Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); these may also be associated with tumor metastasis. An acidic extracellular pH not only activates secreted lysosomal enzymes that have an optimal pH in the acidic range, but induces the expression of certain genes of pro-metastatic factors through an intracellular signaling cascade that is different from hypoxia. In addition to lactate, CO2 from the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative source of acidity, showing that hypoxia and extracellular acidity are, while being independent from each other, deeply associated with the cellular microenvironment. In this article, the importance of an acidic extracellular pH as a microenvironmental factor participating in tumor progression is reviewed.
In recent years, there has been a tremendous and growing interest among researchers to investigate the role of mircoRNA (miRNA) in normal cellular as well as in disease processes. miRNAs are a family of small non-coding RNAs which were reported to regulate the expression of various oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The expression profiling of miRNAs has already entered into cancer clinics as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to assess tumor initiation, progression and response to treatment in cancer patients. This review summarizes: (i) the current understanding of interactions between miRNAs and their target genes, (ii) recent advances in the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of genes related to carcinogenesis, and (iii) the role of miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Survivin is the smallest member of the Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins, involved in inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle. These functional attributes make Survivin a unique protein exhibiting divergent functions i.e. regulating cell proliferation and cell death. Expression pattern of Survivin is also distinctive; it is prominently expressed during embryonal development, absent in most normal, terminally differentiated tissues but upregulated in a variety of human cancers. Expression of Survivin in tumours correlates with not only inhibition of apoptosis and a decreased rate of cell death, but also resistance to chemotherapy and aggressiveness of tumours. Therefore, Survivin is an important target for cancer vaccines and therapeutics. Survivin has also been found to be prominently expressed on both human and embryonic stem cells and many somatic stem cell types indicating its yet unexplored role in stem cell generation and maintenance. Overall, Survivin emerges as a molecule with much wider role in cellular homeostasis. This review will discuss various aspects of Survivin biology and its role in regulation of apoptosis, cell division, chemo-resistance and tumour progression. Various molecular and immunotherapeutic approaches targeting Survivin will also be discussed.
For their various bioactivities, biomaterials derived from marine algae are important ingredients in many products, such as cosmetics and drugs for treating cancer and other diseases. This mini-review comprehensively compares the bioactivities and biological functions of biomaterials from red, green, brown, and blue-green algae. The anti-oxidative effects and bioactivities of several different crude extracts of algae have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Natural products derived from marine algae protect cells by modulating the effects of oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress plays important roles in inflammatory reactions and in carcinogenesis, marine algal natural products have potential for use in anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Tumors are not merely masses of neoplastic cells but complex tissues composed of cellular and noncellular elements. This review provides recent data on the main components of a dynamic system, such as carcinoma associated fibroblasts that change the extracellular matrix (ECM) topology, induce stemness and promote metastasis-initiating cells. Altered production and characteristics of collagen, hyaluronan and other ECM proteins induce increased matrix stiffness. Stiffness along with tumor growth-induced solid stress and increased interstitial fluid pressure contribute to tumor progression and therapy resistance. Second, the role of immune cells, cytokines and chemokines is outlined. We discuss other noncellular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia and extracellular pH in relation to neoangiogenesis. Overall, full understanding of the events driving the interactions between tumor cells and their environment is of crucial importance in overcoming treatment resistance and improving patient outcome.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of prostanoids, is associated with inflammatory diseases and carcinogenesis, which is suspected to promote angiogenesis and tissue invasion of tumors and resistance to apoptosis. Meanwhile, COX-2 contributes to immune evasion and resistance to cancer immunotherapy, which plays a crucial role in the innate and adaptive immune response. The activity of COX-2-PGE2-EP signal pathway can suppress Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK), T cells, type-1 immunity excluding type-2 immunity which promote tumor immune evasion. COX-2 and the prostaglandin cascade play important roles in the "inflammogenesis of cancer". In addition, COX-inhibitors can inhibit tumor immune evasion. Therefore, we can exert the COX-inhibitors to facilitate the patients to benefit from addition of COX-inhibitors to standard cytotoxic therapy.
