Taxonomic names are key links between various databases that store information on different organisms. Several global fungal nomenclural and taxonomic databases (notably Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum and MycoBank) can be sourced to find taxonomic details about fungi, while DNA sequence data can be sourced from NCBI, EBI and UNITE databases. Although the sequence data may be linked to a name, the quality of the metadata is variable and generally there is no corresponding link to images, descriptions or herbarium material. There is generally no way to establish the accuracy of the names in these genomic databases, other than whether the submission is from a reputable source. To tackle this problem, a new database (FacesofFungi), accessible at www.facesoffungi.org (FoF) has been established. This fungal database allows deposition of taxonomic data, phenotypic details and other useful data, which will enhance our current taxonomic understanding and ultimately enable mycologists to gain better and updated insights into the current fungal classification system. In addition, the database will also allow access to comprehensive metadata including descriptions of voucher and type specimens. This database is user-friendly, providing links and easy access between taxonomic ranks, with the classification system based primarily on molecular data (from the literature and via updated web-based phylogenetic trees), and to a lesser extent on morphological data when molecular data are unavailable. In FoF species are not only linked to the closest phylogenetic representatives, but also relevant data is provided, wherever available, on various applied aspects, such as ecological, industrial, quarantine and chemical uses. The data include the three main fungal groups (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Basal fungi) and fungus-like organisms. The FoF webpage is an output funded by the Mushroom Research Foundation which is an NGO with seven directors with mycological expertise. The webpage has 76 curators, and with the help of these specialists, FoF will provide an updated natural classification of the fungi, with illustrated accounts of species linked to molecular data. The present paper introduces the FoF database to the scientific community and briefly reviews some of the problems associated with classification and identification of the main fungal groups. The structure and use of the database is then explained. We would like to invite all mycologists to contribute to these web pages.
Dothideomycetes comprise a highly diverse range of fungi characterized mainly by asci with two wall layers (bitunicate asci) and often with fissitunicate dehiscence. Many species are saprobes, with many asexual states comprising important plant pathogens. They are also endophytes, epiphytes, fungicolous, lichenized, or lichenicolous fungi. They occur in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats in almost every part of the world. We accept 105 families in Dothideomycetes with the new families Anteagloniaceae, Bambusicolaceae, Biatriosporaceae, Lichenoconiaceae, Muyocopronaceae, Paranectriellaceae, Roussoellaceae, Salsugineaceae, Seynesiopeltidaceae and Thyridariaceae introduced in this paper. Each family is provided with a description and notes, including asexual and asexual states, and if more than one genus is included, the type genus is also characterized. Each family is provided with at least one figure-plate, usually illustrating the type genus, a list of accepted genera, including asexual genera, and a key to these genera. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene combined analysis add support for 64 of the families and 22 orders, including the novel orders, Dyfrolomycetales, Lichenoconiales, Lichenotheliales, Monoblastiales, Natipusillales, Phaeotrichales and Strigulales. The paper is expected to provide a working document on Dothideomycetes which can be modified as new data comes to light. It is hoped that by illustrating types we provide stimulation and interest so that more work is carried out in this remarkable group of fungi.
Sooty moulds are a remarkable, but poorly understood group of fungi. They coat fruits and leaves superficially with black mycelia, which reduces photosynthesis rates of host plants. Few researchers have, however, tried to quantify their economic importance. Sooty moulds have been well-studied at the morphological level, but they are poorly represented in a natural classification based on phylogeny. Representatives are presently known in Antennulariellaceae, Capnodiaceae, Chaetothyriaceae, Coccodiniaceae, Euantennariaceae, Metacapnodiaceae and Trichomeriaceae and several miscellaneous genera. However, molecular data is available for only five families. Most sooty mould colonies comprise numerous species and thus it is hard to confirm relationships between genera or sexual and asexual states. Future studies need to obtain single spore isolates of species to test their phylogenetic affinities and linkages between morphs. Next generation sequencing has shown sooty mould colonies to contain many more fungal species than expected, but it is not clear which species are dominant or active in the communities. They are more common in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions and thus their prevalence in temperate regions is likely to increase with global warming. Sooty moulds are rarely parasitized by fungicolous taxa and these may have biocontrol potential. They apparently grow in extreme environments and may be xerophilic. This needs testing as xerophilic taxa may be of interest for industrial applications. Sooty moulds grow on sugars and appear to out-compete typical “weed” fungi and bacteria. They may produce antibiotics for this purpose and their biochemical potential for obtaining novel bioactive compounds for medical application is underexplored.
