Purpose To evaluate longer outcomes of primary nitinol stenting for the treatment of femoropopliteal lesions up to 15 cm long after these stents were found to have superior short-term patency vs. balloon angioplasty. Methods Two hundred and six patients (143 men; mean age 67 years) with intermittent claudication due to superficial femoral and proximal popliteal artery lesions were randomized (2:1) to treatment with nitinol stents or balloon angioplasty at 24 US and European centers and followed for 3 years. In that time, 15 patients died, 20 withdrew consent, and 10 were lost to follow-up, leaving 161 (78.2%) patients for 36-month assessment. Results The 12-month freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 87.3% for the stent group vs. 45.2% for the angioplasty group (p<0.0001). At 3 years, there was no difference in survival (90.0% vs. 91.7%, p=0.71) or major adverse events (75.2% vs. 75.2%, p=0.98) between the stent and angioplasty groups. Duplex ultrasound was not mandated after the first year, so stent patency could not be ascertained beyond 1 year, but freedom from TLR at 3 years was significantly better in the stent group (75.5% vs. 41.8%, p<0.0001), as was clinical success (63.2% vs. 17.9%, p<0.0001). At 18 months, a 4.1% (12/291) stent fracture rate was documented. Conclusion In this multicenter trial, primary implantation of a nitinol stent for moderate-length lesions in the femoropopliteal segment of patients with claudication was associated with better long-term results vs. balloon angioplasty alone.
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the novel Passeo-18 Lux paclitaxel-coated balloon compared with the Passeo-18 uncoated balloon in patients with symptomatic de novo or restenotic femoropopliteal lesions. Methods: Sixty patients (34 men; mean age 70.7±10.1 years) in 5 European centers were enrolled in the BIOLUX P-I trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01056120) and randomized 1:1 to either the paclitaxel-coated balloon or the uncoated balloon. The primary endpoint was late lumen loss at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were binary restenosis at 6 months, clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR), change in ankle-brachial index and Rutherford classification, and major adverse events at 6 and 12 months. Results: At 6 months, patients treated with paclitaxel-coated balloons had a significantly lower late lumen loss (0.51±0.72 vs. 1.04±1.00 mm, p=0.033) and binary restenosis (11.5% vs. 34.6%, p=0.048) than the control group. Correspondingly, clinically driven TLR was lower in the paclitaxel-coated balloon group at 12 months [15.4% vs. 41.7% (p=0.064) for the intention-to-treat population and 16.0% vs. 52.9%, (p=0.020) for the as-treated population]. No death and one minor amputation were observed compared with two deaths and two minor amputations in the control group. No major amputations or thrombosis were reported. Conclusion: The Passeo-18 Lux paclitaxel-coated balloon has been proven to be safe and effective in patients with femoropopliteal lesions, with superior performance outcomes compared with treatment with an uncoated balloon.
Purpose: To report the early and 12-month results of a global registry of patients treated with endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods: The EVAS FORWARD Global Registry was a postmarket, multicenter, open-label, single-arm registry that enrolled 277 patients (mean age 75 years; 228 men) treated with the Nellix EVAS system for nonruptured AAAs at 18 sites over a 1-year period. The cohort had challenging aortic anatomy, with 17% having a proximal aortic neck length 60°, and 20% an iliac diameter >25 mm. Baseline and follow-up computed tomography images were assessed by an independent core laboratory, and major adverse events were reviewed by an independent safety committee. Results: Three patients died within 30 days of the procedure (none device-related). There were 13 endoleaks recorded in this time frame: 8 type Ia, 1 type Ib, and 5 type II. Root cause analysis demonstrated that the majority of type Ia endoleaks were due to technical error (low device placement and underfilling of the endobags). Between 30 days and 1 year, there were 4 new type Ia endoleaks; all were treated. There was also 1 type III endoleak between a Nellix device and a distal extension limb. At 1 year, the persistent endoleak rate was 0.7% (1 type Ia and 1 type II). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from types I and II endoleak at 12-month follow-up were 96% and 98%, respectively. The estimate of freedom from open conversion (n=7) was 98% at 12 months and the rate of freedom from any reintervention was 92%. The need for secondary intervention was associated with aortic morphology; for patients meeting the requirements of the instructions for use (IFU), the freedom from reintervention at 12 months was 98% compared with 86% when the implant was outside the IFU (p=0.009). At 1 year, the estimates of freedom from aortic-related and all-cause mortality were 98% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: The EVAS FORWARD Global Registry documents the 12-month outcome of EVAS in an unselected group of patients with challenging aortic morphology. The results at present appear acceptable with regard to perioperative outcomes and complications. The type II endoleak rate is low. The place of EVAS in the armamentarium of techniques to treat AAAs will be defined by durability data in the longer term.
