Background. No comprehensive systematic review has been published since 1998 about the frequency with which cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Methods. MEDLINE, AMED, and Embase databases were searched for surveys published until January 2009. Surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand, and the United States with at least 100 adult cancer patients were included. Detailed information on methods and results was independently extracted by 2 reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using a criteria list developed according to the STROBE guideline. Exploratory random effects metaanalysis and metaregression were applied. Results. Studies from 18 countries (152; >65 000 cancer patients) were included. Heterogeneity of CAM use was high and to some extent explained by differences in survey methods. The combined prevalence for “current use” of CAM across all studies was 40%. The highest was in the United States and the lowest in Italy and the Netherlands. Metaanalysis suggested an increase in CAM use from an estimated 25% in the 1970s and 1980s to more than 32% in the 1990s and to 49% after 2000. Conclusions. The overall prevalence of CAM use found was lower than often claimed. However, there was some evidence that the use has increased considerably over the past years. Therefore, the health care systems ought to implement clear strategies of how to deal with this. To improve the validity and reporting of future surveys, the authors suggest criteria for methodological quality that should be fulfilled and reporting standards that should be required.
Oxidative stress is a key component in carcinogenesis. Although radiation produces reactive oxygen species, some anticancer agents such as alkylating agents, platinum and antitumor antibiotics exert cytotoxicity by generating free radicals. Nonenzymatic exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols can quench ROS activity. However, whether antioxidants alter antitumor effects during radiotherapy and some types of chemotherapy remains unclear. In the present study, we reviewed antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Electronic literature searches were performed to select all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in which antioxidants were administered to cancer patients along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Articles or abstracts written in English were included. In total, 399 reports received primary screening. Duplicated articles and those meeting the exclusion criteria (not RCT, not human, and no oral administration) were excluded. Finally, 49 reports matching the inclusion criteria were included. It was difficult to determine whether antioxidants affect treatment outcomes or whether antioxidants ameliorate adverse effects induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is desirable to use an evidence-based method to select supplements best suited to cancer patients. Although there are many opinions about risks or benefits of antioxidant supplementation, we could mostly conclude that the harm caused by antioxidant supplementation remains unclear for patients during cancer therapy, except for smokers undergoing radiotherapy.
Fatigue, experienced by patients during and following cancer treatment, is a significant clinical problem. It is a prevalent and distressing symptom yet pharmacological interventions are used little and confer limited benefit for patients. However, many cancer patients use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and some evidence suggests it may relieve fatigue. A systematic review was conducted to appraise the effectiveness of CAM interventions in ameliorating cancer-related fatigue. Systematic searches of biomedical, nursing, and specialist CAM databases were conducted, including Medline, Embase, and AMED. Included papers described interventions classified as CAM by the National Centre of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and evaluated through randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-experimental design. Twenty studies were eligible for the review, of which 15 were RCTs. Forms of CAM interventions examined included acupuncture, massage, yoga, and relaxation training. The review identified some limited evidence suggesting hypnosis and ginseng may prevent rises in cancer-related fatigue in people undergoing treatment for cancer and acupuncture and that biofield healing may reduce cancer-related fatigue following cancer treatments. Evidence to date suggests that multivitamins are ineffective at reducing cancer-related fatigue. However, trials incorporated within the review varied greatly in quality; most were methodologically weak and at high risk of bias. Consequently, there is currently insufficient evidence to conclude with certainty the effectiveness or otherwise of CAM in reducing cancer-related fatigue. The design and methods employed in future trials of CAM should be more rigorous; increasing the strength of evidence should be a priority.
Objectives. This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer center. Methods. Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients are randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to radiotherapy treatment. Assessments include diurnal salivary cortisol levels 3 days before and after radiotherapy and self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and stress collected before and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy. Results. Analysis of covariance reveals significant decreases in anxiety (P < .001), depression (P = .002), perceived stress (P < .001), 6 a.m. salivary cortisol (P = .009), and pooled mean cortisol (P = .03) in the yoga group compared with controls. There is a significant positive correlation between morning salivary cortisol level and anxiety and depression. Conclusion. Yoga might have a role in managing self-reported psychological distress and modulating circadian patterns of stress hormones in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy.