This paper is a compilation of notes on 142 fungal taxa, including five new families, 20 new genera, and 100 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new families, Ascocylindricaceae, Caryosporaceae and Wicklowiaceae (Ascomycota) are introduced based on their distinct lineages and unique morphology. The new Dothideomycete genera Pseudomassariosphaeria (Amniculicolaceae), Heracleicola, Neodidymella and Pseudomicrosphaeriopsis (Didymellaceae), Pseudopithomyces (Didymosphaeriaceae), Brunneoclavispora, Neolophiostoma and Sulcosporium (Halotthiaceae), Lophiohelichrysum (Lophiostomataceae), Galliicola, Populocrescentia and Vagicola (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Ascocylindrica (Ascocylindricaceae), Elongatopedicellata (Roussoellaceae), Pseudoasteromassaria (Latoruaceae) and Pseudomonodictys (Macrodiplodiopsidaceae) are introduced. The newly described species of Dothideomycetes (Ascomycota) are Pseudomassariosphaeria bromicola (Amniculicolaceae), Flammeascoma lignicola (Anteagloniaceae), Ascocylindrica marina (Ascocylindricaceae), Lembosia xyliae (Asterinaceae), Diplodia crataegicola and Diplodia galiicola (Botryosphaeriaceae), Caryospora aquatica (Caryosporaceae), Heracleicola premilcurensis and Neodidymella thailandicum (Didymellaceae), Pseudopithomyces palmicola (Didymosphaeriaceae), Floricola viticola (Floricolaceae), Brunneoclavispora bambusae, Neolophiostoma pigmentatum and Sulcosporium thailandica (Halotthiaceae), Pseudoasteromassaria fagi (Latoruaceae), Keissleriella dactylidicola (Lentitheciaceae), Lophiohelichrysum helichrysi (Lophiostomataceae), Aquasubmersa japonica (Lophiotremataceae), Pseudomonodictys tectonae (Macrodiplodiopsidaceae), Microthyrium buxicola and Tumidispora shoreae (Microthyriaceae), Alloleptosphaeria clematidis, Allophaeosphaeria cytisi, Allophaeosphaeria subcylindrospora, Dematiopleospora luzulae, Entodesmium artemisiae, Galiicola pseudophaeosphaeria, Loratospora luzulae, Nodulosphaeria senecionis, Ophiosphaerella aquaticus, Populocrescentia forlicesenensis and Vagicola vagans (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Elongatopedicellata lignicola, Roussoella magnatum and Roussoella angustior (Roussoellaceae) and Shrungabeeja longiappendiculata (Tetraploasphaeriaceae). The new combinations Pseudomassariosphaeria grandispora, Austropleospora archidendri, Pseudopithomyces chartarum, Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Pseudopithomyces sacchari, Vagicola vagans, Punctulariopsis cremeoalbida and Punctulariopsis efibulata Dothideomycetes. The new genera Dictyosporella (Annulatascaceae), and Tinhaudeus (Halosphaeriaceae) are introduced in Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota) while Dictyosporella aquatica (Annulatascaceae), Chaetosphaeria rivularia (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Beauveria gryllotalpidicola and Beauveria loeiensis (Cordycipitaceae), Seimatosporium sorbi and Seimatosporium pseudorosarum (Discosiaceae), Colletotrichum aciculare, Colletotrichum fusiforme and Colletotrichum hymenocallidicola (Glomerellaceae), Tinhaudeus formosanus (Halosphaeriaceae), Pestalotiopsis subshorea and Pestalotiopsis dracaenea (Pestalotiopsiceae), Phaeoacremonium tectonae (Togniniaceae), Cytospora parasitica and Cytospora tanaitica (Valsaceae), Annulohypoxylon palmicola, Biscogniauxia effusae and Nemania fusoideis (Xylariaceae) are introduced as novel species to order Sordariomycetes. The newly described species of Eurotiomycetes are Mycocalicium hyaloparvicellulum (Mycocaliciaceae). Acarospora septentrionalis and Acarospora castaneocarpa (Acarosporaceae), Chapsa multicarpa and Fissurina carassensis (Graphidaceae), Sticta fuscotomentosa and Sticta subfilicinella (Lobariaceae) are newly introduced in class Lecanoromycetes. In class Pezizomycetes, Helvella pseudolacunosa and Helvella rugosa (Helvellaceae) are introduced as new species. The new families, Dendrominiaceae and Neoantrodiellaceae (Basidiomycota) are introduced together with a new genus Neoantrodiella (Neoantrodiellaceae), here based on both morphology coupled with molecular data. In the class Agaricomycetes, Agaricus pseudolangei, Agaricus haematinus, Agaricus atrodiscus and Agaricus exilissimus (Agaricaceae), Amanita melleialba, Amanita pseudosychnopyramis and Amanita subparvipantherina (Amanitaceae), Entoloma calabrum, Cora barbulata, Dictyonema gomezianum and Inocybe granulosa (Inocybaceae), Xerocomellus sarnarii (Boletaceae), Cantharellus eucalyptorum, Cantharellus nigrescens, Cantharellus tricolor and Cantharellus variabilicolor (Cantharellaceae), Cortinarius alboamarescens, Cortinarius brunneoalbus, Cortinarius ochroamarus, Cortinarius putorius and Cortinarius seidlii (Cortinariaceae), Hymenochaete micropora and Hymenochaete subporioides (Hymenochaetaceae), Xylodon ramicida (Schizoporaceae), Colospora andalasii (Polyporaceae), Russula guangxiensis and Russula hakkae (Russulaceae), Tremella dirinariae, Tremella graphidis and Tremella pyrenulae (Tremellaceae) are introduced. Four new combinations Neoantrodiella gypsea, Neoantrodiella thujae (Neoantrodiellaceae), Punctulariopsis cremeoalbida, Punctulariopsis efibulata (Punctulariaceae) are also introduced here for the division Basidiomycota. Furthermore Absidia caatinguensis, Absidia koreana and Gongronella koreana (Cunninghamellaceae), Mortierella pisiformis and Mortierella formosana (Mortierellaceae) are newly introduced in the Zygomycota, while Neocallimastix cameroonii and Piromyces irregularis (Neocallimastigaceae) are introduced in the Neocallimastigomycota. Reference specimens or changes in classification and notes are provided for Alternaria ethzedia, Cucurbitaria ephedricola, Austropleospora, Austropleospora archidendri, Byssosphaeria rhodomphala, Lophiostoma caulium, Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Massariosphaeria, Neomassariosphaeria and Pestalotiopsis montellica.