Purpose To report a prospective, single-arm, multicenter clinical study evaluating the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent for treating the above-the-knee femoropopliteal segment (NCT01094678; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Methods The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent is a self-expanding nitinol stent with a polymer-free paclitaxel coating. Patients with symptomatic (Rutherford category 2–6) de novo or restenotic lesions (including in-stent stenosis) of the above-the-knee femoropopliteal segment were eligible for enrollment. Between April 2006 and June 2008, 787 patients (578 men; mean age 66.6±9.5 years) were enrolled at 30 international sites. Results Nine hundred lesions (24.3% restenotic lesions of which 59.4% were in-stent stenoses) were treated with 1722 Zilver PTX stents; the mean lesion length was 99.5±82.1 mm. The 12-month Kaplan-Meier estimates included an 89.0% event-free survival rate, an 86.2% primary patency rate, and a 90.5% rate of freedom from target lesion revascularization. There were no paclitaxel-related adverse events reported. The 12-month stent fracture rate was 1.5%. The ankle-brachial index, Rutherford score, and walking distance/speed scores significantly improved (p<0.001) from baseline to 12 months. Conclusions These results indicate that the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent is safe for treatment of patients with de novo and restenotic lesions of the above-the-knee femoropopliteal segment. At 1 year, the overall anatomical and clinical effectiveness results suggest that this stent is a promising endovascular therapy.
Purpose: To review clinical outcomes of patients with chronic limb ischemia and TASC type C lesions treated with sirolimus-eluting versus bare SMART nitinol self-expanding stents. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded study conducted in 2 phases. All 93 patients had chronic limb ischemia and superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions or stenoses (average lesion length 8.3 cm). In total, 47 patients (31 men; mean age 66.3±9.1 years, range 50–84) received the sirolimus-eluting SMART stent and 46 patients (36 men; mean age 65.9 ± 10.8 years, range 38–83) received a bare SMART nitinol stent. Both groups were followed for a mean 24 months. Results: Both the sirolimus-eluting and the bare SMART stents were effective in revascularizing the diseased SFA and in sustaining freedom from restenosis. For both types of stents, improvements in ankle-brachial indices (ABI) and symptoms of claudication were maintained over 24 months (median 24-month ABI 0.96 for the sirolimus group versus 0.87 for the bare stent group, p>0.05). At 24 months, the restenosis rate in the sirolimus group was 22.9% versus 21.1% in the bare stent group (p>0.05). The cumulative in-stent restenosis rates according to duplex ultrasound were 4.7%, 9.0%, 15.6%, and 21.9%, respectively, at 6, 9, 18, and 24 months; the rates did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. The TLR rate for the sirolimus group was 6% and for the bare stent group 13%; the TVR rates were somewhat higher: 13% and 22%, respectively. Mortality rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that the sirolimus-eluting and the bare SMART stent are effective, safe, and free from restenosis in a majority of patients for up to 24 months. Because the restenosis rate in the bare stent group is unexpectedly low, no significant difference could be found between the sirolimus-eluting and the bare SMART stents.
