Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investige whether online environment cues (web site quality and web site brand) affect customer purchase intention towards an online retailer and whether this impact is mediated by customer trust and perceived risk. The study also aimed to assess the degree of reciprocity between consumers' trust and perceived risk in the context of an online shopping environment. Design/methodology/approach - The study proposed a research framework for testing the relationships among the constructs based on the stimulus-organism-response framework. In addition, this study developed a non-recursive model. After the validation of measurement scales, empirical analyses were performed using structural equation modelling. Findings - The findings confirm that web site quality and web site brand affect consumers' trust and perceived risk, and in turn, consumer purchase intention. Notably, this study finds that the web site brand is a more important cue than web site quality in influencing customers' purchase intention. Furthermore, the study reveals that the relationship between trust and perceived risk is reciprocal. Research limitations/implications - This study adopted four dimensions - technical adequacy, content quality, specific content and appearance - to measure web site quality. However, there are still many competing concepts regarding the measurement of web site quality. Further studies using other dimensional measures may be needed to verify the research model. Practical implications - Online retailers should focus their marketing strategies more on establishing the brand of the web site rather than improving the functionality of the web site. Originality/value - This study proposed a non-recursive model for empirically analysing the link between web site quality, web site brand, trust, perceived risk and purchase intention towards the online retailer.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how various characteristics of brand posts influence online engagement on Facebook brand pages. Design/methodology/approach – The data used for this study were obtained from the posts of ten popular official brand pages. For the selected period between March 1 and May 1, 2014, a total of 1,030 posts were obtained and manually processed on September 1, 2014. To assign post categories to the posts created by page administrators, the authors performed manual coding, following the coding development strategy. Findings – The results demonstrated that the media and content type of posts exert a significant effect on user online engagement. This study used liking, commenting and sharing behavior as a measure of users’ online engagement to specify the new phenomena. Originality/value – The findings are relevant for the theory of information dissemination and provide valuable and directly applicable implications for the social media marketing of companies.
Purpose – This study aims to propose a set of metrics in order to assess reactivity, dialogic communication and stakeholder engagement (popularity, commitment and virality): stakeholders' mood and social legitimacy on corporate Facebook pages. These metrics can offer a better understanding and measurability of this social media/social network/online communication management tool. Design/methodology/approach – Three theories (dialogic, stakeholders and legitimacy) were considered in the development of these metrics. Empirical evidence was collected from a sample of 314 European companies. Then ten active companies were used to validate the proposed metrics on Facebook. Findings – The constructed set of metrics was found to be valid and efficiently usable according to the principles of the applied theories. Moreover all the proposed metrics could be adapted for such sites as Google+. Research limitations/implications – Limitations can only be identified within the validation process as the metrics were only applied to ten representative companies from the Eurozone. Practical implications – The proposed metrics will help users, marketing/PR/communication professionals and company managers to measure their and their competitors' popularity, commitment, virality (metrics which reflect stakeholder engagement), and the mood of stakeholders, and use content analysis in order to measure social legitimacy via CSR information disclosure on Facebook. Thus the online reputation of a company can be practically measured. Originality/value – This paper is the first proposing metrics to assess stakeholder engagement and social legitimacy on a corporate Facebook page that can be used in both academic and professional circles to a gain a better understanding of corporate online communication via Facebook.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand customers' repurchase intentions in online shopping. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by introducing e-service quality dimensions, trust and enjoyment in the development of a theoretical model to study customers' repurchase intentions within the context of online shopping.Design methodology approach - Data collected from 360 PCHome online shopping customers provides strong support for the proposed research model. PLS (partial least squares, PLS-Graph version 3.0) is used to analyse the measurement and structural models.Findings - The study shows that trust, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and enjoyment are significant positive predictors of customers' repurchase intentions.Research limitations implications - The data are collected from a single online shopping store - the generalisation of the model and findings to other online stores requires additional research. Our findings imply that the five dimensions of e-service quality are possibly among the most important antecedents of customers' trust in online vendors.Practical implications - Online vendors should ensure that they provide adequate utilitarian and hedonic value for customers instead of focusing on just one of these aspects in their web site development.Originality value - Customer loyalty is critical to the online vendor's survival and success. The study provides evidence that online trust is built through order fulfilment, privacy, responsiveness and contact.