Hypotheses. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion play a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have shown that low E-cadherin and high Twist expression are significantly correlated with prognostic survival prediction in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to determine the anti-invasive effect of curcumin on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and of EMT regulators in OSCC. Methods. SCC-25 cells were treated with curcumin, and cell proliferation, invasion, and expression of MMPs and EMT regulators were assessed for cell viability by trypan blue exclusion, for invasion by Matrigel invasion chamber, and for EMT regulators and MMP changes in the levels of proteins by immunoblotting. Results. Our data showed that curcumin treatment not only decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 to inhibit invasiveness in oral cancer but also modulated the expression of EMT markers, such as Snail, Twist, and E-cadherin, and induced p53 expression that is crucial to EMT repression. Conclusion. Curcumin has the potential to become an adjunctive regimen for the prevention of cancer progression and metastasis in oral cancer.
Background: Lung and breast cancers are leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Prior exploratory work has shown that patterns of biochemical markers have been found in the exhaled breath of patients with lung and breast cancers that are distinguishable from those of controls. However, chemical analysis of exhaled breath has not shown suitability for individual clinical diagnosis. Methods: The authors used a food reward-based method of training 5 ordinary household dogs to distinguish, by scent alone, exhaled breath samples of 55 lung and 31 breast cancer patients from those of 83 healthy controls. A correct indication of cancer samples by the dogs was sitting/lying in front of the sample. A correct response to control samples was to ignore the sample. The authors first trained the dogs in a 3-phase sequential process with gradually increasing levels of challenge. Once trained, the dogs’ ability to distinguish cancer patients from controls was then tested using breath samples from subjects not previously encountered by the dogs. The researchers blinded both dog handlers and experimental observers to the identity of breath samples. The diagnostic accuracy data reported were obtained solely from the dogs’ sniffing, in double-blinded conditions, of these breath samples obtained from subjects not previously encountered by the dogs during the training period. Results: Among lung cancer patients and controls, overall sensitivity of canine scent detection compared to biopsy-confirmed conventional diagnosis was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99, 1.00) and overall specificity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96, 1.00). Among breast cancer patients and controls, sensitivity was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.75, 1.00) and specificity 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90, 0.99). Sensitivity and specificity were remarkably similar across all 4 stages of both diseases. Conclusion: Training was efficient and cancer identification was accurate; in a matter of weeks, ordinary household dogs with only basic behavioral “puppy training” were trained to accurately distinguish breath samples of lung and breast cancer patients from those of controls. This pilot work using canine scent detection demonstrates the validity of using a biological system to examine exhaled breath in the diagnostic identification of lung and breast cancers. Future work should closely examine the chemistry of exhaled breath to identify which chemical compounds can most accurately identify the presence of cancer.
The authors have shown that, via activation of its MT1 receptor, melatonin modulates the transcriptional activity of various nuclear receptors and the proliferation of both ERα+ and ERα- human breast cancer cells. Employing dominant-negative (DN) and dominant-positive (DP) G proteins, it was demonstrated that Gα i2 proteins mediate the suppression of estrogen-induced ERα transcriptional activity by melatonin, whereas the Gαq proteins mediate the enhancement of retinoid-induced RARα transcriptional activity by melatonin. In primary human breast tumors, the authors’ studies demonstrate an inverse correlation between ERα and MT1 receptor expression, and confocal microscopic studies demonstrate that the MT1I receptor is localized to the caveoli and that its expression can be repressed by estrogen and melatonin. Melatonin, via activation of its MT1 receptor, suppresses the development and growth of breast cancer by regulation of growth factors, regulation of gene expression, regulation of clock genes, inhibition of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and even regulation of mammary gland development. The authors have previously reported that the clock gene, Period 2 (Per2), is not expressed in human breast cancer cells but that its reexpression in breast cancer cells results in increased expression of p53 and induction of apoptosis. The authors demonstrate that melatonin, via repression of RORα transcriptional activity, blocks the expression of the clock gene BMAL1 . Melatonin’s blockade of BMAL1 expression is associated with the decreased expression of SIRT1, a member of the Silencing Information Regulator family and a histone and protein deacetylase that inhibits the expression of DNA repair enzymes (p53, BRCA1 & 2, and Ku70) and the expression of apoptosis-associated genes. Finally, the authors developed an MMTV-MT1-flag mammary knock-in transgenic mouse that displays reduced ductal branching, ductal epithelium proliferation, and reduced terminal end bud formation during puberty and pregnancy. Lactating female MT1 transgenic mice show a dramatic reduction in the expression of β-casein and whey acidic milk proteins. Further analyses showed significantly reduced ERα expression in mammary glands of MT1 transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that the MT1 receptor is a major transducer of melatonin’s actions in the breast, suppressing mammary gland development and mediating the anticancer actions of melatonin through multiple pathways.
