The purpose of the nosology is to serve as a "master" list of the genetic disorders of the skeleton to facilitate diagnosis and to help delineate variant or newly recognized conditions. This is the 9th edition of the nosology and in comparison with its predecessor there are fewer conditions but many new genes. In previous editions, diagnoses that were phenotypically indistinguishable but genetically heterogenous were listed separately but we felt this was an unnecessary distinction. Thus the overall number of disorders has decreased from 456 to 436 but the number of groups has increased to 42 and the number of genes to 364. The nosology may become increasingly important today and tomorrow in the era of big data when the question for the geneticist is often whether a mutation identified by next generation sequencing technology in a particular gene can explain the clinical and radiological phenotype of their patient. This can be particularly difficult to answer conclusively in the prenatal setting. Personalized medicine emphasizes the importance of tailoring diagnosis and therapy to the individual but for our patients with rare skeletal disorders, the importance of tapping into a resource where genetic data can be centralized and made available should not be forgotten or underestimated. The nosology can also serve as a reference for the creation of locus-specific databases that are expected to help in delineating genotype-phenotype correlations and to harbor the information that will be gained by combining clinical observations and next generation sequencing results. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related genes. Our findings also make it clear that a window of therapeutic opportunity exists relevant to the majority of affected patients and indicate that the assessment of type I interferon activity might serve as a useful biomarker in future clinical trials.
Recently, the genetic heterogeneity in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), proposed in 1979 by Sillence et al., has been confirmed with molecular genetic studies. At present, 17 genetic causes of OI and closely related disorders have been identified and it is expected that more will follow. Unlike most reviews that have been published in the last decade on the genetic causes and biochemical processes leading to OI, this review focuses on the clinical classification of OI and elaborates on the newly proposed OI classification from 2010, which returned to a descriptive and numerical grouping of five OI syndromic groups. The new OI nomenclature and the pre-and postnatal severity assessment introduced in this review, emphasize the importance of phenotyping in order to diagnose, classify, and assess severity of OI. This will provide patients and their families with insight into the probable course of the disorder and it will allow physicians to evaluate the effect of therapy. A careful clinical description in combination with knowledge of the specific molecular genetic cause is the starting point for development and assessment of therapy in patients with heritable disorders including OI. (c) 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential pharmacologic therapies. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Autosomal dominantly inherited tumor-prone syndromes are a substantial health problem and are amenable to epidemiologic studies by combining cancer surveillance registries with a genetic register (GR)-based approach. Knowledge of the frequency of the conditions provides a basis for appropriate health-resources allocations. GRs for five tumor-prone syndromes were established in the Manchester region of North West England in 1989 and 1990. Mapping birth dates of affected individuals from families onto regional birth rates has allowed an estimate of birth incidence, disease prevalence, and de novo mutation rates. Disease prevalence in order of frequency were for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1): 1 in 4,560; familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP):1 in 18,976; nevoid basal cell carcinoma [Gorlin syndrome (GS)]: 1 in 30,827; neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) 1 in 56,161; and von Hippel Lindau (VHL) 1 in 91,111. Best estimates for birth incidence were: 1 in 2,699;1 in 8,619;1 in 14,963,1 in 33,000; and 1 in 42,987, respectively. The proportions due to de novo mutation were: 42% (NF1); 16% (FAP); 26% (GS); 56% (NF2); and 21% (VHL). Estimates for NF1, NF2, FAP, and VHL are in line with previous estimates, and we provide the first estimates of birth incidence and de novo mutation rate for GS. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Somatic mutations in the phosphatidylinositol/AKT/mTOR pathway cause segmental overgrowth disorders. Diagnostic descriptors associated with PIK3CA mutations include fibroadipose overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular malformations, Epidermal nevi, Scoliosis/skeletal and spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, and the megalencephaly syndrome, Megalencephaly-Capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome. We set out to refine the understanding of the clinical spectrum and natural history of these phenotypes, and now describe 35 patients with segmental overgrowth and somatic PIK3CA mutations. The phenotypic data show that these previously described disease entities have considerable overlap, and represent a spectrum. While this spectrum overlaps with Proteus syndrome (sporadic, mosaic, and progressive) it can be distinguished by the absence of cerebriform connective tissue nevi and a distinct natural history. Vascular malformations were found in 15/35 (43%) and epidermal nevi in 4/35 (11%) patients, lower than in Proteus syndrome. Unlike Proteus syndrome, 31/35 (89%) patients with PIK3CA mutations had congenital overgrowth, and in 35/35 patients this was asymmetric and disproportionate. Overgrowth was mild with little postnatal progression in most, while in others it was severe and progressive requiring multiple surgeries. Novel findings include: adipose dysregulation present in all patients, unilateral overgrowth that is predominantly left-sided, overgrowth that affects the lower extremities more than the upper extremities and progresses in a distal to proximal pattern, and in the most severely affected patients is associated with marked paucity of adipose tissue in unaffected areas. While the current data are consistent with some genotype-phenotype correlation, this cannot yet be confirmed. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prevalence estimates for fragile X syndrome vary considerably. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide an accurate prevalence estimate for this disorder using primary publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Data were pooled using Bayesian fixed-effects and random-effects models. Primary analyses assessed the frequency of the full mutation and premutation in males and females in the total population (no bias against individuals with intellectual disability) and in female carriers of the premutation in normal populations (biased against individuals with intellectual disability), based on diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction or Southern blotting. A sensitivity analysis included studies using any diagnostic testing method and conference abstracts. Sixty-eight recorded observations provided data for the primary (56 observations) and sensitivity (12 observations) analysis. Using the random-effects model, frequency of the full mutation was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1-3.1) per 10,000 males and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.0-2.9) per 10,000 females (1:7,143 and 1:11,111, respectively) in the total population. The premutation frequency was 11.7 (95% CI: 6.0-18.7) per 10,000 males and 34.4 (95% CI: 6.3-83.3) per 10,000 for females (1:855 and 1:291, respectively) in the total population. The prevalence of female carriers of the premutation in the normal population was 34.4 (95% CI: 8.9-60.3) per 10,000, or 1:291. Sensitivity analyses resulted in similar prevalence estimates but with wider heterogeneity. Prevalence estimates for the full mutation from this meta-analysis are lower than those in previous reviews of fragile X syndrome epidemiological data. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In October 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In response, the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics established a task force (SBGM-ZETF) to study the phenotype of infants born with microcephaly due to ZIKV congenital infection and delineate the phenotypic spectrum of this newly recognized teratogen. This study was based on the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging of 83 infants born during the period from July, 2015 to March, 2016 and registered by the SBGM-ZETF. All 83 infants had significant findings on neuroimaging consistent with ZIKV congenital infection and 12 had confirmed ZIKV IgM in CSF. A recognizable phenotype of microcephaly, anomalies of the shape of skull and redundancy of the scalp consistent with the Fetal Brain Disruption Sequence (FBDS) was present in 70% of infants, but was most often subtle. In addition, features consistent with fetal immobility, ranging from dimples (30.1%), distal hand/finger contractures (20.5%), and feet malpositions (15.7%), to generalized arthrogryposis (9.6%), were present in these infants. Some cases had milder microcephaly or even a normal head circumference (HC), and other less distinctive findings. The detailed observation of the dysmorphic and neurologic features in these infants provides insight into the mechanisms and timings of the brain disruption and the sequence of developmental anomalies that may occur after prenatal infection by the ZIKV.
Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) promises significant personalized health benefits, and its increasingly low cost makes wide clinical use inevitable. However, a core challenge is "incidental findings" (IF). Using focus groups, we explored attitudes about the disclosure of IF in clinical settings from three perspectives: Genetics health-care professionals, the general public, and parents whose children have experienced genetic testing. Analysis was based on a framework approach. All three groups considered practical and ethical considerations. There was consensus that IF presented challenges for disclosure and a pre-test patient-clinician discussion was vital for clarification and agreement. The professionals favored targeted analysis to limit data handling and focus pre-test discussions on medical relevance. Their perspective highlighted ethical concepts of justice and beneficence. The lay groups' standpoint emphasized autonomy and patients' rights to choose what findings they receive, and that patients accept the consequences of any potential anxiety and uncertainty. The lay groups also felt that it was their responsibility to check genomic developments over time with their original test results and saw patient responsibility as an important part of patient choice. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heritable predisposition is an important cause of cancer in children and adolescents. Although a large number of cancer predisposition genes and their associated syndromes and malignancies have already been described, it appears likely that there are more pediatric cancer patients in whom heritable cancer predisposition syndromes have yet to be recognized. In a consensus meeting in the beginning of 2016, we convened experts in Human Genetics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology to review the available data, to categorize the large amount of information, and to develop recommendations regarding when a cancer predisposition syndrome should be suspected in a young oncology patient. This review summarizes the current knowledge of cancer predisposition syndromes in pediatric oncology and provides essential information on clinical situations in which a childhood cancer predisposition syndrome should be suspected.
