetan areas by the Central Government of the Ming Dynasty, Tibetan culture represented by Buddhism and its art was disseminated in the interior of China, primarily in Nanjing city and Beijing city, the capital of the Ming dynasty. At the same time, Chinese culture represented by Chinese Buddhism and its art was also introduced into Tibet and other Tibetan areas. It is this kind of mutual exchange and integration that has enriched and developed the traditional culture of China, and has deepened the recognition of each other among different ethnic groups. The Han Chinese-style Sudhana or Han-Chinese Child was a perfect example in Chinese Buddhist art that was introduced into Tibetan Buddhist art in this period. After years of investigation,
Introduction This paper~ tells the story of Damcho Pema （dam chos pad ma）2, a Tibetan Buddhist nun from Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province, and her almost 2000 km prostrating pilgrimage to Lhasa. Before coming to the pilgrimage itself it describes the long road she first had to travel to become a nun, thereby illustrating some of the difficulties facing Tibetan women who decide to become nuns and highlighting contemporary social attitudes towards them. We then follow Damcho Pema on her prostrating pilgrimage to Lhasa in 2005-06,
Pho-lha-nas quelled the civil strife in Bhutan in 1730, and in 1734, and both sides of the conflict respectively dispatched envoys to Beijing to ask the Qing Court to confer honorific titles, which resulted in the final establishment of the Suzerain-vassal relationship between Tibet and Bhutan in the Qing Dynasty. However, the establishment of the political subordination relations did not necessarily eliminate the estrangement caused by the confrontations between Tibet and Bhutan in the past over 100 years. So, it was necessary for the politicians on both sides to show their superior intelligence and courage to break the ice. In the periods from 1730s to 1760s, the politicians on both sides made full use of various political and religious means to improve the relations and finally made Tibet-Bhutan relations gradually improved within the framework of the Suzerain-vassal structure. In this period, the Seventh Dalai Lama and Pho-lha-nas were the primary rulers in Tibet. （Ambans exerted much greater impact on the affairs on Tibet, but in dealing with the relations with Bhutan, they did not play the leading roles as they did after 1792.） They supported Bhutan to realize its reunification and ended the system of Bhutan sending its subjects to Tibet as hostages. By doing so, they rapidly won trust of the leading figures in Bhutan. Four Deb Rajas1 were successively in power in Bhutan,
1. Introduction My research centers around a birth story （ Skt. Jaaka, Chin. bensheng 本生, Tib. skyes rab） contained in the Sutra of the Wise and the Foolish （Chin. 贤愚经 Xianyu ring, Tib. mDzangs blun, abbr. SWF）, a story in which a prince named Sujata and his parents fled to another country because an evil minister of their suzerain tried to kill them.
The manuscripts of every historical period have their own characteristics which mark them as products of their time. The purpose of codicology1 is to restore this historical and cultural information of manuscripts to situate them in their particular eras.
The 6th Beijing International Seminar on Tibetan Studies held in Beijing from August 2nd-4th, 2016, was convened by the China Association for Protection and Development of Tibetan Culture, the China Tibetology Research Center （CTRC）, and the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences （TASS）, TAR. In total, 325 scholars attended the seminar, among whom 216 were Chinese and 109 were from abroad. The seminar received 416 papers and selected 308. With the purpose of ＂preserving culture and serving society,＂ the seminar aims to develop in-depth academic communication, demonstrate the latest research achievements, and further explore the development of the discipline of Tibetan studies.
This is the second part of the diplomatic edition of Yamari＇s Pramanavarttikalankaratika Suparisuddha,the continuation of the part published before？ In the part published here, Yamari explains Prajfiakaragupta＇s two initial verses, i.e., folios 10al-12a3 on PVA 1, and 12a3-14b2 on PVA2.
It could be moreout of geostrategic consideration rather than mere munificence for Nehru＇s administration to host the 14 Dalai Lama and his followersin 1959.1 Being one of the most important strategic assets of India to balance China, Tibetan communities in India always enjoy special care and favorable treatment ever since their arrival, in comparison with the other groups of people in similar situation. Since 1959, 10 state governments of India have agreed to Nehru＇s request to provide land for Tibetan resettlement. For instance, since 1961, the Karnataka government allotted 6,142.25 hectares of land on lease to Tibetans.2 The state government of Orissa also leased approximately 2,250 acres of land for the resettlement of nearly 2,500 Tibetans.3
Buddhism is central to understanding the globalized historical processes taking place in the Hexi Corridor, a region running northwest from the bank of the Yellow River up till the nowadays Xinjiang-Gansu border and being flanked by the Tibetan Plateau and the Gobi Desert to the south and north respectively.