Purpose: To report an alternative to the fenestrated stent-graft for preserving blood flow to side branches in the sealing zones of aortic stent-grafts. Technique: A covered stent is deployed parallel to the main aortic stent-graft, protruding somewhat proximally, like a chimney, to preserve flow to a vital side branch covered by the aortic stent-graft. Use of a chimney graft makes it possible to use standard off-the-shelf stent-grafts to instantly treat lesions with inadequate fixation zones, providing an alternative to fenestrated stent-grafts in urgent cases, in aneurysms with challenging neck morphology, and for reconstituting an aortic side branch unintentionally compromised during endovascular repair. This technique has been used successfully in 10 patients, combining chimney grafts in the renal, superior mesenteric, left subclavian, left common carotid, and innominate arteries with stent-grafts in the abdominal (n=6) or thoracic (n=4) aorta. There has been no late chimney graft—related endoleak on imaging studies up to 8 months. Conclusion: The use of chimney grafts is feasible in the renal and superior mesenteric arteries, as well as in the supra-aortic branches, to facilitate stent-graft repair of thoracic or abdominal aortic lesions with inadequate fixation zones.
Purpose To test the ability of a drug-eluting balloon (DEB) to reduce recurrent in-stent restenosis (ISR) in diabetic patients with femoropopliteal stents. Methods A prospective all-comers study [Drug-Eluting Balloon in Peripheral Intervention for In-Stent Restenosis (DEBATE-ISR); ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01558531] of symptomatic diabetic patients with femoropopliteal ISR undergoing treatment with paclitaxel-eluting balloons was designed to compare their 12-month recurrent restenosis rate with that of historical diabetic controls. From January 2010 to December 2011, 44 consecutive diabetic patients (32 men; mean age 74±11 years) were treated with DEBs and enrolled in the study. The control group comprised 42 diabetic patients (23 men; mean age 76±7 years) treated with a conventional balloon for femoropopliteal ISR from 2008 to 2009. Results No significant differences in terms of clinical, angiographic, or procedural characteristics were observed between the study groups. Lesion length was 132±86 mm in the DEB group vs. 137±82 mm in the BA group. Procedural success, defined as a residual stenosis <30% in the restenotic segment (stent +5 mm at proximal and distal edges), was obtained in all treated lesions. At 1-year follow-up, 6 patients died (3 in each group), and 1 patient in the BA group underwent major amputation. Recurrent restenosis, assessed by angiography (66%) or ultrasound (34%), occurred in 8/41 (19.5%) patients in the DEB group vs. 28/39 (71.8%) in the BA group (p<0.001). Target lesion revascularization for symptomatic recurrent restenosis was performed in 6/44 (13.6%) patients in the DEB vs.13/42 (31.0%) in the BA group (p=0.045). Conclusion Using DEB for treating femoropopliteal ISR led to a significant reduction in recurrent restenosis and repeat angioplasty at 1-year follow-up as compared to historical controls.
Purpose To compare the performance of drug-coated balloons (DCB) and drug-eluting stents (DES) in long femoropopliteal lesions. Methods A retrospective dual center study included 228 patients (139 men; median age 69 years) with femoropopliteal lesions ≥10 cm suffering from peripheral artery disease (Rutherford categories 1–5) treated either with DCB or DES. Propensity score stratification was used to minimize bias. The 131 DCB patients (77 men; mean age 68.9±10.5 years) had a mean lesion length of 194.4±86.3 mm (range 100–450), while the 97 DES patients (62 men; mean age 68.2±8.0 years) had lesions averaging 195.0±64.5 mm (range 100–350) in length. Restenotic lesions were treated in 68 (51.9%) DCB patients and 43 (44.3%) DES patients; over half the lesions in both groups were total occlusions [DCB: 69 (52.7%), DES: 61 (62.9%)]. Outcome measures were patency (peak systolic velocity ratio <2.4), clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR), event-free survival, and freedom from worsening of Rutherford classification by ≥2 categories. Results In the DCB cohort, provisional stent placement was performed in 24 (18.3%) lesions for refractory stenosis (5, 3.8%), flow-limiting dissection (13, 9.9%), and other reasons (6, 4.6%). There was no procedure-related mortality in either cohort. The binary restenosis rates were 23.9% (26/109) and 30.4% (24/79, p=0.319) in the DCB and DES cohorts, respectively, and clinically driven TLR rates were 15.6% (17/109) vs. 19.0% (15/79, p=0.543), respectively. Estimates for freedom from clinically driven TLR and event-free survival were not different between the study cohorts nor were outcomes regarding the ankle-brachial index and Rutherford category. Conclusion DCB and DES perform equally well in the endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal lesions ≥10 cm and better than traditional endovascular treatment. In a real world setting of TASC C and D lesions, the provisional stent rate in the DCB cohort is low.
