In this meta-analysis study, different leadership approaches were combined, and the relationship between educational leadership and student achievement was analyzed. In the literature review, 151 research articles/dissertations, independent from one another, were brought together, and 131,498 study subjects were included in the sample group. The results of the analyses performed with a random effects model revealed that educational leadership has a medium-level effect on students’ achievement. Educational leadership has comprehensive effect on student achievement in vertical-collectivist cultures (e.g., in Asian) than horizontal-individualistic cultures (e.g., in USA). As was expected, the most comprehensive effect among leadership theories was found in instructional leadership. Considering the effect of educational leadership on students’ achievement, it is recommended to examine the effect of leadership on other components of school and stakeholders in future studies.
This study identified the subgroups (latent classes) of Korean college students according to the influence of perfectionism on career stress and indecision, and explored the effects of sub-factors of perfectionism on career stress and indecision for each subgroup. Also, the study examined how individual self-esteem and stress coping styles affect the subgroup classification. Data from 476 South Korean college students were analyzed via mixture regression and logistic regression. Four latent classes were identified. In class 1, career indecision increased as self-oriented perfectionism increased, and career stress increased as socially prescribed perfectionism increased. In class 2, career stress increased as self-oriented perfectionism increased, whereas both career stress and career indecision decreased as others-oriented perfectionism increased. In class 3, both career stress and career indecision increased as others-oriented perfectionism increased. In class 4, career stress and career indecision decreased as others-oriented perfectionism increased, while career stress increased as socially prescribed perfectionism increased. In differentiating the classes, self-esteem and coping styles were analyzed as predictor variables. The results indicated that self-esteem helped to distinguish class 1 from class 2, and class 1 from class 3. Avoidance-oriented coping style could distinguish class 1 from class 3. Career counselors would benefit by noting that the influence of each sub-trait of perfectionism on career-related issues may vary by latent class, and that self-esteem and coping styles may moderate the effects of perfectionism on career-related issues.
This pilot study revealed that most vocational high school principals accept using 360 degree evaluation feedback as the mechanism for evaluating leadership effectiveness and as a reference for leadership behavior change intentions. However, whether this can cause behavior change or elevation of leadership effectiveness remains uncertain and must be tracked and verified. The current study continues previous research and has the following purposes: (1) to investigate the status quo of vocational high school principals’ leadership effectiveness and the differences before and after implementing 360 degree evaluation feedback, (2) to analyze the relationship between principals’ leadership behavior change intentions and their leadership effectiveness, and (3) to explore principals’ opinions regarding use of the 360 degree evaluation as a motive for leadership behavior change and their perceptions of the influence on leadership effectiveness. To achieve purposes (1) and (2), this study examines the 69 schools in the pilot study and uses a sample of 40 schools and 1030 people for the questionnaire survey. The interview survey is conducted on 12 principals of the 40 schools for research purpose. (3) This study gains significant findings: (1) Vocational high school principals emphasize rational goal leadership effectiveness. (2) Implementation of 360 degree evaluation benefits principals in improving leadership effectiveness. (3) Principals with high behavior change intentions have better leadership effectiveness. (4) Principals mostly possess positive and supportive attitudes toward using 360 degree evaluation feedback as an important source of leadership behavior change, and they have positive perceptions of its influence.
Most of the Southeast Asian region is comprised of developing countries. This region has a short history of inclusive education implementation and differs from developed countries’ more mature inclusive education systems. This review reveals how inclusive schooling has been implemented in Southeast Asian countries and the current practices in the region. We used scoping review methodology to examine peer-reviewed literature published between January 1994 and January 2017 on inclusive schooling in the Southeast Asian countries. The inputs-processes-outcomes (IPO) model was used to group and describe the extant research. Thirty-eight articles were identified that contributed to region of Southeast Asia inclusive education research. The majority (n = 29, 76%) were published after 2010. The articles were organised by IPO stage: Inputs stage (staff professional and teacher education, resources and finances, leadership, curriculum and policy); Processes stage (collaboration and shared responsibility, school practice, classroom practice and climate) and Outcomes stage (participation). The elements of staff professional and teacher education, and collaboration and shared responsibility were most frequently featured in the literature of the inputs and processes stages. Research information about the outcomes stage of inclusive schooling was sparse. The inclusive education literature from the region is still emerging. A greater focus on outcomes is recommended in future research and practice. Having outcome data will enable evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of inclusive education. If evaluation reveals problems, then aspects of the inputs and processes stages may need to be improved to achieve better outcomes.
