This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. In total, 765 Japanese quails were randomly assigned to a 3x3 factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 17 quails each. Three basal diets were formulated to contain three crude protein levels (16.5, 18.0, and 19.5%). Each protein level was supplemented with 0, 0.06, and 0.12% betaine. The diet with 16.5% dietary crude protein with no betaine supplementation resulted in the lowest crude fiber digestibility, while the 18.0% CP diet supplemented with 0.12% betaine generated the highest crude fiber digestibility (p<0.05). The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein increased crude fiber digestibility, but reduced ether extract digestibility (p<0.01). Moreover, betaine supplementation increased dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and crude ash (p<0.01) digestibility and tended to increase ether extract digestibility (p=0.09). The increase in egg weight for the 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets was correlated with a decrease in feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). However, feed intake and egg production were not affected by protein levels. Betaine supplementation enhanced all performance variables (p<0.01). The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein resulted in heavier yolks and eggshells than the 16.5% crude protein diet (p<0.05), whereas betaine supplementation increased yolk, albumen, and eggshell weight (p<0.01). The 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets produced similar responses in most evaluated parameters. Laying Japanese quails can be fed diets with 18.0% crude protein. Moreover, betaine supplementation provided several benefits, and particularly improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and egg quality.
Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a small protein located in the collecting tubules of kidneys; it plays an important role in the concentration and production of urine. The aim of this study was to determine the expression level of the AQP2 gene in the kidney of broiler chickens after the administration of renal-dose dopamine. Broiler chickens (25 days-old) were randomly divided into two groups (n= 20 per group): intravenous administration of saline solution (control group) or renaldose dopamine (dopamine group). The expression and localization of the AQP2 gene were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. The protein level of AQP2 was analyzed by western blot analysis. The dopamine group presented no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the biochemical criterion or mRNA expression of AQP2 compared with the control group. However, AQP2 protein level was significantly reduced (p< 0.05) in the membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells. In contrast, protein level was significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the cytoplasm of the dopamine group compared with the control group. Moreover, AQP2 protein was apparently more distributed and localized in the cytoplasmic vacuoles than in the membranes of the kidney in the renaldose dopamine administered chickens group. In conclusion, present findings suggest that renal-dose dopamine mediates the level of AQP2 protein via shuttle from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm rather than changing the expression of AQP2 gene to adjust the secretion and absorption of water in kidney.
This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.
A total of 400 one-day-old, straight-run, commercial (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effects of two dietary levels of zinc (Zn) sources on broiler chick performance, carcass traits and blood parameters. Corn-soybean diets were formulated for three rearing phases (starter, grower and finisher). The two dietary treatments applied consisted of the addition per kg of diet of 80mg of inorganic Zn (ZnO) (T1), or 80mg of ZnO plus 42mg of an organic Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn120; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), totaling 122mg of the combined organic and inorganic Zn sources (T2). Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design in the two treatments with eight replicates (pens) of 25 birds each. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. On day 42, blood samples were taken from four birds closest to the group average weight per replicate (32 per treatment) and then slaughtered for carcass evaluation. The results of this study did not find any significant effect of either of the evaluated Zn sources on broiler growth performance. Mortality rate was significantly lower (p<0.05) by the higher Zn concentration and the Zn sources group (T2). Carcass yields were not significantly influenced by the treatments. Breast quality showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in shear force (T2), indicating juicier meat. Higher concentrations (p<0.05) of Zn, Phosphorus (P), and total protein in blood were noted in (T2). Birds fed a mixture of organic and inorganic Zn source (T2) presented overall better results.