Antineoplastic agents induce oxidative stress in biological systems. During cancer chemotherapy, oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation generates numerous electrophilic aldehydes that can attack many cellular targets. These products of oxidative stress can slow cell cycle progression of cancer cells and cause cell cycle checkpoint arrest, effects that may interfere with the ability of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. The aldehydes may also inhibit drug-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) by inactivating death receptors and inhibiting caspase activity. These effects would also diminish the efficacy of the treatment. The use of anti-oxidants during chemotherapy may enhance therapy by reducing the generation of oxidative stress-induced aldehydes.
Extracts of milk thistle have been recognized for centuries as “liver tonics” and are well-known to prevent or reverse hepatotoxicity of reactive drug metabolites or naturally occurring toxins. Milk thistle extracts are now under intense study in the experimental therapeutics of cancer for chemoprevention, treatment, and amelioration of chemotherapy side effects. Precision in nomenclature, however, has lagged behind this progress. The crude commercial product of milk thistle is termed silymarin, a complex of at least 7 flavonolignans and 1 flavonoid that comprises 65% to 80% of milk thistle extract. From silymarin is derived silibinin, a semipurified fraction once thought to be a single compound but now recognized as a 1:1 mixture of 2 diastereoisomers, silybin A and silybin B. The distinction between silymarin and silibinin is not only important to understanding the historical literature, but thorough characterization and use of chemically defined mixtures in preclinical and clinical studies are essential to the progress of these botanical compounds as human therapeutics. As a result, we urge clinicians and preclinical investigators alike to exercise rigor in nomenclature and use pure compounds or precisely defined chemical mixtures in subsequent studies. Herein, we provide a guide to the proper nomenclature and composition of milk thistle extracts and discuss the known pharmacokinetic studies of these botanical medicines. The drug-interaction potential of these extracts appears to be quite low, and in fact, silibinin appears to synergize with the antitumor effects of some commonly used chemotherapeutics. However, some precautions are advised as high-dose, phase II studies are conducted.
Background. Many patients with cancer seek complementary and alternative medicine treatments. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by adult cancer patients in Taiwan. Methods. We reviewed the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients Database of Taiwan, and included all adult patients diagnosed cancer, based on the International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision), from 2001 to 2009 and followed until 2011. This database allowed categorization of patients as TCM users (n = 74 620) or non-TCM users (n = 508 179). All demographic and clinical claims data were analyzed. Results. Compared with non-TCM users, TCM users were younger and more likely to be female, white-collar workers, and reside in highly urbanized areas. The average interval between cancer diagnosis and TCM consultation was 15.3 months. The most common cancer type was breast cancer in TCM users (19.4%), and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in non-TCM users (13.6%). The major condition for which TCM users visited clinics were endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and immunity disorders (23.2%). A total of 33.1% of TCM users visited TCM clinics more than 9 times per year and their time from diagnosis to first TCM consultation was 5.14 months. The most common TCM treatment was Chinese herbal medicine. The common diseases for which cancer patients sought TCM treatment were insomnia, malaise and fatigue, dizziness and headache, gastrointestinal disorders, myalgia and fasciitis, anxiety, and depression. Overall, TCM users had a lower adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for mortality (aHR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.68-0.70) after adjustment for age, sex, urbanization of residence, occupation, annual medical center visits, and annual non–medical center visits. Conclusions. This study provides an overview of TCM usage among adult cancer patients in Taiwan. TCM use varied among patients with different types of cancer. Physicians caring for cancer patients should pay more attention to their patients’ use of complementary TCM.