Red mdav ba was born in a place called Red mdav khab so, near Sa skya Monastery. His father was bKra shis rgyal mtshan, the local minister of Red mdav, and his mother was dBang phyug skyid. His clan descended from the great minister mGar stong btsan Yul srungs, who was the most important minister of the Tupo emperor Srong btsan sgam po. When he was born, his mother had many auspicious dreams, including the appearance of the sun and moon, lamps being lit, and the building of a temple. At first, her child was named bTsun ne, and mainlv took rneal~ of milk ,;nc, Hrf
Tibetan Buddhism, one of the important sects of Buddhism, is believed by a lot of researchers to have disseminated into Tibet from India, Nepal and its adjacent Han nationality congregating areas in around 7th century. The subsequent spread of Buddhism in Tibet experienced two periods of fast diffusion, during which the original Buddhist doctrine merged with Tibetan traditional culture, and a new form of religion with typical Tibetan characteristics came into being. Now it is known to the world as Tibetan Buddhism. With the rapid development within Tibet,
In 2011, Hu Angang and Hu Lianhe proposed their second-generation ethnic policy as alternative option of current Chinese ethnic policy which has been supposed to cause unrest among ethnic minority areas in China. In their paper, they narrate a perfect racial politics based on racial integration in the United States.1 Although Hu Angang and Hu Lianhe＇s narrative of American racial politics is criticized by other scholars due to its essentialism,z Hu Angang and Hu Lianhe spark the scholarship to wonder whether we can compare Chinese ethnic politics and American racial politics or not,
Lu Xingqi 陆兴祺 was of crucial importance in the Sino-Tibetan-British negotiations in the early 1910s. Therefore he was the subject of a fine article published many years ago, which mainly discussed his role around the Simla conference （Oct. 1913 - Jul. 1914） by utilizing materials solely from the British records？ By consulting both British and Chinese files, this paper seeks to present a more comprehensive picture of his activities during that time.
According to the relevant historical documents, Guru Chos dbang is a controversial figure. He is considered one of the five prominent gTer-ston （treasure discoverers） in several chronicles of Nyingma tradition, however, Bu ston Rin chen grub claims in his comments on mantra practice in Tibet that Guru Chos dbang offered perverted teachings and fabricated false treasures. This is a topic of extreme interesting to many researchers, and there are several of works of English scholarship including Janet Gyatso＇s work on Guru Chos dbang＇s autobiography analyzing its narrative methods. There is still more remaining to figure out.
1. Introduction Tibetan Plateau is regarded as a weather vane or startup of global climate change （CC） which has attracted the attention of scientific community. Climate change impacts are becoming increasingly evident within this highly vulnerable and fragile region？ Temperatures are rising at rates substantially higher than the global average, and significantly more so in higher altitude areas.
As far as China-US relations are appeared only in the past 100 years. concerned, the Tibet issue is one of those that It has never been an essential one in China- US relations. However, from the day that the People＇s Republic of China （PRC） was established, the Tibet issue turned out to be a long-term factor which has exerted an influence on the relations between the two countries over an extended period of time. A study of the Tibet issue in China-US relations during the late Qing / Manchu Dynasty and early Republic of China will benefit us in understanding the whole process of how the United States government became involved in [China＇s Tibet].
Since the Reform and Opening-up in 1978, Tibetan area has been through a rapid social, cultural and economic change. A number of studies have focused on economic development, Tibetan modernization, educational development and women＇s changing status etc. As heated topics, cultural protection and inheritance have also been explored a lot. However, religion, an important aspect of Tibetan culture, has been relatively ignored by scholar who are interested in cultural inheritance in contemporary Tibet, with a few exceptions.There is a general assumption about traditions that traditional culture has difficulties in surviving in modern societies and traditional culture has to adapt itself to modern cultures. This paper seeks to examine this assumption in the context of contemporary modernizing China, taking Tibetan religion as an example.
The term Lang is a place name, it means ＂Dragon Valley＂, ＂fairy place to live＂ in the Tibetan language. In 1911, the Qing dynasty officer Chen Quzhen was posted here, stationed in Lunang Dongjiu. He later described the Lunang area as a place ＂covered with grass, rocks blocking the way＂ Since the National Highway 318 was built in 1954, at the altitude of 3,700 meters, Lunang has become the gateway to Bayi town, which is about 80 kilometers from Lunang. The natural beauty of Lunang has made it a tourist town along the Sichuan-Tibet Road Line.
1. Introduction This paper will primarily focus on historical migrations to and within the Chang Tang （byang-thang） region of Tibet. Traditionally, ＇Chang Tang＇ refers to the enormous northern plateau of Tibet that covers more than 2.5 million km^2 of land mass, more renowned globally for its wildlife than human settlements.