Cancer chemotherapy resistance (MDR) is the innate and/or acquired ability of cancer cells to evade the effects of chemotherapeutics and is one of the most pressing major dilemmas in cancer therapy. Chemotherapy resistance can arise due to several host or tumor-related factors. However, most current research is focused on tumor-specific factors and specifically genes that handle expression of pumps that efflux accumulated drugs inside malignantly transformed types of cells. In this work, we suggest a wider and alternative perspective that sets the stage for a future platform in modifying drug resistance with respect to the treatment of cancer.
Background: MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in various human tumor initiation and progression by regulating gene expression negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-214 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as the functional connection between miR-214 and PTEN in gastric cancer. Methods: miR-214 and PTEN expression was determined in gastric cancer and matched normal tissues, and human gastric cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR. The roles of miR-214 in cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed with anti-miR-214 transfected cells. In addition, the regulation of PTEN by miR-214 was evaluated by Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results: miR-214 was noted to be highly overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines using qRT-PCR. The expression level of miR-214 is significantly associated with clinical progression and poor prognosis according to the analysis of the clinicopathologic data. We also found that the miR-214 levels are inversely correlated with PTEN in tumor tissues. And PTEN expression level is also associated with metastasis and invasion of gastric cancer. In addition, knockdown of miR-214 could significantly inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that PTEN is regulated negatively by miR-214 through a miR-214 binding site within the 3'-UTR of PTEN at the posttranscriptional level in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: These findings indicated that miR-214 regulated the proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting PTEN post-transcriptionally in gastric cancer. It may be a novel potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer.
Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly implicated in the regulation of the progression of malignancy. Aim: To clarify the relations among BCYRN1 (brain cytoplasmic RNA 1, a long non-coding RNA), c-MYC and cell metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Real-time PCR was used to measure expression of BCYRN1 in NSCLC. Knockdown and overexpression of c-MYC were respectively performed using shRNA and lentivirus to investigate its effect on BCYRN1 expression. BCYRN1 was respectively knockdown and overexpressed by siRNA and BCYRN1 mimics to investigate its role in regulating cell metastasis in vitro. ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assay was performed to confirm the binding of c-MYC to the promoter of BCYRN1. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9 and MMP13) were determined using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results: BCYRN1 is upregulated and targeted by c-MYC in NSCLC, leading to the increase of cell motility and invasiveness. RNA interference and lentivirus infection showed a positive correlation between the expressions of c-MYC and BCYRN1. ChIP assay confirmed the binding of c-MYC to the promoter region of BCYRN1 gene. In-vitro cell metastasis experiments demonstrated that BCYRN1 was necessary in the c-MYC-regulated cell migration and invasion. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP9 and MMP13 descended with the decreasing BCYRN1 level and ascended with the upregulation of BCYRN1. Conclusion: These findings uncover a regulatory mechanism in NSCLC cells involving the metastasis-promoting lncRNA BCYRN1 that improves expressions of the key metastasis-supporting proteins MMP9 and MMP13.
Background: B7-homologue 3 (B7-H3), a recently identified immunoregulatory protein, has been shown to be overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether the dynamic expression pattern of B7-H3 contributes to early invasion of HCC is largely unknown. In addition, the biological roles of B7-H3 in HCC are still unclear. Herein, we are going to examine B7-H3 expression profile and its clinicopathological significance in primary and metastatic HCC, and further determine whether B7-H3 knockdown simulates different pathological states of HCC progression and metastasis. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry, B7-H3 expression was studied on 116 HCC containing primary and metastatic HCCs. Survival curves and log-rank tests were used to test the association of B7-H3 expression with survival. HCC cells with B7-H3 depletion were established by RNA interference to investigate the effect of B7-H3 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in vitro. Results: Statistical analysis of clinical cases revealed that B7-H3 high expression group had inclinations towards late TNM stage, the presence of vascular invasion, lymph metastasis, and the formation of microsatellite tumors. Increased intensity of tumor B7-H3 staining was detected more significantly in metastatic HCC tumors. Consistently in experiments performed in vitro, B7-H3 was able to stimulate the wound healing, metastasis and invasion of hepatoma cells by targeting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via JAK2/Stat3/Slug signaling pathway, while no obvious influence on cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: B7-H3 in the regulation of the metastatic capacity of HCC cells makes itself a promising therapeutic target for anti-metastasis therapy.
