The Cliff's Delta statistic is a non-parametric effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two groups of observations beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff's Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff's Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.
The primary objective of this article is to identify the mental models that represent a social-scientific problematic specific to high-school Colombian students. This is followed by the analysis of the argumentative schemes that these students may use to justify such models. By using a combined design, fifty two participants (52 people, 31 women and 21 men between the ages of 15 and 23; with education levels between high school and undergraduate degree) analyzed the possibility of implementing a mining exploitation project in a specific region of Colombia that is currently under the administrative control of one of Colombia's native communities. The qualitative analysis showed the presence of 11 models for thinking about the given social-scientific problematic and a limited range of argumentation schemes (11); the quantitative analysis through ANOVAs (variance analysis) showed significant differences regarding the number of arguments per grade and the mental model. The results are discussed emphasizing the advantage that proceeds from exploring the students' argumentative speech from a developmental-cognitive perspective with significant implications in the educational field.
This article summarizes the main educational provisions developed and implemented for gifted and highly able students in Victoria, Australia. It emphasizes the strong influence that different governments have had on policies and guidelines providing for the education of these students. Among the options offered it is possible to differentiate those based on acceleration and high ability grouping. Accelerated learning options include early entry, grade skipping, subject acceleration, Higher Educational Studies program, and International Baccalaureate. High ability grouping includes Select Entry Accelerated Learning programs, select entry high schools, specialized high schools. The identification of students' advanced intellectual and academic needs and the implementation of effective provisions for these students are strongly related to the level of knowledge and attitude that teachers have towards gifted and highly able students. The implications of the current educational provisions are discussed to reflect and promote better guidelines and more research in the field.
Education is conceived as a multifaceted, multidimensional and complex process of social transformation; nevertheless, schools operate within a passive environment that restricts the learning of young people from vulnerable contexts. This qualitative study explores the pedagogical strategies of four educators from one public institution in Valdivia who work with students who have been associated with episodes of law infraction. Analytical procedures rely on content analysis following the logic of grounded theory and In-depth Interviews. From a biographical perspective, the present study identifies the pedagogical strategies of these autonomous and optimistic educators to favor the construction of modifying active environments in this vulnerable context. It also seeks to generate new lines of research on critical pedagogy in vulnerable educational contexts, strengthening and enriching the competencies of educators from Mediated Learning Experiences.