Purpose - The objective of this paper is to analyse whether individuals' socioeconomic characteristics - age, gender and income - influence their online shopping behaviour. The individuals analysed are experienced e-shoppers i.e. individuals who often make purchases on the internet.Design methodology approach - The technology acceptance model was broadened to include previous use of the internet and perceived self-efficacy. The perceptions and behaviour of e-shoppers are based on their own experiences. The information obtained has been tested using causal and multi-sample analyses.Findings - The results show that socioeconomic variables moderate neither the influence of previous use of the internet nor the perceptions of e-commerce; in short, they do not condition the behaviour of the experienced e-shopper.Practical implications - The results obtained help to determine that once individuals attain the status of experienced e-shoppers their behaviour is similar, independently of their socioeconomic characteristics. The internet has become a marketplace suitable for all ages and incomes and both genders, and thus the prejudices linked to the advisability of selling certain products should be revised.Originality value - Previous research related to the socioeconomic variables affecting e-commerce has been aimed at forecasting who is likely to make an initial online purchase. In contrast to the majority of existing studies, it is considered that the current development of the online environment should lead to analysis of a new kind of e-shopper (experienced purchaser), whose behaviour differs from that studied at the outset of this research field. The experience acquired with online shopping nullifies the importance of socioeconomic characteristics.
Purpose – Numerous electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) studies have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of persuasive eWOM messages. Despite the impact of eWOM messages in decision-making processes, few researches have directly tested potential antecedents of persuasive eWOM messages among message recipients in social media context. The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss and examine the determinants of persuasive eWOM messages when message recipients intend to accept and use eWOM messages. Design/methodology/approach – The authors reviewed extant literature of eWOM and proposed hypotheses regarding persuasive eWOM messages in social media context. A survey of 78 respondents was conducted and the data were analysed using SmartPLS. Findings – This study found that argument quality, source credibility, source attractiveness, source perception and source style are critical antecedents of persuasive eWOM messages. The PLS results suggested that source credibility (trustworthiness), source perception (usefulness, social ties) and source style (visual cues, number) are main characteristics of credible eWOM messages in relation to users’ intention to accept and use online reviews. The variance of information acceptance and intention to use were also explained in the findings. Practical implications – This paper identified critical antecedents of persuasive eWOM messages and suggested eWOM messages as a credible source. An integrated conceptual framework was developed to illustrate comprehensive antecedents of persuasive eWOM messages, and the relationships between these messages, information acceptance and intention to use. Originality/value – The significance of the study is to identify the effectiveness of eWOM messages and its impact on intention to accept and use these messages. Moreover, this study will provide insightful guidelines for marketers with practical implications in approaching emerging markets via eWOM initiatives.
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of e-service quality, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in an online shopping environment.Design methodology approach - There were two studies performed in this research. Study 1 validated the self-regulating processes; Study 2 tested the moderating effects of customer perceived value between satisfaction and loyalty. Structural equation modelling techniques and linear hierarchical regression models were used to test the causal model.Findings - The study demonstrated that e-service quality and customer perceived value influence customer satisfaction, and then influence customer loyalty. In addition this study found that customers with a high perceived value have a stronger relationship between satisfaction and customer loyalty than customers with a low perceived value.Research limitations implications - We found that there are emotional and rational routes influencing customer loyalty in the online shopping process. This will contribute to other research that clarifies the influencing process of online shoppers' motivation and behaviour.Practical implications - In the pre-purchase stage, online retailers should focus on attracting consumers by the quality of e-service. In the purchase stage, online retailers should address the emotional factors, such as customer satisfaction. In the post-purchase stage, rational factors - such as customer perceived value - play important roles because they can strengthen the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty.Originality value - This study viewed the purchase process as a different stage as consumers may make a choice at each of the purchase stages. Moreover this study found a way to examine the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty by exploring the moderating effects of customer perceived value.
