Background: Varied and fragmented care plans undertaken by different practitioners currently expose surgical patients to lapses in expected care, increase the chance for operational mistakes and accidents, and often result in unnecessary care. The Perioperative Surgical Home has thus been proposed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and other stakeholders as an innovative, patient-centered, surgical continuity of care model that incorporates shared decision making. Topics central to the debate about an anesthesiology-based Perioperative Surgical Home include: holding the gains made in anesthesia-related patient safety; impacting surgical morbidity and mortality, including failure-to-rescue; achieving healthcare outcome metrics; assimilating comparative effectiveness research into the model; establishing necessary audit and data collection; a comparison with the hospitalist model of perioperative care; the perspective of the surgeon; the benefits of the Perioperative Surgical Home to the specialty of anesthesiology; and its associated healthcare economic advantages. Discussion: Improving surgical morbidity and mortality mandates a more comprehensive and integrated approach to the management of surgical patients. In their expanded capacity as the surgical patient's "perioperativist," anesthesiologists can play a key role in compliance with broader set of process measures, thus becoming a more vital and valuable provider from the patient, administrator, and payer perspective. The robust perioperative databases created within the Perioperative Surgical Home present new opportunities for health services and population-level research. The Perioperative Surgical Home is not intended to replace the surgeon's patient care responsibility, but rather leverage the abilities of the entire perioperative care team in the service of the patient. To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to expand the core knowledge, skills, and experience of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiologists will need to view becoming perioperative physicians as an expansion of the specialty, rather than an abdication of their traditional intraoperative role. The Perioperative Surgical Home will need to create strategic added value for a health system and payers. This added value will strengthen the position of anesthesiologists as they navigate and negotiate in the face of finite, if not decreasing fiscal resources. Summary: Broadening the anesthesiologist's scope of practice via the Perioperative Surgical Home may promote standardization and improve clinical outcomes and decrease resource utilization by providing greater patient-centered continuity of care throughout the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods.
textabstractBackground: Obesity is generally believed to be a risk factor for the development of postoperative complications. Although being obese is associated with medical hazards, recent literature shows no convincing data to support this assumption. Moreover a paradox between body mass index and survival is described. This study was designed to determine influence of body mass index on postoperative complications and long-term survival after surgery. Methods: A single-centre prospective analysis of postoperative complications in 4293 patients undergoing general surgery was conducted, with a median follow-up time of 6.3 years. We analyzed the impact of bodyweight on postoperative morbidity and mortality, using univariate and multivariate regression models. Results: The obese had more concomitant diseases, increased risk of wound infection, greater intraoperative blood loss and a longer operation time. Being underweight was associated with a higher risk of complications, although not significant in adjusted analysis. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that underweight patients had worse outcome (HR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.4-3.0), whereas being overweight (HR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8) or obese (HR 0.7; 95 % CI 0.6-0.9) was associated with improved survival. Conclusion: Obesity alone is a significant risk factor for wound infection, more surgical blood loss and a longer operation time. Being obese is associated with improved long-term survival, validating the obesity paradox. We also found that complication and mortality rates are significantly worse for underweight patients. Our findings suggest that a tendency to regard obesity as a major risk factor in general surgery is not justified. It is the underweight patient who is most at risk of major postoperative complications, including long-term mortality.
Background: The purpose of our study was to organize the literature regarding the efficacy of modern videolaryngoscopes in oral endotracheal intubation, then perform a quality assessment according to recommended external criteria and make recommendations for use. Methods: Inclusion criteria included devices with recent studies of human subjects. A total of 980 articles were returned in the initial search and 65 additional items were identified using cited references. After exclusion of articles failing to meet study criteria, 77 articles remained. Data were extracted according to the rate of successful intubation and improvement of glottic view compared with direct laryngoscopy. Studies were classified according to whether they primarily examined subjects with normal airways, possessing risk factors for difficult direct laryngoscopy, or following difficult or failed direct laryngoscopy. Results: The evidence of efficacy for videolaryngoscopy in the difficult airway is limited. What evidence exists is both randomized prospective and observational in nature, requiring a scheme that evaluates both forms and allows recommendations to be made. Conclusions: In patients at higher risk of difficult laryngoscopy we recommend the use of the Airtraq, CTrach, GlideScope, Pentax AWS and V-MAC to achieve successful intubation. In difficult direct laryngoscopy (C&L >/= 3) we cautiously recommend the use of the Airtraq, Bonfils, Bullard, CTrach, GlideScope, and Pentax AWS, by an operator with reasonable prior experience, to achieve successful intubation when used in accordance with the ASA practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway. There is additional evidence to support the use of the Airtraq, Bonfils, CTrach, GlideScope, McGrath, and Pentax AWS following failed intubation via direct laryngoscopy to achieve successful intubation. Future investigation would benefit from precise qualification of the subjects under study, and an improvement in overall methodology to include randomization and blinding.
