Background: The interaction of depression and anesthesia and surgery may result in significant increases in morbidity and mortality of patients. Major depressive disorder is a frequent complication of surgery, which may lead to further morbidity and mortality. Literature search: Several electronic data bases, including PubMed, were searched pairing "depression" with surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative cognitive impairment, cognition disorder, intensive care unit, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Review of the literature: The suppression of the immune system in depressive disorders may expose the patients to increased rates of postoperative infections and increased mortality from cancer. Depression is commonly associated with cognitive impairment, which may be exacerbated postoperatively. There is evidence that acute postoperative pain causes depression and depression lowers the threshold for pain. Depression is also a strong predictor and correlate of chronic post-surgical pain. Many studies have identified depression as an independent risk factor for development of postoperative delirium, which may be a cause for a long and incomplete recovery after surgery. Depression is also frequent in intensive care unit patients and is associated with a lower health-related quality of life and increased mortality. Depression and anxiety have been widely reported soon after coronary artery bypass surgery and remain evident one year after surgery. They may increase the likelihood for new coronary artery events, further hospitalizations and increased mortality. Morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery have an increased risk of depression. Postoperative depression may also be associated with less weight loss at one year and longer. The extent of preoperative depression in patients scheduled for lumbar discectomy is a predictor of functional outcome and patient's dissatisfaction, especially after revision surgery. General postoperative mortality is increased. Conclusions: Depression is a frequent cause of morbidity in surgery patients suffering from a wide range of conditions. Depression may be identified through the use of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 or similar instruments. Counseling interventions may be useful in ameliorating depression, but should be subject to clinical trials.
Background: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) reflects the balance between pro- and anti-tumor immune activities. We evaluated whether NLR is associated with pathologic tumor response and prognosis in rectal cancer patients that underwent preoperative chemoradiaton therapy (CRT) with surgery. Methods: One hundred two patients with rectal cancer that were treated by preoperative CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. A total of 50.4 GY of radiation and 5-FU-based chemotherapy were delivered. An NLR >= 3 was considered to be elevated. Pathologic tumor response based on ypTNM stage was categorized into two groups, good response (n = 35, pathologic complete response and ypTNM I) and poor response groups (n = 67, ypTNM II, III, and IV). Results: Twenty-five patients (24.5%) had elevated NLR. Multivariate analysis showed that an elevated CEA level (p = 0.001), larger tumor (p = 0.03), and elevated NLR (p = 0.04) were significant predictors for a poor response. Poor pathological tumor response and elevated NLR were risk factors for cancer-specific and recurrence-free survivals. Conclusion: An elevated NLR before CRT can be used as predictors for poor tumor response and unfavorable prognostic factors. Dominant pro-tumor activities of neutrophils or reduced anti-tumor immune response by lymphocytes, as determined by NLR, may have a impact on poor tumor response and unfavorable prognosis.
Background: Metastasis and recurrence are the most common reasons for treatment failure of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Vasculogenic mimicry (VM, blood supply formation often seen in highly aggressive tumors), Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, a biomarker of cancer stem cells), KAI1 (a suppressor gene of tumor metastasis) are all valuable factors for metastasis and prognosis in diverse human cancers. However, the correlation of VM, ALDH1, KAI1 and microvessel density (MVD) in CRC is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the correlations among VM, ALDH1, KAI1 and MVD, as well as their respective correlations with clinicopathological parameters and survival in CRC. Methods: The level of VM, ALDH1, KAI1 and MVD in 204 whole tissue samples of CRC were examined by immunhistochemistry. Clinical data was also collected. Results: Levels of VM, ALDH1 and MVD were significantly higher, and levels of KAI1 significantly lower, in CRC tissues than in normal colorectal tissues. Levels of VM, ALDH1 and MVD were positively associated with invasion of depth, lymph node metastasis (LNM), distant metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages, and negatively with patients' overall survival (OS). Levels of KAI1 was negatively correlated with invasion of depth, LNM, distant metastasis and TNM stages, and the KAI1 positive expression subgroup had significantly longer OS than did the KAI1-subgroup. In multivariate analysis, high levels of VM, ALDH1 and KAI1, as well as TNM stages were independently correlated with lower OS in patients with CRC. Conclusions: VM, MVD and the expression of ALDH1 and KAI1 may represent promising metastatic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutic targets for CRC.