Background. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the magnitude and direction of intervention effect sizes for inflammatory-related serum markers and relevant health outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCSs) receiving a physical activity behavior change intervention compared with usual care. Methods. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 28 stage I, II, or IIIA BCSs who were post–primary treatment and not regular exercisers. Participants were assigned to either a 3-month physical activity behavior change intervention group (ING) or usual care group (UCG). Intervention included supervised aerobic (150 weekly minutes, moderate-intensity) and resistance (2 sessions per week) exercise that gradually shifted to home-based exercise. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results. Cardiorespiratory fitness significantly improved in the ING versus the UCG (between-group difference = 3.8 mL/kg/min; d = 1.1; P = .015). Self-reported sleep latency was significantly reduced in the ING versus the UCG (between group difference = −0.5; d = −1.2; P = .02) as was serum leptin (between-group difference = −9.0 ng/mL; d = −1.0; P = .031). Small to medium nonsignificant negative effect sizes were noted for interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and ratios of IL-6 to IL-10, IL-8 to IL-10, and TNF-α to IL-10, whereas nonsignificant positive effect sizes were noted for IL-6 and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. Conclusions. Physical activity behavior change interventions in BCSs can achieve large effect size changes for several health outcomes. Although effect sizes for inflammatory markers were often small and not significant, changes were in the hypothesized direction for all except IL-6 and IL-10.
Background. Complementary therapies (CTs) are increasingly utilized by cancer patients. Nonetheless, patients report insufficient support from health care practitioners (HCPs) and there is a general lack of patient-practitioner communication about CT use. Best care practices suggest that HCPs should address the needs of patients, including CT use. This study examined current practices of patients and HCPs as well as their interactions relating to CTs. Methods. A total of 481 cancer outpatients and 100 HCPs completed questionnaires. Patient questions addressed CT use and information needs; HCP questions addressed knowledge, opinions and beliefs about complementary and alternative medicine. Patient-practitioner communication around CT was also examined. Results. 47% of patients reported using CTs since diagnosis. Many commenced CT use to improve quality of life (65%) based on recommendations from family or friends. Patients acknowledged the need for trusted sources of information and would attend a hospital-based education program (72%). HCPs reported limited training about CTs but most (90%) expressed interested in receiving more training. The majority of HCPs (>80%) reported limited knowledge about the role of CTs in cancer care or evidence to support CT use. Questions about communication and interactions revealed that 80% of patients reported not having had an HCP speak to them about CTs. However, 63% of HCPs reported addressing CT use. Conclusion. Results demonstrate a need for improved CT education and training for patients and HCPs. increasing HCP knowledge and clinical skills will ensure patients’ information needs about CTs are acknowledged and attended to, thereby providing safer and comprehensive cancer care.
Background/Objectives: In the Middle East, people consume camel milk regularly as it is believed to improve immunity against diseases and decrease the risk for cancer. Recently, it was noted that most of the beneficial effects of milk come from their nanoparticles, especially exosomes. Herein, we evaluated the anticancer potential of camel milk and its exosomes on MCF7 breast cancer cells (in vitro and in vivo) and investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of action. Methods/Results: Administration of camel milk (orally) and its exosomes (orally and by local injection) decreased breast tumor progression as evident by (a) higher apoptosis (indicated by higher DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity, Bax gene expression, and lower Bcl2 gene expression), (b) remarkable inhibition of oxidative stress (decrease in MDA levels and iNOS gene expression); (c) induction of antioxidant status (increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX), (d) notable reduction in expression of inflammation-(IL1b, NFκB), angiogenesis-(VEGF) and metastasis-(MMP9, ICAM1) related genes; and (e) higher immune response (high number of CD+4, CD+8, NK1.1 T cells in spleen). Conclusions: Overall, administration of camel milk–derived exosomes showed better anticancer effect, but less immune response, than treatment by camel milk. Moreover, local injection of exosomes led to better improvement than oral administration. These findings suggest that camel milk and its exosomes have anticancer effect possibly through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, camel milk and its exosomes could be used as an anticancer agent for cancer treatment.
