We have reported previously that 9-methoxycamptothecin (MCPT) showed significant antitumor activity in vitro. Here, agarose gel electrophoresis experiments were performed to evaluate MCPT's unwinding ability toward plasmid DNA and inhibitory activities against topoisomerases (Topo) I and II. Binding properties of MCPT to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were evaluated by UV-vis, melting temperature, fluorescence, circular dichroism methodologies and molecular docking technique. Results showed that MCPT at 100 μM inhibited Topo I activity, but had no effect on Topo II. Studies on the binding properties indicated that minor groove binding was the most probable binding mode of MCPT to DNA. The abilities of MCPT to act as Topo I inhibitor and minor groove binding agent may be related to its strong antitumor activity.
A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, named α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1↔2)-β-D-[4″-(8E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-propenoate, 1″-O-(7S)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-ethyl]-glucopyranoside (1), together with nine known compounds (2-10) were isolated from the active fraction (n-Butanol fraction) of Gynura cusimbua for the first time. The known compounds (2-10) were identified as phenylpropanoid glycosides on the basis of extensive spectral data and references. The antiangiogenic activities of compounds (1-10) were evaluated by MTT assay on HUVECs and wild-type zebrafish in vivo model assay. As a result, compounds 1, 6, 7, 8 and 10 exhibited certain antiangiogenic activities.
A series of chrysin benzimidazole derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their anticancer activity in the search for potential anticancer agents. Among them, compound 18 displayed the most potent anti-proliferative activity against MFC cells with IC 50 values of 25.72 ± 3.95 μM. The flow cytometry results displayed that compound 18 induced apoptosis of MFC cells in a dose-dependent manner and caused the cell cycle to be arrested in the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, the preliminary anticancer activity in vivo was also studied in tumour-bearing mice, and the compound 18 exerted good inhibition effect on tumour growth. These results suggested that compound 18 had good anticancer activity, which could be a potential anticancer agent after further optimisation and evaluation.
Structural analysis of marble statues, carried out by non-invasive and in situ methods, is crucial to define the state of conservation of the artworks and to identify the deterioration phenomena that can affect them. In this work, we combined in situ non-destructive techniques, ultrasonic tomography (US), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV-IF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to study the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Italy). The US revealed the presence of some metallic pivots, associated with areas of high sound velocity; moreover, a more degraded area has been identified in the lower part of the bass-relief. The acquired UV-IF image confirmed the presence of surface degradation, allowing a preliminary evaluation of the extension of a fracture, from surface to bulk. In addition, the different materials (both original and/or integrations) that compose the studied surface have been identified. The XRF has contributed to define the nature of the inorganic materials applied during undocumented previous restoration works on the surface as filler for lacunae.
Five curvularin macrolides (1-5) were isolated from the cultured broth of marine actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. HS7 that was obtained from the cloacal aperture of sea cucumber Holothuria moebii. The structures of these isolates were characterized as (11S,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (1), (11R,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (2), curvularin-7-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), trans-dehydrocurvularin (4) and curvularin (5) based on their NMR and HRESIMS data as well as chemical degradation. Compound 3 is a new macrolide with a rare α-D-glucopyranose substituent. Compounds 1-4, 5a and 5c (the acyl products of 5), suppressed the proliferation of all six tested cancer cell lines and 4 is the most active compound with IC 50 values ranging from 0.59 to 3.39 μM. The 11-hydroxycurvularins 1 and 2 also showed antibacterial activity inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli.
Toxic and essential metals content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in commercial sea urchins samples from the Mediterranean Sea and Pacific Ocean. Results show that Chilean samples have the highest values of Cd, As, Ni, Cr and V; Spanish samples have the maximum Hg content while Sicilian samples have the lowest content of toxic metals. The toxic metal traces were compared with the limits of European Community (EC) No. 1881/2006 for bivalve molluscs. All samples exceed Pb and Cd limit levels; regarding Hg levels, only Sicilian and Sardinian samples have Hg content below the EC limits. The dietary intake of toxic and essential elements was evaluated for an adult. Furthermore, our study highlights a correlation between the toxic elements content and the marine environmental conditions of the places of origin even though only the generic FAO fishing area is specified.