This is a continuity of a series of taxonomic papers where materials are examined, described and novel combinations are proposed where necessary to improve our traditional species concepts and provide updates on their classification. In addition to extensive morphological descriptions and appropriate asexual and sexual connections, DNA sequence data are also analysed from concatenated datasets (rDNA, TEF-α, RBP2 and β-Tubulin) to infer phylogenetic relationships and substantiate systematic position of taxa within appropriate ranks. Wherever new species or combinations are being proposed, we apply an integrative approach (morphological and molecular data as well as ecological features wherever applicable). Notes on 125 fungal taxa are compiled in this paper, including eight new genera, 101 new species, two new combinations, one neotype, four reference specimens, new host or distribution records for eight species and one alternative morphs. The new genera introduced in this paper are Alloarthopyrenia, Arundellina, Camarosporioides, Neomassaria, Neomassarina, Neotruncatella, Paracapsulospora and Pseudophaeosphaeria. The new species are Alfaria spartii, Alloarthopyrenia italica, Anthostomella ravenna, An. thailandica, Arthrinium paraphaeospermum, Arundellina typhae, Aspergillus koreanus, Asterina cynometrae, Bertiella ellipsoidea, Blastophorum aquaticum, Cainia globosa, Camarosporioides phragmitis, Ceramothyrium menglunense, Chaetosphaeronema achilleae, Chlamydotubeufia helicospora, Ciliochorella phanericola, Clavulinopsis aurantiaca, Colletotrichum insertae, Comoclathris italica, Coronophora myricoides, Cortinarius fulvescentoideus, Co. nymphatus, Co. pseudobulliardioides, Co. tenuifulvescens, Cunninghamella gigacellularis, Cyathus pyristriatus, Cytospora cotini, Dematiopleospora alliariae, De. cirsii, Diaporthe aseana, Di. garethjonesii, Distoseptispora multiseptata, Dis. tectonae, Dis. tectonigena, Dothiora buxi, Emericellopsis persica, Gloniopsis calami, Helicoma guttulatum, Helvella floriforma, H. oblongispora, Hermatomyces subiculosa, Juncaceicola italica, Lactarius dirkii, Lentithecium unicellulare, Le. voraginesporum, Leptosphaeria cirsii, Leptosphaeria irregularis, Leptospora galii, Le. thailandica, Lindgomyces pseudomadisonensis, Lophiotrema bambusae, Lo. fallopiae, Meliola citri-maximae, Minimelanolocus submersus, Montagnula cirsii, Mortierella fluviae, Muriphaeosphaeria ambrosiae, Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi, Neomassaria fabacearum, Neomassarina thailandica, Neomicrosphaeropsis cytisi, Neo. cytisinus, Neo. minima, Neopestalotiopsis cocoës, Neopestalotiopsis musae, Neoroussoella lenispora, Neotorula submersa, Neotruncatella endophytica, Nodulosphaeria italica, Occultibambusa aquatica, Oc. chiangraiensis, Ophiocordyceps hemisphaerica, Op. lacrimoidis, Paracapsulospora metroxyli, Pestalotiopsis sequoiae, Peziza fruticosa, Pleurotrema thailandica, Poaceicola arundinis, Polyporus mangshanensis, Pseudocoleophoma typhicola, Pseudodictyosporium thailandica, Pseudophaeosphaeria rubi, Purpureocillium sodanum, Ramariopsis atlantica, Rhodocybe griseoaurantia, Rh. indica, Rh. luteobrunnea, Russula indoalba, Ru. pseudoamoenicolor, Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum, Sp. olivaceoconidium, Sp. pyriformatum, Stagonospora forlicesenensis, Stagonosporopsis centaureae, Terriera thailandica, Tremateia arundicola, Tr. guiyangensis, Trichomerium bambusae, Tubeufia hyalospora, Tu. roseohelicospora and Wojnowicia italica. New combinations are given for Hermatomyces mirum and Pallidocercospora thailandica. A neotype is proposed for Cortinarius fulvescens. Reference specimens are given for Aquaphila albicans, Leptospora rubella, Platychora ulmi and Meliola pseudosasae, while new host or distribution records are provided for Diaporthe eres, Di. siamensis, Di. foeniculina, Dothiorella iranica, Do. sarmentorum, Do. vidmadera, Helvella tinta and Vaginatispora fuckelii, with full taxonomic details. An asexual state is also reported for the first time in Neoacanthostigma septoconstrictum. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive update and improved identification of many ascomycetes and basiodiomycetes.