Purpose To evaluate the performance of periscope and/or chimney grafts (CPGs) in the endovascular treatment of pararenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms using off-the-shelf devices. Methods Between February 2002 and August 2012, 77 consecutive patients (62 men; mean age 73±9 years) suffering from pararenal aortic (n=55), thoracoabdominal (n=16), or arch to visceral artery aneurysms (n=6) were treated with aortic stent-graft implantation requiring chimney and/or periscope grafts to maintain side branch perfusion. CPGs were planned in advance and were not used as bailout. A standardized follow-up protocol including computed tomographic angiography, laboratory testing, and clinical examination was performed at 6 weeks; 3, 6, and 12 months; and annually thereafter. Results Technical success was achieved in 76 (99%) patients; 1 branch stent-graft became dislocated from a renal artery, which could not be re-accessed. Overall, 169 target vessels (121 renal arteries, 30 superior mesenteric arteries, 17 celiac trunks, and 1 inferior mesenteric artery) were addressed with the chimney graft configuration in 111 and the periscope graft configuration in 58. In total, 228 devices were used for the CPGs: 213 Viabahn stent-grafts and 15 bare metal stents. Over a mean 25±16 months (range 1–121), 9 patients died of unrelated causes. Nearly all (95%) of the patients demonstrated a decreased or stable aneurysm size on imaging; there was a mean 13% shrinkage in aneurysm diameter. Twenty patients had primary type I/III endoleaks at discharge; in follow-up, only 3 of these were still present (no secondary or recurrent endoleaks were noted). Additional endovascular maneuvers were required for CPG-related complications in 13 patients from intervention throughout follow-up. Overall, 4 CPGs occluded (98% target vessel patency); no stent-graft migration was observed. Renal function remained stable in all patients. Conclusion In this series, the use of CPGs has proven to be a feasible, safe, and effective way to treat thoracoabdominal and pararenal aneurysms with maintenance of blood flow to the renovisceral arteries. Nearly all of the aneurysms showed no increase in diameter over a >2-year mean follow-up, which supports the midterm adequacy of the CPG technique as a method to effectively revascularize branch vessels with few endoleaks or branch occlusions.
Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and integrity of the PROTÉGÉ EverFlex stent in superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Methods: A prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study enrolled 151 subjects (111 men; mean age 67.8 years, range 42–93) undergoing percutaneous treatment of de novo, restenotic, or reoccluded SFA lesions between August 11, 2006, and June 26, 2007. Subjects were scheduled to receive a single stent and be evaluated through 12 months following the implant procedure. Occlusions were present in 40% of the patients. Mean lesion length was 96.4 mm (range 10–150). Results: A total of 161 stents (158 EverFlex) were implanted in the 151 patients: single stents in 93.4% (141/151) and a second stent in 6.6% (10/151). One-year follow-up information was available for 88.7% (134/151) of the study participants; of the remaining 17 subjects, 6 subjects withdrew from the study, 2 were lost to follow-up, and 9 died. Freedom from restenosis data were available for 99.3% (133/134) of the subjects who completed a 12-month follow-up visit. The mean Rutherford classification fell from 2.8±0.8 (range 1–5) at baseline to 0.6±1.1 (range 0–5) at 12 months. The mean ankle-brachial index rose from 0.6±0.2 (range 0–1.4) at baseline to 0.9±0.2 (range 0–1.2) at 12 months. The rates for freedom from >50% restenosis at 6 and 12 months were 91.3% (95% CI 84.9% to 95.2%) and 72.2% (95% CI 63.8% to 79.6%), respectively. The freedom from target lesion revascularization rate at 12 months was 79.1% (95% CI 71.2% to 85.6%). The 1-year stent fracture rate was 8.1% (95% CI 4.0% to 14.4%). Conclusion: The high freedom from >50% restenosis and low fracture rate at 12 months suggests that the PROTÉGÉ EverFlex stent offers a safe and acceptably efficacious means of treating SFA lesions in symptomatic subjects with PAD.