Background: Primary and secondary brain cancers are highly treatment resistant, and their marked angiogenesis attracts interest as a potential therapeutic target. Recent observations reveal that the microvascular endothelium of primary high-grade gliomas expresses prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Breast cancers express PSMA and they frequently form secondary brain tumors. Hence we report here our pilot study addressing the feasibility of PSMA targeting in brain and metastatic breast tumors, by examining PSMA levels in all glioma grades (19 patients) and in breast cancer brain metastases (5 patients). Methods: Tumor specimens were acquired from archival material and normal brain tissues from autopsies. Tissue were stained and probed for PSMA, and the expression levels imaged and quantified using automated hardware and software. PSMA staining intensities of glioma subtypes, breast tumors, and breast tumor brain metastases were compared statistically versus normals. Results: Normal brain microvessels (4 autopsies) did not stain for PSMA, while a small proportion (< 5%) of healthy neurons stained, and were surrounded by an intact blood brain barrier. Tumor microvessels of the highly angiogenic grade IV gliomas showed intense PSMA staining which varied between patients and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than normal brain. Grade I gliomas showed moderate vessel staining, while grade II and III gliomas had no vessel staining, but a few (< 2%) of the tumor cells stained. Both primary breast cancer tissues and the associated brain metastases exhibited vascular PSMA staining, although the intensity of staining was generally less for the metastatic lesions. Conclusions: Our results align with and extend previous data showing PSMA expression in blood vessels of gliomas and breast cancer brain metastases. These results provide a rationale for more comprehensive studies to explore PSMA targeted agents for treating secondary brain tumors with PSMA expressing vasculature. Moreover, given that PSMA participates in angiogenesis, cell signaling, tumor survival, and invasion, characterizing its expression may help guide later investigations of the poorly understood process of low grade glioma progression to glioblastoma.
Background: MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many important physiological and pathological processes by regulating gene expression negatively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-32 on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis and to determine the functional connection between miR-32 and FBXW7 in breast cancer. Methods: In this study, quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression levels of miR-32 in 27 breast cancer tissues, adjacent normal breast tissues and human breast cancer cell lines. The biological functions of miR-32 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells were determined by cell proliferation, apoptosis assays and wound-healing assays. In addition, the regulation of FBXW7 by miR-32 was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Results: MiR-32 was frequently overexpressed in breast cancer tissue samples and cell lines as was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. Moreover, the up-regulation of miR-32 suppressed apoptosis and promoted proliferation and migration, whereas down-regulation of miR-32 showed an opposite effect. Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR32 binds to the 3'-untranslated region of FBXW7, suggesting that FBXW7 is a direct target of miR-32. Western blot analysis showed that over-expression of miR-32 reduced FBXW7 protein level. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between the expressions of miR-32 and FBXW7 mRNA levels in breast cancer tissues. Knockdown of FBXW7 promoted proliferation and motility and suppressed apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions: Taken together, the present study suggests that miR-32 promotes proliferation and motility and suppresses apoptosis of breast cancer cells through targeting FBXW7.