Sordariomycetes is one of the largest classes of Ascomycota and is characterised by perithecial ascomata and inoperculate unitunicate asci. The class includes many important plant pathogens, as well as endophytes, saprobes, epiphytes, and fungicolous, lichenized or lichenicolous taxa. The class includes freshwater, marine and terrestrial taxa and has a worldwide distribution. This paper provides an updated outline of the Sordariomycetes and a backbone tree incorporating asexual and sexual genera in the class. Based on phylogeny and morphology we introduced three subclasses; Diaporthomycetidae, Lulworthiomycetidae and Meliolomycetidae and five orders; Amplistromatales, Annulatascales, Falcocladiales, Jobellisiales and Togniniales. The outline is based on literature to the end of 2014 and the backbone tree published in this paper. Notes for 397 taxa with information, such as new family and genera novelties, novel molecular data published since the Outline of Ascomycota 2009, and new links between sexual and asexual genera and thus synonymies, are provided. The Sordariomycetes now comprises six subclasses, 28 orders, 90 families and 1344 genera. In addition a list of 829 genera with uncertain placement in Sordariomycetes is also provided.
Sordariomycetes is one of the largest classes of Ascomycota that comprises a highly diverse range of fungi characterized mainly by perithecial ascomata and inoperculate unitunicate asci. The class includes many important plant pathogens, as well as endophytes, saprobes, epiphytes, coprophilous and fungicolous, lichenized or lichenicolous taxa. They occur in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats worldwide. This paper reviews the 107 families of the class Sordariomycetes and provides a modified backbone tree based on phylogenetic analysis of four combined loci, with a maximum five representative taxa from each family, where available. This paper brings together for the first time, since Barrs’ 1990 Prodromus, descriptions, notes on the history, and plates or illustrations of type or representative taxa of each family, a list of accepted genera, including asexual genera and a key to these taxa of Sordariomycetes. Delineation of taxa is supported where possible by molecular data. The outline is based on literature to the end of 2015 and the Sordariomycetes now comprises six subclasses, 32 orders, 105 families and 1331 genera. The family Obryzaceae and Pleurotremataceae are excluded from the class.
This paper is a compilation of notes on 110 fungal taxa, including one new family, 10 new genera, and 76 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new family, Paradictyoarthriniaceae is introduced based on its distinct lineage in Dothideomycetes and its unique morphology. The family is sister to Biatriosporaceae and Roussoellaceae. The new genera are Allophaeosphaeria (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Amphibambusa (Amphisphaeriaceae), Brunneomycosphaerella (Capnodiales genera incertae cedis), Chaetocapnodium (Capnodiaceae), Flammeascoma (Anteagloniaceae), Multiseptospora (Pleosporales genera incertae cedis), Neogaeumannomyces (Magnaporthaceae), Palmiascoma (Bambusicolaceae), Paralecia (Squamarinaceae) and Sarimanas (Melanommataceae). The newly described species are the Ascomycota Aliquandostipite manochii, Allophaeosphaeria dactylidis, A. muriformia, Alternaria cesenica, Amphibambusa bambusicola, Amphisphaeria sorbi, Annulohypoxylon thailandicum, Atrotorquata spartii, Brunneomycosphaerella laburni, Byssosphaeria musae, Camarosporium aborescentis, C. aureum, C. frutexensis, Chaetocapnodium siamensis, Chaetothyrium agathis, Colletotrichum sedi, Conicomyces pseudotransvaalensis, Cytospora berberidis, C. sibiraeae, Diaporthe thunbergiicola, Diatrype palmicola, Dictyosporium aquaticum, D. meiosporum, D. thailandicum, Didymella cirsii, Dinemasporium nelloi, Flammeascoma bambusae, Kalmusia italica, K. spartii, Keissleriella sparticola, Lauriomyces synnematicus, Leptosphaeria ebuli, Lophiostoma pseudodictyosporium, L. ravennicum, Lophiotrema eburnoides, Montagnula graminicola, Multiseptospora thailandica, Myrothecium macrosporum, Natantispora unipolaris, Neogaeumannomyces bambusicola, Neosetophoma clematidis, N. italica, Oxydothis atypica, Palmiascoma gregariascomum, Paraconiothyrium nelloi, P. thysanolaenae, Paradictyoarthrinium tectonicola, Paralecia pratorum, Paraphaeosphaeria spartii, Pestalotiopsis digitalis, P. dracontomelon, P. italiana, Phaeoisaria pseudoclematidis, Phragmocapnias philippinensis, Pseudocamarosporium cotinae, Pseudocercospora tamarindi, Pseudotrichia rubriostiolata, P. thailandica, Psiloglonium multiseptatum, Saagaromyces mangrovei, Sarimanas pseudofluviatile, S. shirakamiense, Tothia spartii, Trichomerium siamensis, Wojnowicia dactylidicola, W. dactylidis and W. lonicerae. The Basidiomycota Agaricus flavicentrus, A. hanthanaensis, A. parvibicolor, A. sodalis, Cantharellus luteostipitatus, Lactarius atrobrunneus, L. politus, Phylloporia dependens and Russula cortinarioides are also introduced. Epitypifications or reference specimens are designated for Hapalocystis berkeleyi, Meliola tamarindi, Pallidocercospora acaciigena, Phaeosphaeria musae, Plenodomus agnitus, Psiloglonium colihuae, P. sasicola and Zasmidium musae while notes and/or new sequence data are provided for Annulohypoxylon leptascum, A. nitens, A. stygium, Biscogniauxia marginata, Fasciatispora nypae, Hypoxylon fendleri, H. monticulosum, Leptosphaeria doliolum, Microsphaeropsis olivacea, Neomicrothyrium, Paraleptosphaeria nitschkei, Phoma medicaginis and Saccotheciaceae. A full description of each species is provided with light micrographs (or drawings). Molecular data is provided for 90 taxa and used to generate phylogenetic trees to establish a natural classification for species.
Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and non-pleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data.
Knowledge of the relationships and thus the classification of fungi, has developed rapidly with increasingly widespread use of molecular techniques, over the past 1015 years, and continues to accelerate. Several genera have been found to be polyphyletic, and their generic concepts have subsequently been emended. New names have thus been introduced for species which are phylogenetically distinct from the type species of particular genera. The ending of the separate naming of morphs of the same species in 2011, has also caused changes in fungal generic names. In order to facilitate access to all important changes, it was desirable to compile these in a single document. The present article provides a list of generic names of Ascomycota (approximately 6500 accepted names published to the end of 2016), including those which are lichen-forming. Notes and summaries of the changes since the last edition of `Ainsworth Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi' in 2008 are provided. The notes include the number of accepted species, classification, type species (with location of the type material), culture availability, life-styles, distribution, and selected publications that have appeared since 2008. This work is intended to provide the foundation for updating the ascomycete component of the ``Without prejudice list of generic names of Fungi'' published in 2013, which will be developed into a list of protected generic names. This will be subjected to the XIXth International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen in July 2017 agreeing to a modification in the rules relating to protected lists, and scrutiny by procedures determined by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). The previously invalidly published generic names Barriopsis, Collophora (as Collophorina), Cryomyces, Dematiopleospora, Heterospora (as Heterosporicola), Lithophila, Palmomyces (as Palmaria) and Saxomyces are validated, as are two previously invalid family names, Bartaliniaceae and Wiesneriomycetaceae. Four species of Lalaria, which were invalidly published are transferred to Taphrina and validated as new combinations. Catenomycopsis Tibell Constant. is reduced under Chaenothecopsis Vain., while Dichomera Cooke is reduced under Botryosphaeria Ces. De Not. (Art. 59).
Notes on 113 fungal taxa are compiled in this paper, including 11 new genera, 89 new species, one new subspecies, three new combinations and seven reference specimens. A wide geographic and taxonomic range of fungal taxa are detailed. In the Ascomycota the new genera Angustospora (Testudinaceae), Camporesia (Xylariaceae), Clematidis, Crassiparies (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), Farasanispora, Longiostiolum (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), Multilocularia (Parabambusicolaceae), Neophaeocryptopus (Dothideaceae), Parameliola (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), and Towyspora (Lentitheciaceae) are introduced. Newly introduced species are Angustospora nilensis, Aniptodera aquibella, Annulohypoxylon albidiscum, Astrocystis thailandica, Camporesia sambuci, Clematidis italica, Colletotrichum menispermi, C. quinquefoliae, Comoclathris pimpinellae, Crassiparies quadrisporus, Cytospora salicicola, Diatrype thailandica, Dothiorella rhamni, Durotheca macrostroma, Farasanispora avicenniae, Halorosellinia rhizophorae, Humicola koreana, Hypoxylon lilloi, Kirschsteiniothelia tectonae, Lindgomyces okinawaensis, Longiostiolum tectonae, Lophiostoma pseudoarmatisporum, Moelleriella phukhiaoensis, M. pongdueatensis, Mucoharknessia anthoxanthi, Multilocularia bambusae, Multiseptospora thysanolaenae, Neophaeocryptopus cytisi, Ocellularia arachchigei, O. ratnapurensis, Ochronectria thailandica, Ophiocordyceps karstii, Parameliola acaciae, P. dimocarpi, Parastagonospora cumpignensis, Pseudodidymosphaeria phlei, Polyplosphaeria thailandica, Pseudolachnella brevifusiformis, Psiloglonium macrosporum, Rhabdodiscus albodenticulatus, Rosellinia chiangmaiensis, Saccothecium rubi, Seimatosporium pseudocornii, S. pseudorosae, Sigarispora ononidis and Towyspora aestuari. New combinations are provided for Eutiarosporella dactylidis (sexual morph described and illustrated) and Pseudocamarosporium pini. Descriptions, illustrations and/or reference specimens are designated for Aposphaeria corallinolutea, Cryptovalsa ampelina, Dothiorella vidmadera, Ophiocordyceps formosana, Petrakia echinata, Phragmoporthe conformis and Pseudocamarosporium pini. The new species of Basidiomycota are Agaricus coccyginus, A. luteofibrillosus, Amanita atrobrunnea, A. digitosa, A. gleocystidiosa, A. pyriformis, A. strobilipes, Bondarzewia tibetica, Cortinarius albosericeus, C. badioflavidus, C. dentigratus, C. duboisensis, C. fragrantissimus, C. roseobasilis, C. vinaceobrunneus, C. vinaceogrisescens, C. wahkiacus, Cyanoboletus hymenoglutinosus, Fomitiporia atlantica, F. subtilissima, Ganoderma wuzhishanensis, Inonotus shoreicola, Lactifluus armeniacus, L. ramipilosus, Leccinum indoaurantiacum, Musumecia alpina, M. sardoa, Russula amethystina subp. tengii and R. wangii are introduced. Descriptions, illustrations, notes and / or reference specimens are designated for Clarkeinda trachodes, Dentocorticium ussuricum, Galzinia longibasidia, Lentinus stuppeus and Leptocorticium tenellum. The other new genera, species new combinations are Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis from Neocallimastigomycota, Phytophthora estuarina, P. rhizophorae, Salispina, S. intermedia, S. lobata and S. spinosa from Oomycota, and Absidia stercoraria, Gongronella orasabula, Mortierella calciphila, Mucor caatinguensis, M. koreanus, M. merdicola and Rhizopus koreanus in Zygomycota.