Five different crude polysaccharides from guava seed (GSPS), bitter buckwheat (BBPS), common buckwheat (CBPS), red Formosa lambsquarters (RFLPS), and yellow Formosa lambsquarters (YFLPS) were isolated to treat human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via direct action or tumor immunotherapy. The splenocyte- and macrophage-conditioned media (SCM and MCM) were prepared using individual selected polysaccharides, and then SCM or MCM was further collected to treat PC-3 cells. The relationship between PC-3 cell growth and Th1/Th2 cytokines in SCM as well as proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion profiles in MCM were delineated. The results showed that all 5 selected polysaccharides did not significantly inhibit PC-3 cell growth via direct action. However, SCM or MCM cultured in the absence or presence of 5 selected polysaccharides significantly (P < .05) inhibited PC-3 cell growth. MCM cultured with 5 polysaccharides dose dependently enhanced their inhibitory effects on the viabilities of PC-3 cells than those cultured without polysaccharides. There was a significant (P < .05) negative correlation between PC-3 cell viabilities and (interleukin [IL]-6 + tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α)/IL-10 level ratios in the corresponding MCM, implying that macrophages suppress PC-3 cell growth through decreasing secretion ratios of proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines in a tumor microenvironment.
Besides honey, honeybees make a sticky substance (called propolis/bee glue) by mixing saliva with poplar tree resin and other botanical sources. It is known to be rich in bioactivities of which the anticancer activity is most studied. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a key anticancer component in New Zealand propolis. We have earlier investigated the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity in CAPE and reported that it activates DNA damage signaling in cancer cells. CAPE-induced growth arrest of cells was mediated by downregulation of mortalin and activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. When antitumor and antimetastasis activities of CAPE were examined in vitro and in vivo, we failed to find significant activities, which was contrary to our expectations. On careful examination, it was revealed that CAPE is unstable and rather gets easily degraded into caffeic acid by secreted esterases. Interestingly, when CAPE was complexed with γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) the activities were significantly enhanced. In the present study, we report that the CAPE-γCD complex with higher cytotoxicity to a wide range of cancer cells is stable in acidic milieu and therefore recommended as an anticancer amalgam. We also report a method for preparation of stable and less-pungent powder of propolis that could be conveniently used for health and therapeutic benefits.
Background. Melatonin (MLT) is known to possess potent antioxidant, antiproliferative, immune-modulating, and hormone-modulating properties. Clinical evidence suggests that MLT may have a possible role in the treatment of cancer. The authors systematically reviewed the effects of MLT in conjunction with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, supportive care, and palliative care on 1-year survival, complete response, partial response, stable disease, and chemotherapy-associated toxicities. Methods. The authors searched 7 databases: MEDLINE (1966-February 2010), AMED (1985-February 2010), Alt HealthWatch (1995-February 2010), CINAHL (1982-February 2010), Nursing and Allied Health Collection: Basic (1985-February 2010), the Cochrane Database (2009), and the Chinese database CNKI (1979-February 2010). They included all trials that randomized patients to treatment, including MLT or a similar control group without MLT. Results. The authors included data from 21 clinical trials, all of which dealt with solid tumors. The pooled relative risk (RR) for 1-year mortality was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.74; P < .001). Improved effect was found for complete response, partial response, and stable disease with RRs of 2.33 (95% CI = 1.29-4.20), 1.90 (1.43-2.51), and 1.51 (1.08-2.12), respectively. In trials combining MLT with chemotherapy, adjuvant MLT decreased 1-year mortality (RR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.54-0.67) and improved outcomes of complete response, partial response, and stable disease; pooled RRs were 2.53 (1.36-4.71), 1.70 (1.37-2.12), and 1.15 (1.00-1.33), respectively. In these studies, MLT also significantly reduced asthenia, leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, and thrombocytopenia. Conclusion. MLT may benefit cancer patients who are also receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy, supportive therapy, or palliative therapy by improving survival and ameliorating the side effects of chemotherapy.