Background: Elderly patients are reportedly at higher risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane. We hypothesized that the incidence of POCD would be higher in elderly patients undergoing major surgery under inhalational rather than intravenous anesthesia. We also measured plasma S-100 beta protein concentration as a biomarker of central nervous system injury, and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations to judge the contribution of systemic inflammation to POCD. Methods: Ninety patients aged 65-75 years scheduled for resection of an esophageal carcinoma were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 30) as follows: a group receiving sevoflurane anesthesia (Group S); a group receiving preoperative methylprednisolone before sevoflurane anesthesia (Group S + MP); and a control group maintained with intravenous propofol (Group C). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) were used to measure patients' cognitive function the day before surgery, and on the first, third and seventh postoperative days. The plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and S-100 beta protein were measured 10 min before anesthesia, and on the first, third and seventh postoperative days. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic or clinical characteristics, or perioperative hemodynamic status, of the three groups. The MMSE and MoCA scores were significantly lower in Group S than in the propofol control (Group C) and Group S + MP on the first, third and seventh postoperative days (P < 0.05). Throughout the first postoperative week the plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and S-100 beta protein were significantly elevated in Group S compared with Group C (P < 0.05), but were significantly lower in Group S + MP than Group S (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of POCD was higher in elderly patients undergoing major surgery under inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane than those maintained on intravenous propofol, and lower in elderly patients pro-treating with methylprednisolone. Furthermore, we found elevated plasma concentrations of S-100 beta protein, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in those receiving sevoflurane anesthesia.
The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual-body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH(2)O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.
Background: Despite international data indicating that Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs, which combine evidence-based perioperative strategies, expedite recovery after surgery, few centers have successfully adopted this approach within the U.S. We describe the implementation and efficacy of an ERAS program for colorectal abdominal surgery in a tertiary teaching center in the U.S. Methods: We used a multi-modal and continuously evolving approach to implement an ERAS program among all patients undergoing colorectal abdominal surgery at a single hospital at the University of California, San Francisco. 279 patients who participated in the Enhanced Recovery after Surgery program were compared to 245 previous patients who underwent surgery prior to implementation of the program. Primary end points were length of stay and readmission rates. Secondary end points included postoperative pain scores, opioid consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting, length of urinary catheterization, and time to first solid meal. Results: ERAS decreased both median total hospital length of stay (6.4 to 4.4 days) and post-procedure length of stay (6.0 to 4.1 days). 30-day all-cause readmission rates decreased from 21 to 9.4 %. Pain scores improved on postoperative day 0 (3.2 to 2.1) and day 1 (3.2 to 2.6) despite decreased opioid. Median time to first solid meal decreased from 4.7 to 2.7 days and duration of urinary catheterization decreased from 74 to 46 h. Similar improvements were observed in all other secondary end points. Conclusions: These results confirm that a multidisciplinary, iterative, team-based approach is associated with a reduction in hospital stay and an acceleration in recovery without increasing readmission rates.
Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We analysed whether perioperative bilateral BIS monitoring may detect abnormalities before the onset of POD in cardiac surgery patients. Methods: In a prospective observational study, 81 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. Bilateral Bispectral Index (BIS)-monitoring was applied during the pre-, intra- and postoperative period, and BIS, EEG Asymmetry (ASYM), and Burst Suppression Ratio (BSR) were recorded. POD was diagnosed according to the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit, and patients were divided into a delirium and non-delirium group. Results: POD was detected in 26 patients (32%). A trend towards a lower ASYM was observed in the delirium group as compared to the non-delirium group on the preoperative day (ASYM = 48.2 +/- 3.6% versus 50.0 +/- 4.7%, mean +/- sd, p = 0.087) as well as before induction of anaesthesia, with oral midazolam anxiolysis (median ASYM = 49.5%, IQR [47.4;51.5] versus 50.6%, IQR [49.1;54.2], p = 0.081). Delirious patients remained significantly (p = 0.018) longer in a burst suppression state intraoperatively (107 minutes, IQR [47;170] versus 44 minutes, IQR [11;120]) than non-delirious patients. Receiver operating analysis revealed burst suppression duration (area under the curve = 0.73, p = 0.001) and BSR (AUC = 0.68, p = 0.009) as predictors of POD. Conclusions: Intraoperative assessment of BSR may identify patients at risk of POD and should be investigated in further studies. So far it remains unknown whether there is a causal relationship or rather an association between intraoperative burst suppression and the development of POD.