Chickens tolerate a very narrow range of climatic variation, and therefore, it is essential to determine the most suitable climatic area and weather for broiler production in open-house systems. In this study, 3060 broilers were used as experimental birds to investigate the effects of seasonal differences and climatic variations on the growth performance of broilers reared in an open-house system. Birds were kept under various treatment models that differ in climate Tropic zone, sub tropic zone and temperate zones. Data were recorded during July-August as summer months and January-February as winter months. Collected data was analyzed using the least square procedure given by Harvey-1990. Significantly higher (p<0.05) level of corticosteroids and H/L ratio of between the experimental birds was observed and consequent effect on feed intake was determined. The body weight and FCR at 42 day was significantly (p <= 0.05) higher during winter season in subtropical zone. Subtropical climatic zone was found significantly better than other climatic zone. Efficient management of broiler farming that corresponds for effective feed intake during heat/cold stress to maximize bird's efficiency can significantly increase production efficiency and acquiesce highest profit to broiler farming.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the probiotic effects of different concentrations of four selected native Lactobacillus strains on the growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails. A completely randomized design (CRD) was applied, including seven probiotic treatments with four replicates of 20 quails each, totaling 560 quails. Treatments were applied for five weeks. Four native Lactobacillus strains were anaerobically grown in a 10-L batch fermenter and lyophilized (10(10) CFU/g). Treatments were as follows: T1: control (basal diet); T2: commercial probiotic CP1; T3: commercial probiotic CP2; and T4, T5, T6, and T7: four native strains added at levels of 50, 100, 150, and 200 g/ton diet, respectively. The native probiotics significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the starter, finisher, and overall periods (35 days) (p 0.05) on blood cholesterol, calcium, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or hemoglobin (HB) levels or on red blood cell counts (RBC). The cecal and small intestine samples of the quails fed the native Lactobacillus strains contained significantly higher Lactobacillus spp. and lower E. coli populations compared with the control diet and those supplemented with commercial probiotics. It was concluded that the use of the native Lactobacillus strains (150 g/ton diet) promoted the best performance of Japanese quails.
This study evaluated the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on pH and volatile fatty acid levels in duck litter over the course of a three-week experimental period. Ninety one-day-old Pekin ducks (45 males and 45 females) were distributed into three treatments with three replicates each (10 ducks per replicate) using a completely randomized design. Two treatments were top-dressing duck litter with thin layers (1-2 cm) of 50 g or 100 g of AlCl3 per kg of litter, respectively; the control group received no litter treatment. Although no significant differences in propionic acid levels (p>0.05) were observed in any of the treatments, overall pH values for the 50 g and 100 g AlCl3 treatments were both lower (p<0.05) than those of the control group. Additionally, the two AlCl3 treatments revealed a corresponding influence (p<0.05) on acetic acid levels during the last two weeks of the experimental period. These results indicate that aluminum chloride amendments (at a suggested rate of 100 g per kg of duck litter) are potentially useful in lowering the pH of duck litter, thereby decreasing acetic acid production as an indicator of odor emissions.
A complete linkage disequilibrium between the SNP (SNP B) in BCDO2 gene and the yellow skin phenotype in European domestic chicken has been reported. Here, we genotyped the reported SNPs (SNP A, SNP B, and SNP C) of the BCDO2 gene in 183 Chinese Indigenous chickens from 11 breeds/populations, including 57 yellow, 17 white, and 109 black skin chickens. The frequency of all three SNPs were significantly different between yellow and white skin chickens (p< 0.01). In black skin chickens, a high frequency of the heterozygous genotype (AG) in SNP A (0.51) and SNP B (0.48) was observed. A total of three haplotypes (AAA, AGA, and GAA) from these three SNPs were obtained. Frequencies of the proposed yellow skin-associated haplotype AGA in yellow skin, white skin, and black skin chickens were 0.81, 0.35, and 0.56, respectively. The results showed that the yellow skin phenotype of the evaluated birds has not been under selection, and that the BCDO2 gene in black skin chickens, evolutionally may undergo a transition phase from yellow to white skin chicken. We concluded that, the SNPs of BCDO2 gene not only can be used to determine whether the chicken was subjected to selection, but may also be used as a marker when selecting for the preferred skin color in chicken breeding programs.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of vitamin E (VE) by grape seed extract (GSE) on glutathione peroxidase activity (GPxA), nitric oxide (NO) concentration and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration] in the plasma, lungs, heart and liver, and live performance of broilers raised at 2278 m of altitude. One-d-old Ross 308 male chickens (n = 420) were randomly distributed into three treatments: Control-AL (basal diet containing 40 IU of VE and fed ad libitum; AL), Control-FR (basal diet and feed restriction; FR) and GSE-AL [basal diet containing 10 mg of GSE (equivalent to 30 IU VE) plus 10 IU of VE and fed AL]. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Glutathione peroxidase activity, and NO and MDA concentrations in the plasma were evaluated on d 46. On d 47, MDA was evaluated in the lungs, heart and liver. Live performance parameters were recorded weekly. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in live performance and NO concentration among treatments. Birds from the GSE-AL treatment presented the lowest (p<0.05) GPxA, the highest (p<0.05) MDA concentration in the plasma, heart and liver, and intermediate MDA concentration in the lungs. Our results suggest that GSE may partially replace VE in broiler diets without impairment of live performance. However, further research is required to determine the optimal level of dietary GSE inclusion to reduce lipid peroxidation in the plasma, lungs, heart, and liver of broilers raised at 2278 m of altitude.