Studies have shown that vitamin D could have a role in breast cancer survival; however, the evidence of the relationship between patients’ vitamin D levels and their survival has been inconsistent. This meta-analysis explores possible dose-response relationships between vitamin D levels and overall survival by allowing for differences in vitamin D levels among populations of the various studies. Studies relating vitamin D (25-OH-D [25-hydroxyvitamin D]) levels in breast cancer patients with their survival were identified by searching PubMed and Embase. A pooled HR (hazard ratio) comparing the highest with the lowest category of circulating 25-OH-D levels were synthesized using the Mantel-Haenszel method under a fixed-effects model. A two-stage fixed-effects dose-response model including both linear (a log-linear dose-response regression) and nonlinear (a restricted cubic spline regression) models were used to further explore possible dose-response relationships. Six studies with a total number of 5984 patients were identified. A pooled HR comparing the highest with the lowest category of circulating 25-OH-D levels under a fixed-effects model was 0.67 (95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.79, P < .001). Utilizing a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled HR for overall survival in breast cancer patients was 0.994 (per 1 nmol/L), Pfor linear trend < .001. At or above a 23.3 nmol/L threshold, for a 10 nmol/L, 20 nmol/L, or 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25-OH-D levels, the risk of breast cancer overall mortality decreased by 6%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. There was no significant nonlinearity in the relationship between overall survival and circulating 25-OH-D levels. Our findings suggest that there is a highly significant linear dose-response relationship between circulating 25-OH-D levels and overall survival in patients with breast cancer. However, better designed prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are needed to further confirm these findings.
Introduction. Fatigue is a distressing symptom for adults with acute leukemia, often impeding their ability to exercise. Objectives. 1) Examine effects of a 4-week mixed-modality supervised exercise program (4 times a week, twice a day) on fatigue in adults with acute leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy. 2) Evaluate effects of exercise program on cognition, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. 3) Evaluate effect of intervention on adherence to exercise. Methods. 17 adults (8 intervention, 9 control), aged 28-69 years, newly diagnosed with acute leukemia were recruited within 4 days of admission for induction treatment. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (fatigue, cognition, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, mental health, and physical health) and fitness performance-based measures (Timed Up and Go [TUG], Karnofsky Performance Status, and composite strength scoring) were assessed at baseline and at discharge. Changes in PRO and performance-based physical function measures from baseline to time of discharge were compared between groups using Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Results. With PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) Fatigue, we found a median change in fatigue (−5.95) for the intervention group, which achieved a minimally important difference that is considered clinically relevant. Intervention group reduced their TUG performance by 1.73 seconds, whereas the control group remained fairly stable. A concerning finding was that cognition decreased for both groups during their hospitalization. 80% adherence of visits completed with a mean of 6 sessions attended per week. Conclusions. Our study provides information on the impact of exercise on symptomatology, with focus on fatigue and other psychosocial variables in acute leukemia.
Background and objective. Increasing physical activity (PA) is safe and beneficial in lung cancer (LC) patients. Advanced-stage LC patients are under-studied and have worse symptoms and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated the feasibility of monitoring step count in advanced LC as well as potential correlations between PA and QoL. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study of 39 consecutive patients with advanced-stage LC. Daily step count over 1 week (via Fitbit Zip), QoL, dyspnea, and depression scores were collected. Spearman rank testing was used to assess correlations. Correlation coefficients (ρ) >0.3 or <−0.3 (more and less correlated, respectively) were considered potentially clinically significant. Results. Most (83%) of the patients were interested in participating, and 67% of those enrolled were adherent with the device. Of those using the device (n = 30), the average daily step count was 4877 (range = 504-12 118) steps/d. Higher average daily step count correlated with higher QoL (ρ = 0.46), physical (ρ = 0.61), role (ρ = 0.48), and emotional functioning (ρ = 0.40) scores as well as lower depression (ρ = −0.40), dyspnea (ρ = −0.54), and pain (ρ = −0.37) scores. Conclusion. Remote PA monitoring (Fitbit Zip) is feasible in advanced-stage LC patients. Interest in participating in this PA study was high with comparable adherence to other PA studies. In those utilizing the device, higher step count correlates with higher QoL as well as lower dyspnea, pain, and depression scores. PA monitoring with wearable devices in advanced-stage LC deserves further study.