Background: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the gold standard technique for the treatment of benign small and medium size adrenal masses (<6 cm), due to low morbidity rate, short hospitalization and patient rapid recovery. The aim of our study is to analyse the feasibility and efficiency of this surgical approach in a broad spectrum of adrenal gland pathologies. Methods: Pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative data from 126 patients undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy between January 2003 and December 2015 were retrospectively collected and reviewed. Diagnosis was obtained on the basis of clinical examination, laboratory values and imaging techniques. Doxazosin was preoperatively administered in case of pheochromocytoma while spironolactone and potassium were employed to treat Conn's disease. Laparoscopic adrenalectomies were all performed by the same surgeon (CG). First 30 procedures were considered as learning curve adrenalectomies. Results: One hundred twenty-six patients were included in the study. Functioning tumors were diagnosed in 84 patients, 27 patients were affected by pheochromocytomas, 29 by Conn's disease, 28 by Cushing disease. Surgery mean operative time was 137.33 min (range 100-180) during the learning curve adrenalectomies and 96.5 min (range 75-110) in subsequent procedures. Mean blood loss was respectively 160.2 ml (range 60-280) and 90.5 ml (range 50-200) in the first 30 procedures and the subsequent ones. Only one conversion to open surgery occurred. No post-operative major complications were observed, while minor complications occurred in 8 patients (0,79%). In 83 out of 84 functioning neoplasms, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was effective in normalization of endocrine profile. Conclusions: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and feasible procedure, even for functioning masses and pheochromocytomas. A multidisciplinary team including endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons and anaesthesiologists, is recommended in the management of adrenal pathology, and adrenal surgery should be performed in referral high volume centers. A thirty-procedures learning curve is recommended to improve surgical outcomes.
Background: Transabdominal Preperitoneal (TAPP) and Lichtenstein operation are established methods for inguinal hernia repair in clinical practice. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies, comparing those two methods for repair of primary inguinal hernia, are still missing. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials was performed to compare early and long term outcomes of the two methods. Methods: A literature search was carried out to identify randomized controlled trials, which compared TAPP and Lichtenstein repair for primary inguinal hernia. Outcome measures included duration of operation, length of hospital stay, acute postoperative and chronic pain, time to return to work, hematoma, wound infection, neuralgia, numbness, scrotal swelling, seroma and hernia recurrence. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed, using Odds Ratios (OR) or Standardized Mean Difference (SMD), and Confidence Interval (CI). Results: Eight controlled randomized studies were identified suitable for the analysis. The mean duration of the operation was shorter in Lichtenstein repair (SMD = 6.79 min, 95% CI, -0.68 -14.25), without significant difference. Comparing both techniques, patients of the laparoscopic group showed postoperatively significantly less chronic inguinal pain (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78). Analyses of the remaining outcome measures did not show any significant differences between the two techniques. Conclusion: The results of this analysis indicate that complication rate and outcome of both procedures are comparable. TAPP operation demonstrated only one advantage over Lichtenstein operation with significantly less chronic inguinal pain postoperatively.
Background: Thyroid disease is common in the elderly population. The incidence of hypothyroidism and multinodular goitre gradually increases with age. In view of a growth of aging population, we performed a literature review about the feasibility of thyroid surgery in the elderly. Methods: We conducted a literature search in the PubMed database in September 2012 and all English-language publications on thyroidectomy in geriatric patients since 2002 were retrieved. The potential original articles mainly focusing on thyroidectomy in elderly patients were all identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed for further hand data retrieving. Results: We retrieved five papers based on different primary end-point. Four were retrospective non randomized studies and one was prospective non randomized study. At last 65, 70, 75 and 80 years were used as an age cutoff. All studies evaluate the indications of thyroidectomy in geriatric patients, postoperative morbility and mortality. Only one study specifically assesses the rate of the rehospitalization after thyroidectomy among the elderly. Conclusions: Thyroid nodules are particularly important in elderly patients, as the incidence of malignancy increases and they are usually more aggressive tumors. An age of at least 70 years is an independent risk factor for complications after general surgery procedures. Thyroid surgery in patients aged 70 years or older is safe and the relatively high rate of thyroid carcinoma and toxic goiter may justify an aggressive approach. A programmed operation with a careful pre-operative evaluation and a risk stratification should make the surgical procedures less hazardous, specially in 80 years old patients with an high ASA score.