In order to investigate the effect of organic trace minerals premix (OTM) on the reproductive performance of breeder roosters, a total of 240 San Huang roosters (23 weeks of age) were randomly divided into two treatments with six replicates of 20 roosters each. The first group (n = 120) was fed a basal diet containing an inorganic trace minerals premix (ITM) and the other group (n = 120) was fed the basal diet in which ITM was replaced by OTM. The experiment period was 22 weeks. Semen from one randomly-selected rooster per replicate was collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment and other 10 times every two weeks. Another rooster per replicate was randomly selected at 30, 35, and 45 weeks of age, and sacrificed. Results showed that OTM did not affect relative organ weights. There was a significant increase in semen parameters in OTM group (p<0.05), such as semen volume, semen density, and semen motility from 31 to 35 weeks. OTM-fed roosters presented higher serum testosterone levels at 45 weeks of age, as well as higher testicular mRNA expression of the genes 3-beta dehydrogenase 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) in the OTM-fed group at 45 weeks of age compared with those fed ITM (p<0.05). Considering the results of the present study, it was concluded that feeding organic instead of inorganic trace minerals to male broilers breeders improves semen quality, which may be attributed to their better testicular development and higher expression of enzymes related to testosterone synthesis.
The objective of this study was to identify genome regions determining duck meat performance traits with possible small variation. In total, 368 crossbred ducks of F2 generation obtained from two parental lines: Pekin-type ducks of Polish origin (A55) and Pekin-type ducks of French origin (GL-30) were recorded. The following seven traits were analyzed: body weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight, water holding capacity in the breast and leg muscles, and color lightness L* of the breast and leg muscles. All birds (including parental and F1 generations) were genotyped (29 microsatellite markers). Means and coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated for 28 full-sibs (four sires by six dams and one sire by four dams). Number of progeny per fullsib group ranged from 7 to 17. The multivariate cluster analysis using grouping by k-means algorithm was used on transformed data. The multivariate cluster analysis gave two clusters: first group with 10 full-sibs and second one with 18 families. Differences among half-sibs in the CV of the recorded traits were determined. It should be noted that one out of five sire groups showed statistically significant differences from the other ones. Moreover, the CVs in this group were smaller. The analysis of microsatellite markers indicated three alleles from three loci were present only in the "superior" sire group. The obtained results indicate a promising opportunity of effective selection for improving carcass technological quality using molecular markers.
A total of 810 one-day-old, straight-run broilers were used to evaluate the effects of dietary nutrient density and feed additives included in the starter diet on their performance, intestinal microbiota, gut morphology, and immune response. A 3x3 factorial arrangement with three nutrient densities (100, 103.75 and 107.5%, as recommended) and three feed additives (no additives, 0.5 g/kg diet Maxi-Gen, and Maxi-Gen + Superzyme + Bio-Phytase at the rate of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 g/kg diet, respectively), fed from 1 to 10 d of age. Similar commercial corn-soy grower and finisher diets fed to all birds from 10-24 and 2442 d of age, respectively. There was higher (p<0.05) body weight gain and lower (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio in chicks fed starter diet with 107.5% nutrient density and Maxi-Gen with or without exogenous enzymes compared with those fed control diet at 10 and 42 d of age. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts in the cecal content were increased linearly as dietary nutrient density increased in 10-d-old birds (p<0.05). Higher duodenal and jejunal villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (p<0.05) were measured in the birds fed the starter diets with 103.75% and 107.5% nutrient density at 5 and 10 d of age. Total anti-SRBC and IgM titers were significantly higher in the broilers fed the 107.5% nutrient density diet containing feed additives at 35 day of age. It is concluded that higher nutrient density and the inclusion of feed additives in the starter diet may improve the growth performance, gut morphology, and immune response of broiler chickens.