One hundred and five generic types of Pleosporales are described and illustrated. A brief introduction and detailed history with short notes on morphology, molecular phylogeny as well as a general conclusion of each genus are provided. For those genera where the type or a representative specimen is unavailable, a brief note is given. Altogether 174 genera of Pleosporales are treated. Phaeotrichaceae as well as Krie-geriella, Zeuctomorpha and Muroia are excluded from Pleosporales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, the suborder Massarineae is emended to accommodate five families, viz. Lentitheciaceae, Massarinaceae, Montagnulaceae, Morosphaeriaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae.
Many fungi are pathogenic on plants and cause significant damage in agriculture and forestry. They are also part of the natural ecosystem and may play a role in regulating plant numbers/density. Morphological identification and analysis of plant pathogenic fungi, while important, is often hampered by the scarcity of discriminatory taxonomic characters and the endophytic or inconspicuous nature of these fungi. Molecular (DNA sequence) data for plant pathogenic fungi have emerged as key information for diagnostic and classification studies, although hampered in part by non-standard laboratory practices and analytical methods. To facilitate current and future research, this study provides phylogenetic synopses for 25 groups of plant pathogenic fungi in the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mucormycotina (Fungi), and Oomycota, using recent molecular data, up-to-date names, and the latest taxonomic insights. Lineage-specific laboratory protocols together with advice on their application, as well as general observations, are also provided. We hope to maintain updated backbone trees of these fungal lineages over time and to publish them jointly as new data emerge. Researchers of plant pathogenic fungi not covered by the present study are invited to join this future effort. Bipolaris, Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeria, Botrytis, Choanephora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Fusarium, Gilbertella, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Neofusicoccum, Pestalotiopsis, Phyllosticta, Phytophthora, Puccinia, Pyrenophora, Pythium, Rhizopus, Stagonosporopsis, Ustilago and Verticillium are dealt with in this paper.
Taxonomic placement of genera have been changing rapidly as taxonomists widely use DNA sequence data in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. It is essential to update existing databases/outlines based on recent studies, since these sources are widely used as a foundation for other research. In this outline, we merge both asexual and sexual genera into one outline. The phylum Ascomycota comprises of three subphyla viz. Pezizomycotina (including 13 classes, 124 orders and 507 families), Saccharomycotina (including one class, one order and 13 families) and Taphrinomycotina (five classes, five orders and six families). Approximately, 6600 genera have been listed under different taxonomic ranks including auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic ranks.
The classification of subclass Xylariomycetidae is revisited with additional collections and phylogeny based on novel rDNA sequence data. Phylogenetic inferences are provided and are based on analysis of 115 sequence data, including new data for 27 strains. An updated outline to the subclass is presented based on the phylogenies and comprises two orders, 18 families and 222 genera. An account of each order, family and genus in the subclass is given. We accept the orders Amphisphaeriales and Xylariales based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Amphisphaeriales comprises Amphisphaeriaceae, Bartaliniaceae fam. nov., Clypeosphaeriaceae, Discosiaceae fam. nov., Pestalotiopsidaceae fam. nov. and Phlogicylindriaceae fam. nov. Xylariales comprises Apiosporaceae, Cainiaceae, Coniocessiaceae, Diatrypaceae, Graphostromataceae (doubtful), Hyponectriaceae, Iodosphaeriaceae, Lopadostomaceae fam. nov., Melogrammataceae, Pseudomassariaceae fam. nov., Vialaeaceae and Xylariaceae. The new genera and species introduced are Arthrinium hyphopodii, A. subglobosa, Cainia anthoxanthis, Ciferriascosea gen. nov., C. fluctamurum, C. rectamurum, Discosia neofraxinea, D. pseudopleurochaeta, Hyalotiella rubi, Seimatosporium cornii, S. ficeae, S. vitis and Truncatella spartii.