Background: Advanced minimally invasive techniques including robotic surgery are being employed with increasing frequency around the world, primarily in order to improve the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of robotic gastrectomy (RG). Methods: Studies, which compared surgical outcomes between LG and RG, were retrieved from medical databases before May 2017. Outcomes of interest were estimated as weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratio (RR) using the random-effects model. The software Review Manage version 5.1 was used for all calculations. Results: Nineteen comparative studies with 5953 patients were included in this analysis. Compared with LG, RG was associated with longer operation time (WMD = -49.05 min; 95% CI: -58.18 similar to -39.91, P < 0.01), less intraoperative blood loss (WMD = 24.38 ml; 95% CI: 12.32 similar to 36.43, P < 0.01), earlier time to oral intake (WMD = 0.23 days; 95% CI: 0.13 similar to 0.34, P < 0.01), and a higher expense (WMD = -3944.8 USD; 95% CI: -4943.5 similar to -2946.2, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between RG and LG regarding time to flatus, hospitalization, morbidity, mortality, harvested lymph nodes, and cancer recurrence. Conclusions: RG can be performed as safely as LG. However, it will take more effort to decrease operation time and expense.
Background: The short-term outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted surgery for colorectal cancer (LAC) have not been fully evaluated in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to compare the short term surgical outcomes of LAC between the patients older than 75 years and those with non-elderly patients. Methods: This retrospective multi-institutional study selected patients who underwent LAC between April 2013 and March 2014 at Yokohama City University Hospital and its related general hospitals. The patients were categorized into two groups: elderly patients (> 75 years of age: group A) and non-elderly patients ( grade 2 post operative surgical complications were similar between two groups ((19.0% vs 15.7%, p = 0.587). No mortality was observed in this study. The length of postoperative hospital stay was also similar (10 days vs 10 days, p = 0.350). Conclusions: The present study suggested that LAC is safe and feasible, regardless of the age of the patient, especially for elderly patients who may be candidates for colon cancer surgery.
Background: Populations living in the area of the Mediterranean Sea suffered by decreased incidence of cancer compared with those living in the regions of northern Europe and US countries, attributed to healthier dietary habits. Nowadays, we are assisting to a moving away from the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, but whether this changing is influencing risk of cancers is still unclear. The aim of the study was to review recent evidence on potential relationship between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cancer. Discussion: The most recent pooled analyses of epidemiological studies supported strongly the hypothesis that the Mediterranean diet may play a role in preventing several types of cancers, especially those of digestive tract, whereas contrasting results were reported for hormone-dependent cancers. Specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet such as high fruit and vegetables and low red processed meat intake may explain such protective effects. Moreover, evidence regarding olive oil and whole grains increase the beneficial effects of such dietary pattern against cancer. Conclusions: Literature evidence actually demonstrates that the increased adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is beneficial to health across populations and may translate a protective effect with certain cancers.
Background: Nitric oxide is key to endothelial regeneration, but it is still unknown whether endothelial cell (EC) loss results in an increase in NO levels at the wound edge. We have already shown that endothelial damage induces a long-lasting Ca2+ entry into surviving cells though connexin hemichannels (CxHcs) uncoupled from their counterparts on ruptured cells. The physiological outcome of injury-induced Ca2+ inflow is, however, unknown. Methods: In this study, we sought to determine whether and how endothelial scraping induces NO production (NOP) in the endothelium of excised rat aorta by exploiting the NO-sensitive fluorochrome, DAF-FM diacetate and the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye, Fura-2/AM. Results: We demonstrated that injury-induced NOP at the lesion site is prevented in presence of the endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, and in absence of extracellular Ca2+. Unlike ATP-dependent NO liberation, the NO response to injury is insensitive to BTP-2, which selectively blocks store-operated Ca2+ inflow. However, injury-induced NOP is significantly reduced by classic gap junction blockers, and by connexin mimetic peptides specifically targeting Cx37Hcs, Cx40HCs, and Cx43Hcs. Moreover, disruption of caveolar integrity prevents injury-elicited NO signaling, but not the accompanying Ca2+ response. Conclusions: The data presented provide the first evidence that endothelial scraping stimulates NO synthesis at the wound edge, which might both exert an immediate anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory action and promote the subsequent re-endothelialization.