Mustard oil cake (MOC) is widely used as biofertilizer in the field of agriculture and aquaculture. Channa punctatus was exposed to 0.42 g.L −1 sublethal concentration for 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Due to such exposure, body growth and histological changes in liver were observed. It was revealed that weight, length and breadth of fish were gradually increased with the days of exposure in compare to control fish, whereas, liver showed an increase in sinusoidal space and lipidosis during early days, followed by a recovery from the stress of MOC on the 28th day.
A new alkaloid, (10E, 12E)-9-ureidooctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid, named oleraurea (1) and 10 known compounds, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), p-hydroxyacetophenone (4), benzamide (5), (E)-p-coumaramide (6), (E)-ferulamide (7), soyalkaloid A (8), β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (9), 2, 3, 4, 9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido [3, 4-b] indole-3-carboxylic acid (10), (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (11) were obtained from Portulaca oleracea L., in which, compounds 4, 5, 8-11 were isolated from the plant for the first time. The structure of the compound 1 was identified using spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-TOF-MS. The compounds 1, 5-11 presented anticholinesterase activities, but the P. oleracea extract (POE) presented very low anticholinesterase activity.
Isolation of flavonoids from the aerial parts of Taverniera aegyptiaca Bioss. (Fabaceae) led to identification of one new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with eleven compounds, which previously have not been isolated from this plant quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-galactopyranoside] (2), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-galactopyranoside] (8), isorhamnetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside] (9), kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-galactopyranoside] (10), isorhamnetin (11), 4,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxychalcone (12), formononetin (13) and calycosin (15)] and some compounds already known from this plant [quercetin-3-O-robinobioside (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-robinobioside (6), afrormosin (14) and odoratin (16)].
Natural products with therapeutic nature are nowadays warmly welcomed in textiles. Current study is concerned with isolation of tannin from neem bark (Azadirachta indica) and its application onto silk fabric. For improvement in shades, chemical & bio-mordants have been employed at optimal dyeing conditions. It is found that methanolic extract of pH 5 obtained 8 g dye powder after US Treatment for 30 min has given high color strength if used to dye irradiated silk for 65 min at 75 °C. Bio-mordanting using herbal plants has improved the color characteristics as compared to chemical mordants used. ISO standards for color fastness reveal that herbal based bio-mordants have improved the rating from good to excellent as compared to chemical mordants used. It is concluded that US treatment has not only isolate the colorant for neem bark under mild condition but also given excellent characteristic using bio mordants onto silk fabrics.
Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future.
Terrenolide S, a new butenolide derivative (6), together with six known compounds: (22E,24R)-stigmasta-5,7,22-trien-3-β-ol (1), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (2), stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), terretonin A (4), terretonin (5) and butyrolactone VI (7) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus isolated from the roots of Carthamus lanatus (Asteraceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS), as well as optical rotation measurement and comparison with literature data. Compound 1 displayed a potent activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Cryptococcus neoformans with IC 50 values of 2.29 and 10.68 µM, respectively. Moreover, 1, 2 and 6 exhibited antileishmanial activity towards Leishmania donovani with IC 50 values of 11.24, 15.32 and 27.27 µM, respectively and IC 90 values of 14.68, 40.56 and 167.03 µM, respectively.
Anti-quorum sensing activity of the diterpene phytol was evaluated in vitro for the first time. This compound (at three sub-MIC concentrations - 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 MIC, respectively) reduced the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm in the range of 74.00-84.33% exhibiting higher activity than the both positive controls used, streptomycin and ampicillin. Phytol (0.5 MIC) also effectively reduced P. aeruginosa twitching and flagella motility. Indeed, the bacteria treated were incapable of producing a twitching zone and had almost round, smooth and regular colony edges. Finally, the tested compound (0.5 MIC) exhibited good P. aeruginosa pyocyanin inhibitory activity (51.94%) practically to the same extent as streptomycin (52.09%). According to the experimental data obtained, this phytol property may inspire design of medical foods targeting P. aeruginosa quorum sensing activity.