Background: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) refers to use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cardiopulmonary arrest. Although ECPR can increase survival rates after cardiac arrest, it can also result in poor post-resuscitation neurological status. Thus, we investigated predictors of good neurological outcomes after successful ECPR. Methods: A total of 227 patients underwent ECPR from May 2004 to June 2013 at Samsung Medical Center. Successful ECPR was defined as survival more than 24 hours after ECPR. Neurological outcomes were assessed at discharge using the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories scale (CPC). CPC 1 and 2 were classified as good and CPC 3 to 5 were classified as poor neurological outcomes. Excluded were 22 patients who did not survive more than 24 hours after ECPR and 90 patients who died from unknown causes or causes other than brain death or whose neurological status could not be assessed at discharge. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of neurological outcomes. Results: Included were 115 patients with a mean age of 58 (range 45-66) years and 80 men (70%). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed at non-hospital sites for 19 (17%) patients and bystander CPR was performed in 9 of 19 cases (47%). Cardiac etiology was verified in 74 (64%) patients and therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 9 patients (8%); 68 (59%) had good neurological outcomes and 47 (41%) did not and 24 patients died from brain death. Neurological outcomes were affected by hemoglobin levels before ECMO (P = 0.02), serum lactic acid (P < 0.001) before ECMO insertion, and interval from cardiac arrest to ECMO (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Low hemoglobin or high serum lactic acid levels before ECMO, and prolonged interval from cardiac arrest to ECMO predicted poor neurological outcomes after successful ECPR. Early institution of ECMO and a low threshold for blood transfusion might improve neurological outcomes for patients who survive ECPR.
Background: Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask. Methods: Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO(2) 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO(2) 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6-8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO(2) 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment. Results: PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 +/- 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 +/- 34 mmHg, p < 0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 +/- 21 mmHg, p < 0.001 vs. NIV, p < 0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 +/- 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 +/- 3.3, p < 0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 +/- 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 +/- 1.8, VM 3.1 +/- 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 +/- 3.1 (p < 0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 +/- 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 +/- 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 +/- 1.7 (p < 0.01 vs. HFNC and p < 0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV. Conclusions: In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be well tolerated by patients.
Background: A number of observational studies have found an association between low vitamin D levels and risk of sepsis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the overall estimate of risk. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by online searches (CENTRAL, PubMed/MEDLINE, and EMBASE) was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42014014767). Primary outcome was incidence, prevalence, relative risk or odds ratio of having sepsis or bloodstream infection between patients with vitamin D deficiency and controls. Results: The initial search yielded 647 articles. Twenty-one articles underwent full-length review and data were extracted from 10 observational studies. Pooled odds ratio of sepsis in participants with vitamin D deficiency was 1.78 (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.03, p < 0.01) compared with controls in studies that reported participant numbers and was 1.45 (95 % CI = 1.26 to 1.66, p < 0.01) in studies that reported an adjusted odds ratio of vitamin D deficiency for developing sepsis. Statistical between-study heterogeneity was low (I-2 = 0 % and 5 %, respectively). Standardized mean difference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with sepsis and controls was -0.24 (95 % CI = -0.49 to 0.00, p = 0.05) and lower in the sepsis group compared with non-sepsis or control participants. The statistical between-study heterogeneity (I-2) was 0 %. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency were associated with an increased susceptibility of sepsis.