Background: In plastic surgery, skin damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a multifactorial process that often occurs. Methane gas has been reported to be a new therapeutic gas for attenuating I/R injury. In this study, we assessed the effects of methane-rich saline (MRS) in regulating apoptosis on skin flap I/R injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 6-8 weeks old, were divided randomly into three groups: one sham surgery group (SH) and two surgery groups. After undergoing 6 h of I/R management of an abdominal skin flap, surgery groups were treated with physiological saline (I/R-P) or methane-rich saline (I/R-M). On the 3rd postoperative day, a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure flap blood supply, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe morphological changes. TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was also used to observe early apoptosis and is presented as the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells. Moreover, pASK-1, pJNK, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunohistochemical technology. Caspase-3 activity was also measured to evaluate the effects of MRS. Results: Compared to the I/R-P group, the flaps in the I/R-M group presented a larger survival area and better blood perfusion with less inflammatory infiltration and cell apoptosis, a higher expression of Bcl-2, a lower expression of pASK-1, pJNK and Bax, and a lower caspase-3 activity. Conclusion: According to the results, MRS attenuated I/R injury by regulating apoptosis and has the potential to be applied as a new therapy for improving skin flap survival.
Background: Terms such as "glass ceiling" and "sticky floor" are still commonly used to describe women's role in academic surgery. Despite continued efforts to address disparities between men and women in the field, gender inequalities persist. Methods: In this investigation we highlight gender differences in published surgical literature by both quantity and impact. Websites for departments of surgery of three academic centers were reviewed to assess the bibliometrics of publications by gender over a two-week period. Results: A one-way ANOVA showed a significantly higher H-index for men than women (p > .05). Further, one-way ANOVA showed significantly more articles published by men than women (p = .019). These differences are most dramatic at the rank of associate professor where the H-index for men is three times that of the women. The rank of full professor showed men had double the number of articles published. Conclusions: These findings align with the previous research that shows a disparity between males and females as they climb the academic ladder. Conducting and publishing research is a vital part of advancement in academic medicine. This study suggests that publication productivity may be a factor that hinders women from advancing within surgery compared to men. Continuing to explore and identify reasons for this gender difference in academic surgery may highlight ways to address the imbalance.
Background: It is speculated that blood transfusion may induce adverse consequences after cancer surgery due to immunosuppression. This study was intended to assess the impact of perioperative blood transfusion on the prognosis of patients who underwent lung cancer resection. Methods: Eligible studies were identified through a computerized literature search. The pooled relative risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using Review Manager 5.1 Software. Results: Eighteen studies with a total of 5915 participants were included for this meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed that perioperative blood transfusion was associated with worse overall survival (RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38; P < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.67; P < 0.001) in patients with resected lung cancer. Conclusions: Perioperative blood transfusion appears be associated with a worse prognosis in patients undergoing lung cancer resection. These data highlight the importance of minimizing blood transfusion during surgery.
Background: Pancreatic fistula (PF) remains the most challenging complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of PF and delineate its impact on patient outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 532 patients who underwent PD and divided them into PF group and no PF group. Risk factors and outcomes of PF following PD were examined. Results: PF was found in 65 (12.2%) cases, of whom 11 were classified into ISGPF grade A, 42 grade B, and 12 grade C. Clinically serious postoperative complications in the PF versus no PF group were mortality, abdominal bleeding, bile leak, intra-abdominal abscess and pneumonia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that blood loss >= 500 ml, pancreatic duct diameter = 500 ml, pancreatic duct diameter <= 3 mm and pancreatico-jejunostomy type were independent risk factors of PF after PD. PF was related with higher mortality rate, longer hospital stay, and other complications.