In the provision of massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud computing services enable students to synchronize their study materials anywhere, anytime, and using any device, which can improve learning performance and strengthen the teacher–student relationship via knowledge sharing. This study builds on the technological–organizational–environmental (TOE) framework and aims to identify the influencing factors of cloud computing adoption in educational settings for the provision of MOOCs. Another aim is to determine how intrinsic motivation moderates individual intention. Therefore, our study conceptualized a model that is supported by an empirical analysis of 232 respondents and takes into account the technological, organizational, and environmental impacts on individual attitudes toward adopting cloud computing in education. We evaluate the study hypotheses using structural equation modeling. The results demonstrate significant relationships between the technological and organizational constructs and attitudes toward the use of cloud computing. Meanwhile, competitive pressure from the environment has not been identified in any relationship with individual attitudes in government universities. The results provide new directions for policymakers to consider in the implementation of CC systems for the provision of MOOCs in developing countries. We also discuss potential implications, contributions, and suggestions for future research.
The Taiwan Ministry of Education (MOE) put forth the aim for the top university project (ATU) in 2005 with the aim of improving the worldwide academic competitiveness and ranking performance of selected Taiwanese universities. With the conclusion of the second phase of the project at the end of 2017, this study aims to critically examine and reflect on the ministry’s fundamental assumptions regarding the idea of the world-class university (WCU) and how such an institution should be governed. To gain an in-depth and critical perspective on the policy, this study takes the form of a Foucauldian analysis. The empirical data are sourced from a range of material, including qualitative interviews, official policy documents, website resources and other relevant documents. Interview data were collected in collaboration with two MOE officials who were directly in charge of this project. This study concludes that assumptions made about the WCU by MOE officials have evolved during the last decade, indicating that the management of funding recipients is moving, in Foucauldian terminology, from top-down disciplinary power to networked governance. While higher education funding is a zero-sum game, the ATU risks creating a vicious circle in which non-ATU institutions and their students are increasingly marginalised, especially in the case of private universities. As a result, the MOE should rethink the ATU, focusing on higher education as a whole. Careful consideration of the relative advantages and disadvantages that have arisen from the launch of the ATU will help to ensure that the project is open to further improvements in the future.
The current study reports the findings of the first step of a comprehensive performance improvement study, identification of the optimal behaviors. In this sense, this study aims to determine the optimal faculty behaviors in distance education based on the perspectives of the stakeholders based on the framework of transactional distance (TD) theory. The data were obtained from the stakeholders of distance education practices; distance education experts from eight universities, and faculty members, administrators, and students from two universities as well as observations on online courses and available relevant documents. The data from the multiple sources were analyzed through constant comparison method. The emerged codes created the themes based on the TD theory. The findings indicated that the identified behaviors, which are student-centered and interrelated in producing the outcomes, are expected from all faculty at varying degrees in any context to manage TD outcomes. The identified behaviors might be used as the performance objectives in faculty professional development studies and practices in distance education.
U.S. host campuses face instructional challenges from increasing numbers of international students from Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) countries. Yet, the presence of CHC students offers learning opportunities for U.S. faculty in the context of internationalizing their higher education campuses. This study surveyed faculty at three U.S. host universities. It explored faculty understandings of Confucian culture, their perceptions of CHC countries’ international student learning, strategies used by faculty when teaching CHC students, and value faculty recognized when learning from CHC students. Results showed that a majority of faculty recognized the core values of Confucian culture. Yet, they were not fully aware of the cultural impact on CHC students’ learning, and the strategies they employed were mainly from the American perspectives. They did not integrate CHC students’ cultural heritages in their teaching practices and only partially accommodated CHC learners in teaching. This study calls for consciousness to transform faculty mindsets understanding the importance of students’ cultural differences in order to bring about a dramatic change in their teaching practices. Doing so may enhance the success of CHC students fomenting further internationalization at their host universities.
Bandura (in: Pajares and Urdan, Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, Information Age, Greenwich, 2006) suggested that efficacy beliefs should be considered in relation to key challenges within a (teaching) context. As part of a larger project on the teacher efficacy beliefs of Japanese high-school teachers of English (JTEs), this paper reports exploratory findings of (i) the key domains of challenge in which JTEs’ teacher efficacy beliefs operate; and (ii) sources of information that may influence the formation and substance of those beliefs. Data from interviews with six purposively selected participants were analysed using a theoretical thematic analysis approach. Eight domains of teacher challenge were identified, comprised of individual and collective dimensions of teacher efficacy towards L2 usage, L2 instruction and teacher collaboration. Collaborative action was found to be a key challenge, suggesting that professional development should focus on strengthening JTEs’ beliefs about collective capability. Results suggest that social feedback by colleagues is a key source of efficacy, especially for novices. This may reflect cultural influences in the Japanese context. Personal and vicarious experiences of teaching were also identified as efficacy-forming sources. It seems also that past learning experiences act as sources of efficacy information, something future studies might explore.