Purpose To report 6-month results of the DEBELLUM (Drug-Eluting Balloon Evaluation for Lower Limb MUltilevel TreatMent) randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a drug-eluting balloon (DEB) to reduce restenosis after treatment of multilevel lower limb occlusive disease vs. a conventional angioplasty balloon (AB). Methods Between September 2010 and March 2011, 50 consecutive patients (37 men; mean age 66 ± 4 years) with 122 lesions (96 stenoses and 26 occlusions) of the femoropopliteal (92, 75.4%) or below-the-knee (BTK) arteries (30, 24.6%) were enrolled and randomly assigned to the DEB (25 patients with 57 lesions) or AB (25 patients with 65 lesions) group. Twenty patients presented multilevel lesions. Mean lesion length was 7.5 ± 3.5 cm. Thirty-one (62%) of the patients were Fontaine stage IIb, while 19 (38%) were stage III or IV. DEBs or ABs were used for dilation of de novo lesions or for postdilation after primary stenting (superficial femoral artery only). Patients requiring provisional stenting after angioplasty secondary to flow-limiting dissection or residual stenosis >50% were ineligible. Primary endpoint was late lumen loss at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were target lesion revascularization (TLR), amputation, and thrombosis. Results Late lumen loss was lower in the DEB group (0.5 ± 1.4 vs. 1.6 ± 1.7 mm, p<0.01). TLR was necessary in 6.1% of the DEB group vs. 23.6% of the AB group (p=0.02). Comparing the DEB to AB groups, the thrombosis rates were 3.0% vs. 5.2% (p=0.6), and the amputation rates were 3.0% vs. 7.9% (p=0.36). The binary restenosis rates were 9.1% (3/33 limbs) in the DEB group vs. 28.9% (11/38 limbs) in the control group (p=0.03). The anklebrachial index improved to a greater degree in the DEB group: 0.87 ± 0.22 vs. 0.70 ± 0.13 (p<0.05). The Fontaine stage improved in both groups but more so in patients treated with DEBs (p=0.04). Conclusion The DEBELLUM trial confirmed the ability of paclitaxel-eluting balloons to reduce restenosis vs. conventional balloons at 6 months after treatment of multilevel (femoropopliteal and BTK) arterial disease in patients affected by claudication and CLI. A lower TLR rate and better clinical outcomes appear to be associated with the use of DEBs regardless of stent placement.
Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of laser debulking (LD) and drug-eluting balloon (DEB) angioplasty to treatment with DEB angioplasty alone in patients affected by critical limb ischemia (CLI) and superficial femoral artery (SFA) chronic stent occlusion in a prospective, randomized study. Methods: Among 448 CLI patients treated from December 2009 to March 2011, 48 patients (39 men; mean age 72.7±7.8 years) with chronic SFA in-stent occlusion were randomly assigned to treatment using LD+DEB (n=24) or DEB angioplasty alone (n=24). Patency at 12 months was the primary outcome measure; secondary outcomes were target lesion revascularization (TLR) and clinical success at 12 months. Results: In the LD+DEB group, the patency rates at 6 and 12 months (91.7% and 66.7%, respectively) were significantly higher (p=0.01) than in the DEB only patients (58.3% and 37.5%, respectively). TLR at 12 months was 16.7% in the LD+DEB group and 50% in the DEB only group (p=0.01). Two (8%) patients needed major amputations in the LD+DEB group vs. 11 (46%) in the DEB only group at 12 months (p=0.003). Conclusion: In this small initial experience, combined treatment with LD and DEB angioplasty is correlated with better outcomes in CLI patients with occluded SFA stents.