Background: Hip fracture is a trauma of the elderly. The worldwide number of patients in need of surgery after hip fracture will increase in the coming years. The 30-day mortality ranges between 4 and 14%. Patients' outcome may be improved by anaesthesia technique (general vs. neuraxial anaesthesia). There is a dearth of evidence from randomised studies regarding to the optimal anaesthesia technique. However, several large non-randomised studies addressing this question have been published from the onset of 2010. Methods: To compare the 30-day mortality rate, in- hospital mortality rate and length of hospital stay after neuraxial (epidural/spinal) or general anaesthesia in hip fracture patients (>= 18 years old) we prepared a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search for appropriate retrospective observational and prospective randomised studies in Embase and PubMed databases was performed in the time-period from 01.01.2010 to 21.11.2016. Additionally a forward searching in google scholar, a level one reference list searching and a formal searching of trial registries was performed. Results: Twenty retrospective observational and three prospective randomised controlled studies were included. There was no difference in the 30-day mortality [OR 0.99; 95% CI ( 0.94 to 1.04), p = 0.60] between the general and the neuraxial anaesthesia group. The in- hospital mortality [OR 0.85; 95% CI ( 0.76 to 0.95), p = 0.004] and the length of hospital stay were significantly shorter in the neuraxial anaesthesia group [MD -0.26; 95% CI (-0.36 to -0.17); p < 0.00001]. Conclusion: Neuraxial anaesthesia is associated with a reduced in- hospital mortality and length of hospitalisation. However, type of anaesthesia did not influence the 30-day mortality. In future there is a need for large randomised studies to examine the association between the type of anaesthesia, post-operative complications and mortality.
textabstractBackground: Microcirculatory driving pressure is defined as the difference between post-arteriolar and venular pressure. In previous research, an absence of correlation between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and microcirculatory perfusion has been observed. However, the microcirculation may be considered as a low pressure compartment with capillary pressure closer to venous than to arterial pressure. From this perspective, it is conceivable that central venous pressure (CVP) plays a more important role in determination of capillary perfusion. We aimed to explore associations between CVP and microcirculatory perfusion.Methods: We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study in septic patients who were resuscitated according a strict non-CVP guided treatment protocol. Simultaneous measurements of hemodynamics and sublingual Sidestream Dark Field imaging were obtained 0 and 30 minutes after fulfillment of resuscitation goals. Data were examined for differences in microcirculatory variables for CVP ≤ or > 12 mmHg and its evolution over time, as well as for predictors of a microvascular flow index (MFI) 12 mmHg) group as compared to patients in the 'low' CVP (≤12 mmHg) group (1.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.006; and 88 ± 21% vs. 95 ± 8%, P = 0.006 respectively). Perfusion pressure (MAP-CVP) and cardiac output did not differ significantly between both CVP groups. From time point 0 to 30 minutes, a significant increase in MFI (from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 1.8 ± 0.9, P = 0.027) but not in PPV, was observed, while CVP and perfusion pressure significantly decreased in the same period. In a multivariate model CVP > 12 mmHg was the only significant predictor for a capillary MFI < 2.6 (Odds ratio 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.8), P = 0.026).Conclusion: We observed a significant association between a higher CVP and impairment of microcirculatory blood flow. Further research is needed to elaborate on our hypothesis generating findings that an elevated CVP may act as an outflow obstruction of organ perfusion.
Background: Dexmedetomidine has been shown to confer direct renoprotection by stabilizing the sympathetic system, exerting anti-inflammatory effects and attenuating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury (AKI) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial. Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the renal effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI. The secondary outcomes were mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital length of stay(LOS), and postoperative mortality (in-hospital or within 30 days). Results: Ten trials with a total of 1575 study patients were selected. Compared with controls, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AKI [68/788 vs 97/787; odds ratio(OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.92; P = 0. 02; I-2 = 0.0%], and there was no difference between groups in postoperative mortality (4/487 vs 11/483; OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14-1.28; P = 0.13; I-2 = 0.0%), MV duration [in days; n = 1229; weighted mean difference(WMD), -0.22; 95% CI, -2.04 to 1.70; P = 0.81], ICU stay (in days; n = 1363; WMD, -0.85; 95% CI, -2.14 to 0.45; P = 0.20), and hospital LOS (in days; n = 878; WMD, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.23; P = 0.32). Conclusions: Perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative AKI. Future trials are needed to determine the dose and timing of dexmedetomidine in improving outcomes, especially in patients with decreased baseline kidney function.