The type specimens of Auerswaldia, Auerswaldiella, Barriopsis, Botryosphaeria, Leptoguignardia, Melanops, Neodeightonia, Phaeobotryon, Phaeobotryosphaeria, Phyllachorella, Pyrenostigme, Saccharata, Sivanesania, Spencermartinsia and Vestergrenia were examined and fresh specimens of Botryosphaeriales were collected from Thailand. This material is used to provide a systematic treatment of Botryosphaeriales based on morphology and phylogeny. Two new genera, Botryobambusa and Cophinforma are introduced and compared with existing genera. Four species new to science, Auerswaldia dothiorella, A. lignicola, Botryosphaeria fusispora and Phaeobotryosphaeria eucalypti, are also described and justified. We accept 29 genera in Botryosphaeriales, with Macrovalsaria being newly placed. In the phylogenetic tree, the 114 strains of Botyrosphaeriales included in the analysis cluster into two major clades with 80 %, 96 % and 1.00 (MP, ML and BY) support, with Clade A containing the family type of Botryosphaeriaceae, and Clade B containing Phyllosticta, Saccharata and Melanops species. This group may represent Phyllostictaceae. In Clade A the taxa analyzed cluster in eight sub-clades (Clades A1–8). Clade A1 comprises three distinct subclusters corresponding to the genera Diplodia (Diplodia Clade), Neodeightonia (Neodeightonia Clade) and Lasiodiplodia (Lasiodiplodia Clade). Clade A2 clusters into three groups representing Phaeobotryosphaeria (100 %), Phaeobotryon (100 %) and Barriopsis (94 %). Clade A3 incorporates 17 strains that cluster into three well-supported genera (Dothiorella (86 %), Spencermartinsia (100 %) and Auerswaldia (63 %); the position of Macrophomina is not stable. Clade A4 is a single lineage (100 %) representing the new genus Botryobambusa. Clade A5 is a well-supported subclade incorporating Neofussicoccum. Clade A6 represents the type species of Botryosphaeria, three other Botryosphaeria species and two other genera, Neoscytalidium and Cophinforma gen. nov. Clade A7 comprises two Pseudofusicoccum species and Clade A8 has two Aplosporella species. These sub-clades may eventually require separate families but this requires analysis of a much larger dataset. Our data advances the understanding of Botryosphaeriales, there is, however, still much research to be carried out with resolution of families and genera, linkage of sexual and asexual morphs and differentiation of cryptic species.
A review of phylogenetic studies carried out together with morphological ones shows that a major problem with most early studies is that they concentrated on techniques and used material or strains of fungi that in most cases were not carefully reference, and in a worrying number of cases wrongly named. Most classical species, particularly of microfungi, are not represented by adequate type material, or other authoritatively identified cultures or specimens, that can serve as DNA sources for phylogenetic study, or for developing robust identification systems. Natural classifications of fungi therefore suffer from the lack of reference strains in resultant phylogenetic trees. In some cases, epitypification and neotypification can solve this problem and these tools are increasingly used to resolve taxonomic confusion and stabilize the understanding of species, genera, families, or orders of fungi. This manuscript discusses epitypification and neotypification, describes how to epitypify or neotypify species and examines the importance of this process. A set of guidelines for epitypification is presented. Examples where taxa have been epitypified are presented and the benefits and problems of epitypification are discussed. As examples of epitypification, or to provide reference specimens, a new epitype is designated for Paraphaeosphaeria michotii and reference specimens are provided for Astrosphaeriella stellata, A. bakeriana, Phaeosphaeria elongata, Ophiobolus cirsii, and O. erythrosporus. In this way we demonstrate how to epitypify taxa and its importance, and also illustrate the value of proposing reference specimens if epitypification is not advisable. Although we provided guidelines for epitypification, the decision to epitypify or not lies with the author, who should have experience of the fungus concerned. This responsibility is to be taken seriously, as once a later typification is made, it may not be possible to undo that, particularly in the case of epitypes, without using the lengthy and tedious formal conservation and rejection processes.