The research literature indicates that self-regulated learning can strengthen teacher agency in taking charge of their own learning and teaching, which is important when teachers encounter difficulties or challenges due to the requirements of educational and curriculum reform. This study explores how professional teacher development training activates rural teachers’ agency in transforming their practice and becoming self-regulated practitioners in China. Data were collected from two teacher mentors and seven primary school teachers, including classroom observation records, teachers’ narratives and reflections, and individual interviews. These participants’ self-regulated learning was found to develop through three phases: goal setting and assimilation; implementation of the teaching goal and the teaching methods being learned; and self-reflection. This process intertwined with and reciprocated other-regulated learning. The teachers’ agency shifted from initial resistance to adoption of the training, and then to innovation in practice, during which both their cognition and practices were transformed. Implications for teacher learning programs were also discussed.
Critical pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning which aims to impact social change through education. In this study, the possibility of engaging with critical pedagogy is explored, by focusing on students’ perceptions of this practice. Data were collected through interviews with 14 Malaysian students. They shared their experiences of learning subjects which touched on social justice issues and critical thinking; which incidentally are also important preoccupations for critical pedagogy. There was consensus about in-depth engagement with social justice issues, including those that were deemed controversial and radical. Besides that, participatory forms of learning such as the co-construction of knowledge were embraced, and students recognised that teachers were not the only source of ‘authorised’ knowledge. Finally, there was a marginal voice of resistance towards the idea of learning about controversial issues because it could risk safety and incite personal attacks from peers. Unequal teacher–student power relations was also seen as a hindrance to critically interrogating socio-political issues, so students were cautious when providing dissenting views. While legitimate concerns are present, overall there seems to be a general openness to critical pedagogy. Therefore, teachers may need to carefully consider the socio-political conditions they are in, because this pedagogy could potentially disrupt order and harmony in the classroom.
Education is often perceived in policy agendas as playing a transformative role in realising sustainable development and the SDGs on the continent. The assumption is based, however, on an insufficiently critical understanding of the historical role of education in supporting unsustainable development. The article provides a critical account of the relationship between education policy and sustainable development in Africa as an aspect of the postcolonial condition, i.e. as an aspect of the colonial legacy and of Africa’s position in relation to contemporary processes of globalisation. It is argued that if education is to play a transformative role in relation to sustainable development then education policy needs to be fundamentally re-oriented and harnessed to wider processes of economic, cultural and political transformation in the interests of social and environmental justice.
The paper considers the importance of epistemic justice in democratic life, and the significance of education as a key space to foster the relevant epistemic capabilities. Epistemic in/justice offers resources to think about conditions of possibility (what Amartya Sen calls ‘conversion factors’), given that societies train our sensibilities in ways which are flawed and prejudiced. It is proposed further that Amartya Sen’s emphasis on public reasoning is central to epistemic justice. Using the space of education to make the argument, core ideas in the capability approach are first outlined. Epistemic justice is described, and the claim is then advanced that Miranda Fricker’s ‘epistemic contribution capability’ is generative in education settings for developing democratic and public reasoning capabilities. To be fully involved in learning and development and fair-achieved outcomes in formal education, students would need opportunities to develop their epistemic capability of being able both to receive information and to make interpretive contributions to the common pool of knowledge, understanding, and practical deliberation. Conditions of respect, recognition and equal moral worth would be required so that all students should have access to the capability and to have their contributions taken up as integral to their flourishing. Thus, in universities and schools, epistemic virtues should be educated, trained, developed and scaffolded pedagogically, including cultivating emotions. The paper then considers the challenge of free speech and what this may demand of us educationally.