Background: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is used widely in spinal surgery because inhalational anesthetics are known to decrease the amplitude of motor evoked potentials. Presently, dexmedetomidine is used as an adjuvant for propofol-based TIVA. We compared the effects of remifentanil and dexmedetomidine on pain intensity as well as the analgesic requirements after post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Methods: Forty patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained using propofol at 3-12 mg/kg/h and remifentanil at 0.01-0.2 mu g/kg/min in Remifentanil group or dexmedetomidine at 0.01-0.02 mu g/kg/min in Dexmedetomidine group, keeping the bispectral index between 40 and 60. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) made of hydromophone was applied once the patients opened their eyes in the PACU. The visual analog scale (VAS) score, PCA dosage administered, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were recorded at the time of discharge from the PACU (T1) and at 2 (T2), 8 (T3), 24 (T4), and 48 hours (T5) after surgery. Results: The VAS score in Remifentanil group was significantly higher than that in Dexmedetomidine group at immediate and late postoperative period (4.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 2.3 +/- 2.2 at T1, and 4.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 at T5; P 0.05, but 69.7 +/- 21.4 ml vs. 52.8 +/- 10.8 ml at T5; P < 0.05). Patients in Remifentanil group displayed more PONV until 24 hours post-surgery. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine displayed superior efficacy in alleviating pain and in postoperative pain management for 48 hours after PLIF. Therefore, dexmedetomidine may be used instead of remifentanil as an adjuvant in propofol-based TIVA.
Background: The LMA Protector (TM) is the latest CE marked single use supraglottic airway device. This airway device provides access and functional separation of the respiratory and digestive tracts. There are two ports (male, female ports) to provide suction in the laryngeal region and insertion of the gastric tube. The aim of our study is to assess the ease of use, airway quality, device positioning, airway leak and complications associated with initial clinical experience in LMA Protector (TM) usage. Methods: This is an initial investigation of LMA Protector (TM) airway device. We conducted a preliminary assessment in the anaesthetised women who underwent minor gynaecological procedures with spontaneous ventilation in order to evaluate the performance of the airway device. Results: Insertion was successful on first and second attempts in 23 (88.5%) and 3 (11.5%) respectively. Median [IQR (range)] insertion time was 19 [17-21(14-58)] seconds. Airway leak pressure was 25.5 [23-29(21-30] cm H2O. On fibreoptic examination via the device, vocal cords were visible in all 26 patients. There were no alternative airway use or airway manipulations required during maintenance of anaesthesia. Six patients had sore throat 24 h after procedures and there was no dysphagia or hoarseness. Conclusion: This pilot study of the LMA protector shows that the device is easily inserted with fast insertion time, providing a reliable and adequate airway seal.
BackgroundA common postoperative complication found among patients who are critically ill is delirium, which has a high mortality rate. A predictive model is needed to identify high-risk patients in order to apply strategies which will prevent and/or reduce adverse outcomes.ObjectivesTo identify the incidence of, and the risk factors for, postoperative delirium (POD) in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients, and to determine predictive scores for the development of POD.MethodsThis study enrolled adults aged over 18years who had undergone an operation within the preceding week and who had been admitted to a SICU for a period that was expected to be longer than 24h. The CAM-ICU score was used to determine the occurrence of delirium.ResultsOf the 250 patients enrolled, delirium was found in 61 (24.4%). The independent risk factors for delirium that were identified by a multivariate analysis comprised age, diabetes mellitus, severity of disease (SOFA score), perioperative use of benzodiazepine, and mechanical ventilation. A predictive score (age+(5xSOFA)+(15xBenzodiazepine use)+(20xDM)+(20xmechanical ventilation)+(20xmodified IQCODE >3.42)) was created. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.786 to 0.897). The cut point of 125 demonstrated a sensitivity of 72.13% and a specificity of 80.95%, and the hospital mortality rate was significantly greater among the delirious than the non-delirious patients (25% vs. 6%, p<0.01).ConclusionsPOD was experienced postoperatively by a quarter of the surgical patients who were critically ill. A risk score utilizing 6 variables was able to predict which patients would develop POD. The identification of high-risk patients following SICU admission can provide a basis for intervention strategies to improve outcomes.Trial registrationThai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20181204006. Date registered on December 4, 2018. Retrospectively registered.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is often used in critical patients with severe myocardial failure. However, the mortality rate of patients on ECMO is often high. Recent studies have suggested that endothelial activation with subsequent vascular barrier breakdown is a critical pathogenic mechanism of organ damage and is related to the outcome of critical illness. This study aimed to determine whether endothelial biomarkers can be served as prognostic factors for the outcome of patients on ECMO. This prospective study enrolled 23 critically ill patients on veno-arterial ECMO in the intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital between March 2014 and February 2015. Serum samples were tested for thrombomodulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were also collected. The overall mortality rate was 56.5%. The combination of Ang-2 at the time of ECMO support (day 0) and VEGF at day 2 had the ability to discriminate mortality (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.854; 95% confidence interval: 0.645-0.965). In this study, we found that the combination of Ang-2 at day 0 and VEGF at day 2 was a modest model for mortality discrimination in this group of patients.