Purpose To examine the efficacy and integrity of a novel interwoven self-expanding nitinol stent system for the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions in a “real world” medical practice. Methods This retrospective analysis included 107 consecutive patients (77 men; mean age 68.9 years) with atherosclerotic femoropopliteal lesions (occlusions in 31%) who underwent implantation of 137 SUPERA stents. The patients were followed for up to 24 months by Doppler ultrasound examinations, radiography of the stent, and assessments of Rutherford-Becker class and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Results The mean implanted stent length was 111±50 mm (range 40–270). Procedure success (residual stenosis <30%) was achieved in 99% of procedures. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month cumulative primary patency rates (± standard error) were 93.1%±2.5%, 84.7%±3.6%, and 76.1%±4.5%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 99.0%±0.1%, 94.8%±0.2% and 91.9%±0.3%, respectively. Between baseline and 24 months, mean ABI increased from 0.68±0.14 to 0.87±0.10 and the mean Rutherford-Becker class decreased from 3.3±0.7 to 2.0±1.0 (p=0.0001 for both). Radiographs performed in 91 patients at a mean of 16.8±7.0 months found no stent fractures. Conclusion Over a 2-year surveillance period, excellent durability without stent fractures was documented after implantation of the SUPERA stent in complex femoropopliteal lesions. In addition, significant improvements were observed in symptom classification and hemodynamics.
Purpose To test the hypothesis that simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent vascular territories supplying the spinal cord and/or prolonged hypotension may be associated with symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Methods A pattern matching algorithm was used to develop a risk model for symptomatic SCI using a prospective 63-patient single-center cohort to test the positive predictive value (PPV) of prolonged intraoperative hypotension and/or simultaneous closure of at least 2 of 4 the vascular territories supplying the spinal cord (left subclavian, intercostal, lumbar, and hypogastric arteries). This risk model was then applied to data extracted from the multicenter European Registry on Endovascular Aortic Repair Complications (EuREC). Between 2002 and 2010, the 19 centers participating in EuREC reported 38 (1.7%) cases of symptomatic spinal cord ischemia among the 2235 patients in the database. Results In the single-center cohort, direct correlations were seen between the occurrence of symptomatic SCI and both prolonged intraoperative hypotension (PPV 1.00, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.00, p=0.04) and simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent spinal cord vascular territories (PPV 0.67, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.91, p=0.005). Previous closure of a single vascular territory was not associated with an increased risk of symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (PPV 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16, p=0.56). The combination of prolonged hypotension and simultaneous closure of at least 2 territories exhibited the strongest association (PPV 0.75, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.75, p<0.0001). Applying the model to the entire EuREC cohort found an almost perfect agreement between the predicted and observed risk factors (kappa 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Conclusion Extensive coverage of intercostal arteries alone by a thoracic stent-graft is not associated with symptomatic SCI; however, simultaneous closure of at least 2 vascular territories supplying the spinal cord is highly relevant, especially in combination with prolonged intraoperative hypotension. As such, these results further emphasize the need to preserve the left subclavian artery during TEVAR.