In this study, the vitellogenin (Vtg) modulation by genistein and polychlorinated biphenyl-126 (PCB-126) exposure in zebrafishes has been investigated. Both PCB-126 and genistein have been identified as aquatic pollutants and can further increase estrogenicity of waterways. Vtg is egg yolk precursor protein release by the hepatocytes during vitellogenesis. This process occurs normally in the hepatocytes in response to the activation with the estrogens such as 17-β-estradiol. Our immunohistochemical findings showed a Vtg expression that increases at 12 h and at 72 h in the liver of treated fishes with both PCB-126 and genistein, individually and in combination. Furthermore, for the first time, also hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in the liver parenchyma were strongly positive for vitellogenin.
To search novel therapy for human colon cancer, scutellarein identified from Scutellaria barbata was investigated using HCT116 cells. As a result, scutellarein can induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Further investigation for the mechanism has revealed scutellarein can increase the production of intracellular ROS and lead to the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 in HCT116 cells was elevated by scutellarein. Moreover, down-regulated Bcl-2 and up-regulated Bax were observed. Additionaly, scutellarein resulted in cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These results indicated the apoptosis induction of HCT116 cells by scutellarein was implemented through ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway.
This study outlines antioxidant and anti-AChE activities of the polysaccharide (PSH) extract from the mushroom species Amanita strobiliformis. Both the presence of α and ß glucans within the aforementioned extract was recorded. PSH extract displayed a profound scavenging activity of OH radicals (IC 50 value, 11.86 ± 0.59 μg/mL) and high potential for reduction of Fe 3+ ions (174.11 ± 8.70 mg eq. AA/g d.w.) being almost 48- and 5-fold more effective than mannitol and butylated hydroxytoluene used as a positive control, respectively. Compared with galanthamine (0.001 μg), the same extract exhibited a moderate anti-AChE activity (10 μg) in solid. Since purified PSH extract exhibited higher bioactivity (IC 50 value 7.27 ± 0.31 μg/mL, 197.68 ± 9.47 mg eq. AA/g d.w. and 0.1 μg, respectively), it can be predominantly ascribed to the polysaccharide compounds. A. strobiliformis PSH extract may be considered as a promising resource of potent bioactive polysaccharides of natural origin successfully addressing both oxidative stress and lack of acetylcholine.
The composition of juice and essential oil of Citrus limetta Risso was investigated. Multidimensional and enantio-gas chromatography were used for the elucidation of the volatile profile and the assessment of enantiomeric distribution. Predominant compounds were linalyl acetate (13.06 g/100 g), β-pinene (6.79 g/100 g), myrcene (1.40 g/100 g) and sabinene (1.05 g/100 g). Through a β-cyclodextrin column eight chiral pairs were separated, equally distributed between laevorotatory and dextrorotatory enantiomers. Liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole ESI-MS and PDA detection showed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds (791.34 ± 36.83 and 32.97 ± 1.92 mg L −1 , respectively) in the juice. Sugars (i.e. glucose 202.23 ± 26.81 and fructose 146.73 ± 3.17 mM, respectively), aminoacids (i.e. proline 29.40 ± 3.78 and GABA 8.90 ± 0.95 mM) and organic acids (i.e. citrate 4.68 ± 0.81 mM) were determined in juice by means of 1 H NMR spectroscopy.
The polysaccharide (PSH) extracts from the edible mushroom species Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum were screened in liquid for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChE) activity. Both extracts were found to display inhibition of the aforementioned enzyme reaching similar IC 50 values of 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.61 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. According to the means of FTIR spectroscopy, these PSH extracts mostly contained β-glucans. However, the presence of some proteins and polyphenolics as minor ingredients were also detected. Compared with existing literature data for anti-AChE activity of the sugar samples, the findings within this study may be treated as a profound bioactivity. Consequently, this study puts some light on the possible use of the screened macrofungi in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
A new homoisoflavonoid, (3R)-5,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-3-(2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (1), namely polygonatone H, in addition to fourteen known homoisoflavones (2-15) were isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum Cyrtonema Hua. The structures were identified with the aid of 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic technologies. Compounds 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, and 15 were isolated from P. Cyrtonema for the first time. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicities to human cancer cell lines with IC 50 values to comparable those of cisplatin.