textabstractBackground: Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy. The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective treatment for patients with purulent peritonitis (LOLA-arm) and to determine the optimal resectional strategy in patients with a purulent or faecal peritonitis (DIVA-arm: perforated DIVerticulitis: sigmoidresection with or without Anastomosis). Methods/Design: In this multicentre randomised trial all patients with perforated diverticulitis are included. Upon laparoscopy, patients with purulent peritonitis are treated with laparoscopic lavage and drainage, Hartmann's procedure or sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis in a ratio of 2:1:1 (LOLA-arm). Patients with faecal peritonitis will be randomised 1:1 between Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis (DIVA-arm). The primary combined endpoint of the LOLA-arm is major morbidity and mortality. A sample size of 132:66:66 patients will be able to detect a difference in the primary endpoint from 25% in resectional groups compared to 10% in the laparoscopic lavage group (two sided alpha = 5%, power = 90%). Endpoint of the DIVA-arm is stoma free survival one year after initial surgery. In this arm 212 patients are needed to significantly demonstrate a difference of 30% (log rank test two sided alpha = 5% and power = 90%) in favour of the patients with resection with primary anastomosis. Secondary endpoints for both arms are the number of days alive and outside the hospital, health related quality of life, health care utilisation and associated costs. Discussion: The Ladies trial is a nationwide multicentre randomised trial on perforated diverticulitis that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic lavage and drainage for purulent generalised peritonitis and on the optimal resectional strategy for both purulent and faecal generalised peritonitis. Trial registration. Nederlands Trial Register NTR2037.
Backgroud: Surigical site infection has been a challenge for surgeons for many years, the prevalence of serum albumin 3.5 was 2.39 (95 % CI 1.57 3.64), which was statistically significant (z = 4.06, P < 0.0001). Heterogeneity were found in the pooled MD of albumin and in the pooled RR for infection (P = 0.05, I-2 = 61 % and P = 0.003, I-2 = 68 %). No publication bias occurred based on two basically symmetrical funnel plots. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that an albumin level < 3.5 g/dL had an almost 2.5 fold increased risk of SSI in orthopaedics, although this conclusion requires well-designed prospective cohort studies to be confirmed further.
Background: We assessed the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) post elective or urgent (i.e., post acute coronary syndrome [ACS]) coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Registry from inception to August 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults undergoing CABG comparing either dual vs. single antiplatelet therapy or higher-vs. lower-intensity DAPT were identified. Results: Nine RCTs (n = 4,887) with up to 1y follow-up were included. Five RCTs enrolled patients post-elective CABG (n = 986). Two multi-centre RCTs enrolled ACS patients who subsequently underwent CABG (n = 2,155). These 7 RCTs compared clopidogrel plus aspirin to aspirin alone. Two other multi-centre RCTs reported on ACS patients who subsequently underwent CABG comparing higher intensity DAPT with either ticagrelor (n = 1,261) or prasugrel (n = 485) plus aspirin to clopidogrel plus aspirin. Post-operative anti-platelet therapy was started when chest tube bleeding was no longer significant, typically within 24-48 h. There were no differences in all-cause mortality in clopidogrel plus aspirin vs. aspirin RCTs; conversely, all-cause mortality was significantly lower in ticagrelor and prasugrel vs. clopidogrel RCTs (risk ratio[RR] 0.49, 95 % confidence interval[CI] 0.33-0.71, p = 0.0002; 2 RCTs, n = 1695; I-2 = 0 %; interaction p < 0.01 compared to clopidogrel plus aspirin vs aspirin RCTs). There were no differences in myocardial infarctions, strokes, or composite outcomes. Overall, major bleeding was not significantly increased (RR 1.31, 95 % CI 0.81-2.10, p = 0.27; 7 RCTs, n = 4500). There was heterogeneity (I2 = 42 %) due almost entirely to higher bleeding reported for the prasugrel RCT which included mainly CABG-related major bleeding (RR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.45-6.87, p = 0.004; 1 RCT, n = 437). Conclusions: Most RCT data for DAPT post CABG is derived from subgroups of ACS patients in DAPT RCTs requiring CABG who resume DAPT post-operatively. Limited RCT data with heterogeneous trial designs suggest that higher intensity (prasugrel or ticagrelor) but not lower intensity (clopidogrel) DAPT is associated with an approximate 50 % lower mortality in ACS patients who underwent CABG based on post-randomization subsets from single RCTs. Large prospective RCTs evaluating the use of DAPT post-CABG are warranted to provide more definitive guidance for clinicians.