This paper examines social justice in relation to the Myanmar education system, from the perspective of participation in decision-making; the social background of students; culture; language and local knowledge. It highlights the current state of education in Myanmar, including the national education law, the national education strategic plan and educational practice in different types of school systems. I argue that the education system in Myanmar is centralized and there is little space for stakeholders’ participation in decision-making. Furthermore, the government is now promoting privatization in education, which increases inequality among social classes. Since the language and culture of the ruling majority Bamar (Myanmar) dominate the school curriculum, indigenous rights to education are neglected. Excluding local wisdom and indigenous knowledge can be considered as part of the colonization of knowledge, through the government education system. In conclusion, the paper suggests key changes that are needed to support a socially just and humanistic approach to education
There has been a long tradition of demonstrating formal education’s direct relationship with many dimensions of development, including increased productivity, health, reduced mortality, population control etc. There has also been a literature looking particularly at the ‘democratic dividend’ from education, both through the lens of global citizenship as well as more generally through education’s influence on political participation. The successful securing of global citizenship education (GCE) within the ambitions of Sustainable Development Goal 4.7 in September 2015 was a further milestone in connecting social development with ‘democracy, good governance and the rule of law’. Accordingly, there are many telling examples of how GCE can be rolled out in school curricula, through many different school subjects, across the world. Arguably, however, the formal school system is far from being the only location where messages about citizenship, whether global, national or local, can be found. During the period, 2016–2019 in the USA and UK, with the huge rise in smart-phone usage world-wide, it has become apparent that there can be massive micro-targeting, through global platforms, of selected populations with multiple messages about citizenship, national identity, job security, migration threats, potential terrorism and a great deal else. Unlike the citizenship curricula and textbooks of formal schools which are easily accessible, a great deal of this new social media messaging is relatively inaccessible, using procedures that are a long way from traditional electioneering. They are also much less financially accountable, but it is clear that vast sums are now being spent on social media advertising, presenting an existential threat to democracy. The role and level of education in reacting critically to social media campaigning will need to be revisited in this new world of campaigning around global and national citizenship. It is no longer a discussion about education’s positive relationship with increased political participation, but whether current education levels are actually capable of dealing with the current threats to citizenship, at global, national and local levels.
The past decade has witnessed the rise of ethno-nationalist sentiments around the world, around the claims that globalization is an ideology that has undermined the sovereignty of nation-states and created conditions that have produced wide-ranging social inequalities. And yet there seems little prospect of turning back from the facts of global interconnectivity. In this paper, I suggest that it is in this contradictory space that the work of educators is now located. Such a space has given rise to a range of perplexing ethical challenges that are not only political but also pedagogic. Politically, these challenges relate to the need to forge ethical communities that can generate collective action in the face of growing levels of global interconnectivity, on the one hand, and the popular appeal of nationalism, on the other. Pedagogically, these challenges demand approaches that assist students to make a better sense of the contradictory world in which they now live and learn, and develop a practice of ethics that foregrounds difference, complexity, contingency and uncertainty.
The correlation between education and development, with time, went through many changes along with the changes of perspectives. Since both of these concepts encompass wide ranges of social phenomena and factors, the analysis remains always complicated. However, in the era of SDGs and at the time when post-development debates have been raised, it is important to address this conceptual correlation through the conceptual analysis. Different development theories, as reflected in the discussion, have presented the vitality of education in development process from different angle, in deeper analysis it became clearer that actually two major trends exist—education ‘for’ development and education ‘in’ development—under which all can be grouped. However, the critics of those different development theories paint the picture with an assumption that the role of education in the process of development has been misunderstood and mis-presented to some extent. This poses the debate towards finding how the role of education to development process can be better realized and, therefore, this paper analysed it from three key thoughts towards redefining the paradigm. Goulet argues that development needs authentic in ethical way where Sen more freedom should be given by widening individual’s capability. However, in close analysis on Freirean thoughts, the limits of this relation remain un-encompassed as the definition of development is rather contextual and flexible for the discourses on the role of education for social justice.
This research explores the influences of ideology and nationalism on education reforms in South and North Korea through a comparative historical analysis of education reforms during the transition period from Japanese colonialism to the period of US and Soviet military government control. Ideas of modern education and nationalism had already emerged among Koreans before 1945 when they achieved independence from Japanese colonization. In this sense, during the US and Soviet military regimes, education reforms were conducted in light of already existing efforts for nation-building by indigenous Korean leaders. The hopes and desires of the leaders of the two Koreas, as expressed by their adoption of new ideologies within the newly established military governments, represented a clear break from the past—be that Japanese colonialism or Confucian traditionalism—and a firm determination to change the present for the future in accordance with these ideologies. In the field of education, this change occurred with the introduction of John Dewey’s liberal educational philosophy to rebuild the education system in South Korea, and with the adoption of socialist educational philosophies such as polytechnicism and collectivism in North Korea.
One of the characteristics of a 21st-century learner is being technologically adept. Technology has a significant contribution to modern-day education in the heyday of learning management systems (LMS) and massive open online courses (MOOCs). The integration of technology in education aims to help learners adapt to the fast-changing world that relies on information systems and information technology. Further, being adept at technology fosters lifelong learning skills since information can now be easily stored, read, and learned through the world wide web. In the Philippines, the education system is adapting to technology, with teachers adapting to technology and using LMS as an extension to their classes. However, using LMS entails additional financial costs to teachers and students alike. This paper investigates the cost of adapting technology for public school students by analyzing the income of a family in the regular working class vis-a-vis the cost of technology used for optimal LMS use for students. The research will aid in decision making on full implementation of technology in education for the Philippines and other developing countries with a similar situation.