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) has caused foodborne infections over decades. It is transmitted mainly from contaminated eggs to humans. SE is commonly present in layer houses, and closely interacts with environmental factors. The objective of the present study was to develop a viable PCR method to identify SE in environmental samples collected in layer farms of different sizes, and to evaluate SE contamination status in four main egg-production provinces of northern China. After specificity retrieval using PrimerBLAST against the NCBI database, three SE specific oligonucleotide primers were selected as candidate primers. The primers targeting Prot6e gene were adopted and primers targeting Sdf I were also selected to validate the results, after testing eight different types of pooled poultry environmental samples (overshoe, air, drinking nipple, feed, egg collection belt, eggshell, air inlet, and air outlet) by PCR. A PCR detection limit of 1 CFU/mL was determined using cell lysates from pure cultures. Testing time was less than 48 h. On-farm samples were collected from two layer farm sizes (one housing more than 50,000 layers, and the other, less than 50,000 layers) in each province. The applied PCR method was shown to be simple, inexpensive and effective for screening SE in a large amount of farm samples. The study identified only one SE-positive farm, which a large farm and where nine samples were found to be contaminated with SE: drinking nipples (3), egg collection belt (1), air inlet (1), air (1), overshoe (1) and eggshell (2).
ABSTRACT Avian pathogenic Escherichiacoli (APEC) virulence mechanism has been continuously studied and it is believed to be multifactorial and because of this, this work aimed to characterize potentially APEC strains isolated from free-range hens. Isolates were submitted to PCR for the detection of virulence genes, which were of high prevalence. In vivo inoculation of day-old chicks revealed that 49 of these strains were of high and intermediate pathogenicity. In addition, isolates were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test with the majority of the strains presenting multiresistance. Phylogenetic analysis showed a greater presence of potentially APEC isolates in-group B2. In addition, high heterogeneity was detected among the isolates byXbaI enzyme. Fifteen serogroups were identified, being the O8 the most frequent. These results strengthen the fact that a combination of diverse factors are associated with the pathogenicity APEC strains, as well as to highlight its importance to public health and that free-range hens can act as a reservoirs of potentially zoonoticbacteria.
ABSTRACT The effect of fine wheat bran (FWB) as a methyl donor source on performance, metabolism, body composition and blood traits of growing broilers was studied. Three hundred and twenty broilers from eight to 28 d of age, distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and eight replicates of eight animals each were used. The experimental diets were: NC, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement; Met, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by DL-methionine addition; Bet, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by anhydrous betaine addition; Fwb-, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB; and Fwb+, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB. Feed intake was reduced (p0.05) between the positive control diets. Supplementation of DL-methionine and anhydrous betaine showed the same (p>0.05) metabolizability of nutrients. Treatments with higher DL-methionine levels (Met and Fwb+) promoted more weight of feathers (p<0.05). Animals fed with FWB showed the lowest (p<0.05) body gains. In conclusion, FWB inclusion did not promote methyl radicals supply.
ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of Mexican oregano essential oil (MOO; Lippiaberlandieri Schauer) on broiler performance, carcass variables, meat quality, and sensory evaluation. One-day-old mixed-sex broilers were distributed in the following treatment groups, according to MOO supplementation levels: 0 = control diet; 200 = diet + 2200 mg of MOO/kg; 400 = diet + 4200 mg of MOO/kg; 600 = diet + 6200 mg of MOO/kg; 800 = diet + 8200 mg of MOO/kg; 1000 = diet + 1000 mg of MOO/kg. MOO affected (p0.05) the sensory parameters evaluated. Mexican oregano oil presents positive qualities as a plant-derived performance enhancer in broiler diets and improves of the meat quality of broilers at the levels of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of diet.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized oil and natural polyphenol antioxidants on laying performances and egg quality of laying hens. A total of two hundred, 61-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into five groups, consisting in four replicates of 10 birds each. They were fed one of the five experimental diets (fresh oil only, oxidized oil without antioxidants, oxidized oil with vitamin E 200 ppm, oxidized oil with vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppm, oxidized oil with Cabanin CSDⓇ 500 ppm)respectively, for 6 weeks. There were no significant differences in laying performances and egg weight among the treatments. However, egg mass in group fed oxidized oil with vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppmwas significantly higher than group fed oxidized oil only (p<0.05). Eggshell thickness and eggshell strength was not affected by feeding of oxidized oil and antioxidants. Haugh unit checked after storage of 14 d from the end date of the trial showed significant difference (p<0.05). Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity was significantly higher in antioxidant treated groups. The level of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) was significantly lower in groups fed vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppm or Cabanin CSDⓇ 500 ppm compared to groups fed oxidized oil without antioxidant. The number of total microbes, lactobacilli, and Enterocossus faecium showed significant difference favored to antioxidants groups. This study indicates that addition of oxidized oil to layer diet may have harmful effect on oxidative status and egg quality, but concurrent addition of vitamin E and natural polyphenol can alleviate the toxic effect of oxidized oil.