textabstractBackground: In patients with cirrhosis, the synthesis of coagulation factors can fall short, reflected by a prolonged prothrombin time. Although anticoagulants factors are decreased as well, blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation can still be excessive. Blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation is currently managed by transfusion of red blood cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma, and fibrinogen concentrate. Transfusion of these products may paradoxically result in an increased bleeding tendency due to aggravated portal hypertension. The hemostatic effect of these products may therefore be overshadowed by bleeding complications due to volume overload.In contrast to these transfusion products, prothrombin complex concentrate is a low-volume highly purified concentrate, containing the four vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Previous studies have suggested that administration of prothrombin complex concentrate is an effective method to normalize a prolonged prothrombin time in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aim to investigate whether the pre-operative administration of prothrombin complex concentrate in patients undergoing liver transplantation for end-stage liver cirrhosis, is a safe and effective method to reduce perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. Methods/Design. This is a double blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial.Cirrhotic patients with a prolonged INR (≥1.5) undergoing liver transplantation will be randomized between placebo or prothrombin complex concentrate administration prior to surgery. Demographic, surgical and transfusion data will be recorded. The primary outcome of this study is RBC transfusion requirements. Discussion. Patients with advanced cirrhosis have reduced plasma levels of both pro- and anticoagulant coagulation proteins. Prothrombin complex concentrate is a low-volume plasma product that contains both procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins and transfusion will not affect the volume status prior to the surgical procedure. We hypothesize that administration of prothrombin complex concentrate will result in a reduction of perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. Theoretically, the administration of prothrombin complex concentrate may be associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic complications. Therefore, thromboembolic complications are an important secondary endpoint and the occurrence of this type of complication will be closely monitored during the study. Trial registration. The trial is registered at with number NTR3174. This registry is accepted by the ICMJE.
Background: Anastomotic leak is the most common and serious complication following esophagectomy. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (EVAC) is a promising method for treating anastomotic leak. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EVAC and to identify factors associated with longer treatment duration for esophageal anastomotic leak following esophagectomy for cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 20 esophageal cancer patients who had undergone EVAC for anastomotic leak after esophagectomy. The efficacy and success rates were evaluated and factors associated with longer treatment duration (>= 21 days) were identified. Results: All 20 patients were male. Of these, 10 (50.0%) received neoadjuvant treatment and 6 (30.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The median size of fistula opening was 1.75 cm. During a median of 14.5 days of EVAC treatment, a median of 5 interventions were performed. Treatment success was achieved in 19 patients (95.0%). Neoadjuvant treatment was significantly associated with longer EVAC treatment. There was a non-significant trend toward the need for longer treatment duration for a larger fistula opening size. Conclusions: EVAC treatment is a good non-surgical option for anastomotic leak following esophagectomy. Long duration of treatment is associated with neoadjuvant treatment and a large leakage opening.
However, the application of limb salvage with joint preservation is controversial. The purpose of this study is to propose a selection strategy of joint-sparing operative procedures for humeral malignancies based on tumor origin, site and bone strength. The medical data of 28 patients with humeral malignancies treated at our institute from January 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients had a median age of 51 years (range, 8-82 years). Bone strength scoring system was utilized to evaluated bone strength of the tumor. Four joint-sparing surgical methods were performed on selected patients. Evaluation of limb function was based on the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system. Two-sample t-test was used to compare patient group data such as bone strength score and postoperative Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score. The mean follow-up period for the 7 patients with primary malignancies was 45 months (range, 15-66 months). One patient died due to recurrence and lung metastasis, while the remaining 6 patients (6/7, 85.7%) survived without recurrence. For the 21 patients with metastases, 5 survived with tumors, with an average survival time of 25.8 months (range, 9-48 months). The rest died from progression of the primary tumors. The mean bone strength score for the biological reconstruction group and non-biological reconstruction group was respectively 9.7 ± 1.3 and 12.9 ± 1.2. A significant difference between the 2 groups (p 0.05). Non-oncological complications included fracture (1), aseptic loosening (1) and radial nerve injury (1). Alcohol devitalized autograft replantation is applicable for diaphyseal humeral primary malignancies, with a good response to chemotherapy and a low bone strength score (≤10). In situ microwave ablation is suitable for diaphyseal and (or) metaphyseal low-grade malignant bone tumors or metastases with a low bone strength score (≤10). Intercalary prosthetic reconstruction is preferred for diaphyseal metastases with a high bone strength score (> 10).