Background: Apigenin is a nontoxic dietary flavonoid, and it may have chemopreventive and therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer agent. However, its role in bladder cancer remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative activity of apigenin in human bladder cancer T-24 cells. Methods and results: Apigenin inhibited T-24 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that apigenin-induced early and mid-apoptotic cell could be identified by Annexnin V-Alexa Fluor 488/PI apoptosis detection and TUNEL assay. Moreover, using a JC-1 staining assay, we found that apigenin may induce the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. By performing flow cytometry and Western blotting, apigenin-mediated subG1 phase acculmulation was also associated with an increase in the phospho-p53, p53, p21, and p27 levels, and with a decrease in the Cyclin A, Cyclin B1, Cyclin E, CDK2, Cdc2, and Cdc25C levels, thereby blocking cell cycle progression. ELISA showed that the subG1 phase acculmulation was due to the increase in the p53, p21, and p27 levels. In addition, apigenin increased the Bax, Bad, and Bak levels, but reduced the Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 levels, and subsequently triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP). Further analysis demonstrated that apigenin increased the ROS levels and depleted GSH in T-24 cells at 12 h. Conclusions: The results suggested that apigenin inhibits T-24 cells proliferation via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. In addition, we discovered a potential anticancer activity of apigenin against T-24 cells.
Background: Effective therapies for early endometrial cancer usually involve surgical excision and consequent infertility Therefore, new treatment approaches that preserve fertility should be developed. Metformin, a well-tolerated anti-diabetic drug, can inhibit cancer cell growth. However, the mechanism of metformin action is not well understood. Here we investigate the roles of autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cells. Methods: Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells were treated with metformin. WST-8 assays, colony formation assays, flow cytometry, caspase luminescence measurement, immunofluorescence, and western blots were used to assess the effects of metformin on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and autophagy. Results: Metformin-treated cells exhibited significantly lower viability and proliferation and significantly more cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2/M than control cells. These cells also exhibited significantly more apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In addition, metformin treatment induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy, either by Beclin1 knockdown or by 3-methyladenine-mediated inhibition of caspase-3/7, suppressed the anti-proliferative effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cells. These findings indicate that the anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis caused by metformin are partially or completely dependent on autophagy. Conclusions: We showed that metformin suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest and concomitant autophagy and apoptosis.
Background: Recent studies have verified that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in many biological functions and play crucial roles in human cancers progression, the study aimed to detect the association between long non-coding RNA HOXA11-AS and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The lncRNA HOXA11-AS expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays in 78 paired of tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue samples in NSCLC patients. KaplanMeier survival curves and log-rank test was used to examine the association between lncRNA HOXA11-AS expression and the over survival time in NSCLC patients. Transwell invasion assay was performed to detect the cell invasion ability. QRT-PCR and western-blot analysis detected the mRNA and protein expression of EMT related transcription factors ZEB1/ZEB2, Snail1/2 and EMT marker E-cadherin and N-cadherin in NSCLC cells. RIP and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to analyze the association between lncRNA HOXA11-AS and miR-200b expression in NSCLC cells. Results: The lncRNA HOXA11-AS expression levels were significantly higher in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and higher HOXA11-AS expression levels had a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of lncRNA HOXA11-AS in A549 and H1299 cells dramatically inhibited cell invasive abilities. Besides, the transcription levels and protein levels of EMT related transcription factors ZEB1/ZEB2, Snail1/2, and EMT maker N-cadherin were down-regulated after lncRNA HOXA11-AS was knocked down, but the mRNA and protein expression levels of EMT maker E-cadherin was increasing in A549 and H1299 cells. The mechanistic findings showed demonstrated that HOXA11-AS interacted with EZH2 and DNMT1 and recruited them to the miR-200b promoter regions to repress miR-200b expression in NSCLC cells, which promoted cell EMT in NSCLC. Conclusions: Our results showed that up-regulation of lncRNA HOXA11-AS predicted a poor prognosis and lncRNA HOXA11-AS promoted cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inhibiting miR-200b expression in NSCLC.
Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are related to different biological processes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the long noncoding RNA HOXA11-AS (HOXA11 antisense RNA) in NSCLC are unknown. Methods: HOXA11-AS was knocked down in the NSCLC A549 cell line and a high throughput microarray assay was applied to detect changes in the gene profiles of the A549 cells. Bioinformatics analyses (gene ontology (GO), pathway, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and network analyses) were performed to investigate the potential pathways and networks of the differentially expressed genes. The molecular signatures database (MSigDB) was used to display the expression profiles of these differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, the relationships between the HOXA11-AS, de-regulated genes and clinical NSCLC parameters were verified by using NSCLC patient information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In addition, the relationship between HOXA11-AS expression and clinical diagnostic value was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Among the differentially expressed genes, 277 and 80 genes were upregulated and downregulated in NSCLC, respectively (fold change >= 2.0, P < 0.05 and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). According to the degree of the fold change, six upregulated and three downregulated genes were selected for further investigation. Only four genes (RSPO3, ADAMTS8, DMBT1, and DOCK8) were reported to be related with the development or progression of NSCLC based on a PubMed search. Among all possible pathways, three pathways (the PI3K-Akt, TGF-beta and Hippo signaling pathways) were the most likely to be involved in NSCLC development and progression. Furthermore, we found that HOXA11-AS was highly expressed in both lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on TCGA database. The ROC curve showed that the area under curve (AUC) of HOXA11-AS was 0.727 (95% CI 0.663-0.790) for lung adenocarcinoma and 0.933 (95% CI 0.906-0.960) for squamous cell carcinoma patients. Additionally, the original data from TCGA verified that ADAMTS8, DMBT1 and DOCK8 were downregulated in both lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas RSPO3 expression was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma and downregulated in lung squamous cell carcinoma. For the other five genes (STMN2, SPINK6, TUSC3, LOC100128054, and C8orf22), we found that STMN2, TUSC3 and C8orf22 were upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma and that STMN2 and USC3 were upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, we compared the correlation between HOXA11-AS and de-regulated genes in NSCLC based on TCGA. The results showed that the HOXA11-AS expression was negatively correlated with DOCK8 in squamous cell carcinoma (r = -0.124, P = 0.048) and lung adenocarcinoma (r = -0.176, P = 0.005). In addition, RSPO3, ADAMTS8 and DOCK8 were related to overall survival and disease-free survival (all P < 0.05) of lung adenocarcinoma patients in TCGA. Conclusions: Our results showed that the gene profiles were significantly changed after HOXA11-AS knock-down in NSCLC cells. We speculated that HOXA11-AS may play an important role in NSCLC development and progression by regulating the expression of various pathways and genes, especially DOCK8 and TGF-beta pathway. However, the exact mechanism should be verified by functional experiments.
Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest cancers in the world and it is also a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite advanced treatment strategies, the disease is rarely cured completely due to recurrence. Evidence shows that this is due to a small population of cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), in the tumour mass that have the self-renewal and differentiation potential to give rise to a new tumour population. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies have used curcumin and its analogues as anti-cancer agents in various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Intriguingly, curcumin and its analogues have also recently been shown to be effective in lowering tumour recurrence by targeting the CSC population, hence inhibiting tumour growth. In this review, we highlight the efficacy of curcumin and its analogues in targeting colorectal CSC and also the underlying molecular mechanism involved. Curcumin, in the presence or absence of other anti-cancer agents, has been shown to reduce the size of tumour mass and growth in both in vivo and in vitro studies by affecting many intracellular events that are associated with cancer progression and CSC formation. An insight into the molecular mechanism has unraveled the mode of action via which curcumin could affect the key regulators in CSC, importantly; (1) the signaling pathways, including Wnt/beta-catenin, Sonic Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, (2) microRNA and (3) the epithelial-mesenchymal transition at multiple levels. Therefore, curcumin could play a role as chemosensitiser whereby the colorectal CSCs are now sensitised towards the anti-cancer therapy, therefore, combination therapy using anti-cancer agent with curcumin could be much more effective than treatment using a single cancer agent. This potential treatment modality can be further developed by employing an effective delivery system using a nanotechnology based approach to treat colorectal cancer.
Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Many microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, are involved in regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Main methods: We investigated the expression of miR-135a in HCC cell lines and clinical tissues. The effect of miR-135a on migration and invasion of HepG2 and MHCC-97L were examined using wound healing and Transwell assay. We determined the expression of miR-135a, forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Snail using real-time PCR and western blotting. Key findings: We found miR-135a was upregulated in HCC cell lines and tissues. miR-135a overexpression promoted HCC cells migration and invasion, whereas miR-135a inhibition suppressed HCC cells migration and invasion. miR-135a overexpression could upregulate the expression of MMP2, Snail and the phosphorylation of AKT, but decreased FOXO3a phosporylation. Tumor suppressor FOXO1 was the direct target for miR-135a. Significance: Our results suggested that miR-135a might play an important role in promoting migration and invasion in HCC and presents a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated direct suppression of FOXO1 in HCC cells.
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer initiation and development. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a form of cellular plasticity that is critical for embryonic development and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to determine the function and mechanism of miR-484 in initiation and development of cervical cancer (CC). Methods: We determined the expression levels of miR-484 in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines with RT-qPCR. Prediction algorithms and EGFP reporter assay were performed to evaluate the targets for miR-484. MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis, transwell cell migration and invasion assays, and detection of EMT markers were employed to investigate the roles of miR-484 and the targets in regulation of cell proliferation and EMT process. We also used rescue experiments to confirm the effect of miR-484 on CC cells through directly regulating the expression of its targets. Results: Firstly we found miR-484 was down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines compared with their matched non-cancerous tissues or normal cervical keratinocytes cells. Further studies revealed that overexpression of miR-484 suppressed the cell proliferation, while exacerbates apoptosis. Besides, miR-484 suppressed cellular migration, invasion and EMT process of CC cells. EGFP reporter assay showed that miR-484 binds to ZEB1 and SMAD2 3' UTR region and reduced their expression. The expression of miR-484 had reverse correlation with SMAD2/ZEB1, and SMAD2/ZEB1 had positive correlation with each other in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of ZEB1 or SMAD2 could rescue the malignancies suppressed by miR-484, suggesting that miR484 down-regulates ZEB1 and SMAD2 to repress tumorigenic activities. Conclusion: We found miR-484 inhibits cell proliferation and the EMT process by targeting both ZEB1 and SMAD2 genes and functions as a tumor suppressor, which may served as potential biomarkers for cervical cancer.
Objective: To study the mechanism by which epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)-derived exosomes restore the migration of endothelial cells that is suppressed by TAM-derived exosomes. Methods: Exosomes were isolated from TAMs in the ascites of patients with EOC. The effect of exosomes on the expression of endothelial cell miRNA was monitored by PCR. The miRNA mimics were transfected to explore their effects. Microarray data and literature searches were used to predict target genes and the impact of target gene pathways, and small interfering RNA was used to target these genes. We used migration assays to determine whether ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes participate in the regulation of TAMs and endothelial cells. We used microarray data to identify the target lncRNA, and we constructed target lncRNA expression plasmids to validate targets by Western blotting. Results: We separated TAMs from the ascites of patients with EOC and isolated exosomes from TAM supernatants. After co-culture with HUVECs, these exosomes were efficiently incorporated into HUVECs. The migration of HUVECs was suppressed significantly in the exosome group compared with blank controls (P < 0.05). The miRNA mimic transfection and target gene prediction found that TAM-derived exosomes targeted the miR-146b-5p/TRAF6/NF-kappa B/MMP2 pathway to suppress endothelial cell migration; this result was supported by PCR and Western blotting analyses. The expression of exosomal miR-146b-5p isolated from serum in the EOC group was significantly increased compared to healthy individuals. Finally, TAM-derived exosomes and EOC SKOV3-derived exosomes in combination stimulated HUVEC cells and overcame the inhibition of endothelial cell migration caused by TAM-derived exosomes. Two lncRNAs that were carried by SKOV3-derived exosomes were identified as NF-kappa B pathway-associated genes by Western blotting. Conclusion: TAM-derived exosomes can inhibit the migration of endothelial cells by targeting the miR-146b-5p/ TRAF6/NF-kappa B/MMP2 pathway. However, EOC-derived exosomes can transfer lncRNAs to remotely reverse this effect of TAMs on endothelial cells.