Purpose: To report the 12-month results of the MAJESTIC clinical study of the self-expanding Eluvia paclitaxel-eluting stent in the treatment of femoropopliteal lesions. Methods: The prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01820637) enrolled 57 patients (mean age 69±9 years; 47 men) with chronic lower limb ischemia referable to de novo or restenotic lesions in the native superficial femoral and/or proximal popliteal arteries. A third of the patients had diabetes. Mean lesion length was 70.8±28.1 mm, and diameter stenosis was 86.3%±16.2%; 26 (46%) lesions were occluded. Primary patency was defined as duplex ultrasound peak systolic velocity ratio ≤2.5 and the absence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) or bypass. Major adverse events (MAEs) included all-cause death through 1 month and target limb major amputation and TLR through 12 months. Results: All 57 patients had a single Eluvia stent implanted, employing pre- and postdilation in 93% (53/57) and 95% (54/57) of cases, respectively. Technical success was 97% (55/57; 2 failures due to residual stenosis >30%). At 12 months, primary patency was 96% (49/51) and the MAE rate was 4% (2/53); both MAEs were TLRs. No stent fractures were identified. There were no major amputations. One death occurred 368 days postprocedure, unrelated to the device or procedure. Improvements in the Rutherford category were sustained through 1 year, with 81% (43/53) exhibiting no symptoms (category 0) and 13% (7/53) presenting with mild claudication (category 1). Mean ABI improved from 0.73±0.22 at baseline to 1.02±0.20 at 12 months. Conclusion: MAJESTIC results showed that patients whose femoropopliteal arteries were treated with the Eluvia drug-eluting stent sustained high patency and low MAE rates through 12 months.
Purpose: To report the 3-year safety and effectiveness outcomes from the prospective all-comers DEBATE-ISR study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01558531) of symptomatic diabetic patients with femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (ISR) undergoing treatment with paclitaxel-eluting balloons compared with historical diabetic controls. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2011, 44 consecutive diabetic patients (mean age 74±11 years; 32 men) were treated with drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) and enrolled in the study. The control group comprised 42 consecutive diabetic patients (age 76±7 years; 23 men) treated with conventional balloon angioplasty (BA) from 2008 to 2009. Results: No significant differences in terms of clinical, angiographic, or procedural characteristics were observed between the study groups. Critical limb ischemia was present in the majority of patients. Tosaka class III ISR was observed in more than half of the patients. Mean lesion length was 132±86 and 137±82 mm in the DEB and BA groups, respectively (p=0.7). At 3-year follow-up, the rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 40% in the DEB group vs 43% in the BA group (p=0.8); Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant differences in terms of freedom from TLR. The presence of a Tosaka class III occlusion was associated with a worse outcome in both study groups (odds ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval 1.55 to 10.1, p=0.004). Conclusion: Using DEBs for femoropopliteal ISR yielded similar results to BA in terms of TLR at 3-year follow-up. The treatment of more complex ISR lesions was associated with an increased rate of TLR, irrespective of the technology used.
Purpose: To evaluate the short- and midterm outcomes of the Viabahn endoprosthesis with Propaten Bioactive Surface vs. standard balloon angioplasty for treatment of in-stent restenosis in the superficial femoral artery. Methods: Between June 2010 and February 2012, 83 patients with superficial femoral artery in-stent and Rutherford category 2 to 5 ischemia were enrolled at 7 sites participating in this prospective randomized controlled study (RELINE; ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier NCT01108861). The patients were randomized to treatment with either the heparin-bonded Viabahn endoprosthesis (n=39: 29 men; mean age 67.7±9.8 years) or a standard angioplasty balloon (n=44: 32 men; mean age 69.0±9.7 years). The primary effectiveness outcome was primary patency at 12 months, defined as no restenosis/occlusion within the target lesion based on duplex ultrasound and no target lesion revascularization. The primary safety endpoint was the incidence of serious device-related adverse events within 30 days of the procedure. Results: All patients randomized to receive dilation or the Viabahn stent-graft were treated according to their assignment. The technical success was 100% for the Viabahn group and 81.8% for the angioplasty group (p=0.002) owing to 9 patients requiring a bailout procedure after unsuccessful angioplasty. The 12-month primary patency rates were 74.8% for the Viabahn group and 28.0% for the angioplasty group (p<0.001). Excluding the 9 angioplasty patients who received bailout stenting, the primary patency for optimal balloon angioplasty was 37.0% (p<0.001). Three patients experienced device-related adverse events within 30 days: occlusion of the target lesion (Viabahn group), peripheral embolization (angioplasty group), and reocclusion of the target lesion (angioplasty group). Conclusion: In this study, the treatment of femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis with a Viabahn endoprosthesis showed significantly better results than treatment with a standard balloon at 1 year.