CHARGE syndrome [coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retardation of growth and/or development, genital and/or urinary abnormalities, and ear abnormalities (including deafness)] is a genetic disorder characterized by a specific and a recognizable pattern of anomalies. De novo mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) are the major cause of CHARGE syndrome. Here, we review the clinical features of 379 CHARGE patients who tested positive or negative for mutations in CHD7. We found that CHARGE individuals with CHD7 mutations more commonly have ocular colobomas, temporal bone anomalies (semicircular canal hypoplasia/dysplasia), and facial nerve paralysis compared with mutation negative individuals. We also highlight recent genetic and genomic studies that have provided functional insights into CHD7 and the pathogenesis of CHARGE syndrome. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lack of the FMR1 protein, FMRP, a translational repressor. Its absence leads to up-regulation of locally translated proteins involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity, including the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In the Fmr1 knock-out (KO), a mouse model of FXS, an abnormal elevated expression of MMP-9 in the brain was pharmacologically down-regulated after treatment with the tetracycline derivative minocycline. Moreover, the rescue of immature dendritic spine morphology and a significant improvement of abnormal behavior were associated with down-regulation of MMP-9. Here, we report on high plasma activity of MMP-9 in individuals with FXS. In addition, we investigate MMP-9 changes in patients with FXS who have gone through a minocycline controlled clinical trial and correlate MMP-9 activity to clinical observations. The results of this study suggest that, in humans, activity levels of MMP-9 are lowered by minocycline and that, in some cases, changes in MMP-9 at are positively associated with improvement based on clinical measures. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In this review, we detail the history, molecular diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical features of the MECP2 duplication syndrome, including considerations for the care of patients with this X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder. MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in affected males and is associated with infantile hypotonia, severe to profound mental retardation, autism or autistic features, poor speech development, recurrent infections, epilepsy, progressive spasticity, and, in some cases, developmental regression. Most of the reported cases are inherited, however, de novo cases have been documented. While carrier females have been reported to be unaffected, more recent research demonstrates that despite normal intelligence, female carriers display a range of neuropsychiatric phenotypes that predate the birth of an affected son. Given what we know of the syndrome to date, we propose that genetic testing is warranted in cases of males with infantile hypotonia and in cases of boys with mental retardation and autistic features with or without recurrent infections, progressive spasticity, epilepsy, or developmental regression. We discuss recommendations for clinical management and surveillance as well as the need for further clinical, genotype phenotype, and molecular studies to assist the patients and their families who are affected by this syndrome. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Chromosome 16p11.2 deletions and duplications are among the most frequent genetic etiologies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders, but detailed descriptions of their neurologic phenotypes have not yet been completed. We utilized standardized examination and history methods to characterize a neurologic phenotype in 136 carriers of 16p11.2 deletion and 110 carriers of 16p11.2 duplication-the largest cohort to date of uniformly and comprehensively characterized individuals with the same 16p copy number variants (CNVs). The 16p11.2 deletion neurologic phenotype is characterized by highly prevalent speech articulation abnormalities, limb and trunk hypotonia with hyporeflexia, abnormalities of agility, sacral dimples, seizures/epilepsy, large head size/macrocephaly, and Chiari I/cerebellar tonsillar ectopia. Speech articulation abnormalities, hypotonia, abnormal agility, sacral dimples, and seizures/epilepsy are also seen in duplication carriers, along with more prominent hyperreflexia; less, though still prevalent, hyporeflexia; highly prevalent action tremor; small head size/microcephaly; and cerebral white matter/corpus callosum abnormalities and ventricular enlargement. The neurologic phenotypes of these reciprocal 16p11.2 CNVs include both shared and distinct features. Reciprocal phenotypic characteristics of predominant hypo-versus hyperreflexia and macro-versus microcephaly may reflect opposite neurobiological abnormalities with converging effects causing the functional impairments shared between 16p11.2 deletion and duplication carriers (i.e., abnormal motor agility and articulation). While the phenotypes exhibit overlap with other genetically-caused neurodevelopmental disorders, clinicians should be aware of the more striking features-such as the speech and motor impairments, growth abnormalities, tremor, and sacral dimples-when evaluating individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, ASD, and/or language disorders. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.