This is a continuity of a series of taxonomic and phylogenetic papers on the fungi where materials were collected from many countries, examined and described. In addition to extensive morphological descriptions and appropriate asexual and sexual connections, DNA sequence data are also analysed from concatenated datasets to infer phylogenetic relationships and substantiate systematic positions of taxa within appropriate ranks. Wherever new species or combinations are proposed, we apply an integrative approach using morphological and molecular data as well as ecological features wherever applicable. Notes on 112 fungal taxa are compiled in this paper including Biatriosporaceae and Roussoellaceae, Didysimulans gen. nov., 81 new species, 18 new host records and new country records, five reference specimens, two new combinations, and three sexual and asexual morph reports. The new species are Amanita cornelii, A. emodotrygon, Angustimassarina alni, A. arezzoensis, A. italica, A. lonicerae, A. premilcurensis, Ascochyta italica, A. rosae, Austroboletus appendiculatus, Barriopsis thailandica, Berkleasmium ariense, Calophoma petasitis, Camarosporium laburnicola, C. moricola, C. grisea, C. ossea, C. paraincrustata, Colletotrichum sambucicola, Coprinopsis cerkezii, Cytospora gelida, Dacrymyces chiangraiensis, Didysimulans italica, D. mezzanensis, Entodesmium italica, Entoloma magnum, Evlachovaea indica, Exophiala italica, Favolus gracilisporus, Femsjonia monospora, Fomitopsis flabellata, F. roseoalba, Gongronella brasiliensis, Helvella crispoides, Hermatomyces chiangmaiensis, H. chromolaenae, Hysterium centramurum, Inflatispora caryotae, Inocybe brunneosquamulosa, I. luteobrunnea, I. rubrobrunnea, Keissleriella cirsii, Lepiota cylindrocystidia, L. flavocarpa, L. maerimensis, Lophiotrema guttulata, Marasmius luculentus, Morenoina calamicola, Moelleriella thanathonensis, Mucor stercorarius, Myrmecridium fluviae, Myrothecium septentrionale, Neosetophoma garethjonesii, Nigrograna cangshanensis, Nodulosphaeria guttulatum, N. multiseptata, N. sambuci, Panus subfasciatus, Paraleptosphaeria padi, Paraphaeosphaeria viciae, Parathyridaria robiniae, Penicillium punicae, Phaeosphaeria calamicola, Phaeosphaeriopsis yuccae, Pleurophoma italica, Polyporus brevibasidiosus, P. koreanus, P. orientivarius, P. parvovarius, P. subdictyopus, P. ulleungus, Pseudoasteromassaria spadicea, Rosellinia mearnsii, Rubroboletus demonensis, Russula yanheensis, Sigarispora muriformis, Sillia italica, Stagonosporopsis ailanthicola, Strobilomyces longistipitatus, Subplenodomus galicola and Wolfiporia pseudococos. The new combinations are Melanomma populina and Rubroboletus eastwoodiae. The reference specimens are Cookeina tricholoma, Gnomoniopsis sanguisorbae, Helvella costifera, Polythrincium trifolii and Russula virescens. The new host records and country records are Ascochyta medicaginicola, Boletellus emodensis, Cyptotrama asprata, Cytospora ceratosperma, Favolaschia auriscalpium, F. manipularis, Hysterobrevium mori, Lentinus sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus, L. velutinus, Leucocoprinus cretaceus, Lophiotrema vagabundum, Nothophoma quercina, Platystomum rosae, Pseudodidymosphaeria phlei, Tremella fuciformis, Truncatella spartii and Vaginatispora appendiculata and three sexual and asexual morphs are Aposphaeria corallinolutea, Dothiora buxi and Hypocrella calendulina.
Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from higher plants, are attracting considerable attention from natural product chemists and biologists alike as indicated by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during recent years (113 research articles on secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi in the period of 2008-2009, 69 in 2006-2007, 36 in 2004-2005, 14 in 2002-2003, and 18 in 2000-2001). This overview will highlight the chemical potential of endophytic fungi with focus on the detection of pharmaceutically valuable plant constituents, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin, as products of fungal biosynthesis. In addition, it will cover new bioactive metabolites reported in recent years (2008-2009) from fungal endophytes of terrestrial and mangrove plants. The presented compounds are selected based on their antimicrobial, antiparasitic, cytotoxic as well as neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, possible factors influencing natural product production in endophytes cultivated in vitro and hence the success of bioprospecting from endophytes are likewise discussed in this review.
An account of the Chinese species of Hymenochaetaceae based on most recent phylogenetic analysis is presented. One hundred and seventy species from 23 genera are recognized; descriptions are provided based on the Chinese collections. Keys to genera and species are given. Phellinopsis gen. nov. is introduced. Coltricia abieticola sp. nov., Coltricia crassa sp. nov., Coltricia macropora sp. nov., Coltricia spina sp. nov., Coltriciella subglobosa sp. nov., Fuscoporia yunnanensis sp. nov. and Inonotus magnisetus sp. nov. are described here as new. Eighteen new combinations, Fulvifomes cesatii, F. chinensis, F. collinus, F. glaucescens, F. inermis, F. johnsonianus, F. kanehirae, F. macgregorii, F. minisporus, F. pullus, F. umbrinellus, Fuscoporia setifera, Inonotus lonicericola, I. tricolor, Phellinopsis conchata, P. occidentalis, Porodaedalea himalayensis and P. yamanoi are proposed. The taxonomy of all species is discussed. Spore dimensions given in this study derive from at least 30 spores of each species, and 10 386 spores were measured from 347 specimens. Two thousand specimens were examined, and they are listed after each species. Colour photos for 140 species are supplied.This report provides a modern treatment of the Hymenochaetaceae of China. To further support the results of morphology, nuclear large subunit (nuc-LSU) sequences from some typical species were selected to reconstruct their phylogeny.