Purpose: To describe rapid prototyping or 3-dimensional (3D) printing of aneurysms with complex neck anatomy to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Case Report: A 75-year-old man had a 6.6-cm infrarenal aortic aneurysm that appeared on computed tomographic angiography to have a sharp neck angulation of ∼90°. However, although the computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed using centerline of flow, the true neck length and relations of the ostial origins were difficult to determine. No multidisciplinary consensus could be reached as to which stent-graft to use owing to these borderline features of the neck anatomy. Based on past experience with rapid prototyping technology, a decision was taken to print a model of the aneurysm to aid in visualization of the neck anatomy. The CT data were segmented, processed, and converted into a stereolithographic format representing the lumen as a 3D volume, from which a full-sized replica was printed within 24 hours. The model demonstrated that the neck was adequate for stent-graft repair using the Aorfix device. Conclusion: Rapid prototyping of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can aid decision making and device delivery. Further work is required to test the value of 3D replicas in planning procedures and their impact on procedure time, radiation dose, and procedure cost.
Purpose To evaluate the role of orbital atherectomy in calcified infrapopliteal arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia compared to balloon angioplasty (BA) alone. Methods A randomized multicenter study was undertaken to evaluate short and 1-year outcomes in 50 patients (32 men; mean age 71 years, range 40–90) with confirmed calcified lesions using 1:1 randomization to the Diamondback 360° Orbital Atherectomy System followed by BA vs. BA alone. All patients had severe (≥50% stenosis) peripheral artery disease (Rutherford classification 4–6) in the popliteal, tibial, and/or peroneal arteries. The primary endpoint was defined as restoration of a normal lumen (residual stenosis ≤30%) with no bailout stenting or dissection types C through F. Scheduled follow-up visits were conducted according to a common protocol at 1, 6, and 12 months. Results Procedural success was 93.1% (27/29 lesions) for atherectomy + BA patients and 82.4% (28/34 lesions) for BA alone (p = 0.27). Bailout stenting was needed in 2 (6.9%) of the 29 atherectomy + BA lesions and in 5 (14.3%) of the 35 BA-treated lesions (p = 0.44). At 1 year, there were no amputations in either group related to the index procedure. Estimates for freedom from target vessel revascularization and all-cause mortality were 93.3% and 100% in the atherectomy + BA group vs. 80.0% (p = 0.14) and 68.4% (p = 0.01) in the BA group, respectively. Proportional hazard models evaluating survival time vs. status of residual stenosis determined a hazard ratio for major adverse events of 5.6 for patients with an acute post-procedure residual stenosis >30% (p = 0.01). Conclusion Debulking with orbital atherectomy appeared to increase the chance of reaching a desirable angioplasty result, with less acute need for bailout stenting and a higher procedure success. A negative association between procedure success and risk of serious adverse outcomes should encourage larger confirmatory studies.
Purpose: To show the feasibility of the Nellix device in conjunction with a chimney technique for treating juxtarenal aneurysms in two patients who were deemed unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair or open surgery. Case Reports: Two men aged 83 and 81 years were referred with a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (66 and 69 mm, respectively). Both were considered for open surgery as well as custom-made fenestrated stent-graft but deemed unsuitable for both options. They were both treated using the Nellix endoprosthesis in combination with chimney grafts to preserve the renal arteries. Technical success was achieved in both cases, with successful aneurysm exclusion and target vessel preservation (the right renal artery in the first case and both renal arteries in the second). At 6 months, duplex ultrasound and computed tomographic angiography of the first patient showed no signs of endoleak and patent renal arteries. The second patient developed a right retroperitoneal hematoma with minor extravasation near the lower pole of the right kidney for which coil embolization was necessary. The subsequent clinical sequelae led to respiratory insufficiency and ultimately death. Conclusion: The use of the Nellix endoprosthesis combined with chimney grafts is technically feasible. The addition of chimney grafts can increase the applicability of endovascular aneurysm sealing to treat short-neck and juxtarenal aneurysms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish longer term outcome.