Background: Airway management is crucial and, probably, even the most important key competence in anaesthesiology, which directly influences patient safety and outcome. However, high-quality research is rarely published and studies usually have different primary or secondary endpoints which impedes clear unbiased comparisons between studies. The aim of the present study was to gather and analyse primary and secondary endpoints in video laryngoscopy studies being published over the last ten years and to create a core set of uniform or homogeneous outcomes (COS). Methods: Retrospective analysis. Data were identified by using MEDLINE (R) database and the terms video laryngoscopy and video laryngoscope limited to the years 2007 to 2017. A total of 3351 studies were identified by the applied search strategy in PubMed. Papers were screened by two anaesthesiologists independently to identify study endpoints. The DELPHI method was used for consensus finding. Results: In the 372 studies analysed and included, 49 different outcome categories/columns were reported. The items time to intubation (65.86%), laryngeal view grade (44.89%), successful intubation rate (36.56%), number of intubation attempts (23.39%), complications (21.24%), and successful first-pass intubation rate (19.09%) were reported most frequently. A total of 19 specific parameters is recommended. Conclusions: In recent video laryngoscopy studies, many different and inhomogeneous parameters were used as outcome descriptors/endpoints. Based on these findings, we recommend that 19 specific parameters (e.g., time to intubation (inserting the laryngoscope to first ventilation), laryngeal view grade (C&L and POGO), successful intubation rate, etc.) should be used in coming research to facilitate future comparisons of video laryngoscopy studies.
Background: Barbiturates are commonly used in ambulatory sedation of pediatric patients. However, use of barbiturates involve risks of respiratory complications. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is increasingly used for pediatric sedation. Premedication with intranasal (IN) dexmedetomidine offers a non-invasive and efficient possibility to sedate pediatric patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our hypothesis was that dexmedetomidine would reduce barbiturate requirements in procedural sedation. Methods: We included 200 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing MRI, and analyzed their hospital records retrospectively. Half of the patients received 3 mu g/kg of IN dexmedetomidine (DEX group) 45-60 min before MRI while the rest received only thiopental (THIO group) for procedural sedation. Sedation was maintained with further intravenous thiopental dosing as needed. Thiopental consumption, heart rate (HR) and peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded. Results: The cumulative thiopental requirement during MRI was (median and interquartile range [IQR]) 4.4 (2.7-6.0) mg/kg/h in the DEX group and 12.4 (9.8-14.8) mg/kg/h in the THIO group (difference 7.9 mg/kg/h, 95% CI 6.8-8.8, P < 0.001). Lowest measured peripheral oxygen saturation remained slightly higher in the DEX group compared to the THIO group (median nadirs and IQR: 97 (95-97) % and 96 (94-97) %, P < 0.001). Supplemental oxygen was delivered to 33% of the patients in the THIO group compared to 2% in the DEX group (P < 0.001). The lowest measured HR (mean and SD) was lower (78 (16) bpm) in the DEX group compared to the THIO group (92 (12) bpm) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Premedication with IN dexmedetomidine (3 mu g/kg) was associated with markedly reduced thiopental dosage needed for efficient procedural sedation for pediatric MRI.
BackgroundLaryngeal mask airway is a supraglottic airway device which has led to a fundamental change in the management of modern general anesthesia. In the present study; we evaluated the laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions and hemodynamic changes comparing ketamine-propofol mixture (ketofol) with propofol. The study was to compare the ketamine-propofol mixture (ketofol) with propofolon the ease of laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions and hemodynamic effects for induction of general anesthesia.MethodsOne hundred twenty pediatric patients were recruited and assigned to two groups (60 each). Group KP=ketofol, group P=propofol. Insertion conditions were compared using a Chi-square test while hemodynamic variables were compared using the independentt-test. Statistical significance was stated at p-value<0.05.ResultsLaryngeal mask airway insertion summed score was nearly similar between the two groups. Mean blood pressure and heart rate were maintained higher in ketofol group while a significant drop was observed in the propofol group. The time from the Laryngeal mask airway placement to the return of spontaneous ventilation was significantly longer in propofol group (240s [range=60-360s]) compared with ketofol group (180s [range=30-320s]) (p=0.005).ConclusionsLaryngeal mask airway insertion condition summed score was comparable in both ketofol and propofol group. Ketofol provided equivalent laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions while maximizing hemodynamics and minimizing apnea time. Ketofol can be used as an alternative to propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion in pediatrics.