ABSTRACT Central glutamate, melanocortin and corticotropin systems have mediatory role on several physiologic functions in the brain, but their interactions on appetite regulation are not fully elicited. So, the aim of the current study was to determine interaction of the glutamate with melanocortin and corticotropin systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3) neonatal meat-type chicken. In experiment 1, chicken intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected (A) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (B) glutamate (75 nmol), (C) glutamate (150 nmol) and (D) glutamate (300 nmol). In experiment 2, (A) PBS, (B) astressin-B (CRF1/CRF2 receptors antagonist, 30 µg), (C) glutamate (300 nmol) and (D) astressin-B+glutamate were ICV injected. Experiments 3-5 were similar to experiment 2, except birds were injected with astressin2-B (CRF2 receptor antagonist, 30 µg), SHU9119 (MC3/MC4 receptor antagonist, 0.5 nmol) and MCL0020 (MC4 receptor antagonist, 0.5 nmol) instead of the astressin-B. In experiment 6, the injections were (A) PBS, (B) MTII (MC3/MC4 receptor agonist, 2.5ng), (C) glutamate (75nmol) and (D) MTII+glutamate. Then, cumulative feed intake was recorded at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after injection. According to the results, dose dependent hypophagia observed by ICV injection of the glutamate (75, 150 and 300nmol) compared to control group in neonatal broiler chicken (p<0.05). Co-injection of the astressin-B+glutamate and astressin2-B+glutamate decreased glutamate-induced hypophagia in neonatal broiler chicken (p<0.05). Co-injection of the glutamate+MC3/MC4 receptors antagonist decreased hypophagic effect of the glutamate (p<0.05). These results suggested hypophagic effect of the glutamate mediates via CRF1/CRF2 and MC3/MC4 receptors in chickens.
ABSTRACT The incidence of foodborne diseases caused by the genus Salmonella spp. in industrialized countries is often high in epidemiological surveys. Obtaining a rapid diagnostic test for identification of bacteria is crucial in order to rapidly implement control measures to contain bacterial spread, to reduce losses in animal production and to avoid risks from food-borne infections to human health. The aim of this study was to standardize duplex real-time PCR using SYBr Green I for differential and quantitative diagnosis of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. According to the experiment, the melting temperature of 85°C was observed for a 206bp amplified product when S. Enteritidis DNA was added to the reaction. S. Typhimurium DNA showed that the melting temperature of 79°C when observed for a 62bp amplified product. The standard curve showed the high sensitivity of the proposed test, since it was possible to obtain eight quantification points, starting at 108 CFU/mL and ending at 101 CFU/mL. As a result of the present study, a real-time PCR duplex reaction with high sensitivity, specificity and based on the fluorescence of SYBr Green I was standardized. In addition, this methodology aligns low cost to the faster diagnostic result, in relation to other molecular tests, making it attractive for application in routine laboratory analyzes.
ABSTRACT The present work was carried out to study the effect of in-ovo injection of ochratoxin A (OTA) as an oxidative stress and its consequences on hepatic and kidney functions, thyroid activity, and histological examination of brain and liver in chicken embryos and subsequently in the hatching chicks. On the 10th day of incubation, one hundred and sixty-two fertile eggs were randomly divided into two equal treatments. Control treatment, (injected by 50 µl sodium carbonate) and OTA treatment (injected by 12.5 ng OTA dissolved in 50 µl sodium carbonate). OTA treatement group significantly reduced glutathione (GSH) and significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production (TBARS) in embryonic and hatched chicks regarding livers, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, heart, and brain as an indicator of oxidative stress. OTA injection increased TBARS and decreased GSH levels in both allantoic and amniotic fluids. On the 14th and 16th days of incubation and at the hatch, a significant lower concentration in cholesterol and higher concentrations of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, acid phosphatase enzymes activities and triglycerides in the hepatic tissues of the OTA group were observed. Histological examination of OTA group of brain and liver tissues showed some degenerative changes through the experimental period. In conclusion, in-ovo OTA treated had teratogenic and embryotoxic effects.