Purpose - This paper aims to improve understanding of the reasons why people trust the information about product recommendations on social shopping networks of websites, a new e-commerce method which combines social networking and shopping, and to investigate the impact of the trust on the consumers' intention to purchase products from the online shop of a website. Design/methodology/approach An online survey instrument was developed to gather data, and 1,219 questionnaires were used to test the relationships in the proposed model. Findings The results indicated that perceived ability, perceived benevolence/integrity, perceived critical mass, and trust in a website were four important antecedents of trust in product recommendation in a social networking site. In addition trust in product recommendations can influence the consumers' intention to purchase from the website through increasing their intention to purchase the products. Research limitations/implications The research model demonstrated the importance of trust in product recommendations to online consumers' transaction intention. Practical implications The results of the study showed that trust in product recommendations will influence consumers' purchase intentions. Therefore a social shopping website or the websites transforming into social shopping websites should put more emphasis on ways to establish the virtual communities or social networks which can provide the information about product recommendations that consumers trust. Originality/value The study provides a comprehensive framework of the antecedents and effects of consumers' trust in recommendations in the context of social shopping.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to detect and describe disciplinary differences in the users and use of several social networking sites by scientists. Design/methodology/approach – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) (Spanish National Research Council) researchers registered in the most currently relevant academic social network sites (Google Scholar Citations, Academia.edu, ResearchGate (RG) and Mendeley) were analysed. In total, 6,132 profiles were classified according the eight research areas of the CSIC. Findings – Results show that Academia.edu is massively populated by humanists and social scientists, while RG is popular among biologists. Disciplinary differences are observed across every platform. Thus, scientists from the humanities and social sciences and natural resources show a significant activity contacting other members. On the contrary, biologists are more passive using social tools. Originality/value – This is the first study that analyses the disciplinary performance of a same sample of researchers on a varied number of academic social sites, comparing their numbers across web sites.
Purpose – With the rapid expansion of social networking sites, researchers and practitioners are challenged to understand drivers of customer loyalty in fan pages. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main drivers of Facebook fan page loyalty in order to promote the creation of affective links and long-term relationships with users. Design/methodology/approach – The impact of trust, fan page content dependency, attitude and consumer beliefs on loyalty to fan pages was tested through structural equation modelling techniques. The sample consisted of 691 Spanish Facebook users. Findings – Data analysis shows that attitude appears as a key variable in increasing loyalty to fan pages. The empirical study also found a significant positive influence of perceived usefulness, attitude, trust and dependency on loyalty in fan pages, and an indirect influence of perceived ease of use mediated by perceived usefulness and attitude. Practical implications – This research enables managers to know what aspects to highlight in their communication strategies to increase fan page use and positive word-of-mouth. Research findings show managers that Facebook fan page content should provide valuable information, be fun and foster user interactions in order to improve user attitude and loyalty. Practical recommendations to reinforce consumer trust on Facebook fan pages are also provided. Originality/value – There are still too few studies that analyse the effects of trust and fan page dependency on fan page users’ loyalty. This work aims to combine the influence of dependency on fan pages, trust, attitude and Technology Acceptance Model beliefs in order to construct an improved model for fan page loyalty formation.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss new approaches for managing personal knowledge in the Web 2.0 era. The paper questions whether Web 2.0 technologies (social software) are a real panacea for the challenges associated with the management of knowledge. Can Web 2.0 reconcile the conflicting interests of managing organisational knowledge with personal objectives? Does Web 2.0 enable a more effective way of sharing and managing knowledge at the personal level? Design/methodology/approach - Theoretically deductive with illustrative examples. Findings - Web 2.0 plays a multifaceted role for communicating, collaborating, sharing and managing knowledge. Web 2.0 enables a new model of personal knowledge management (PKM) that includes formal and informal communication, collaboration and social net-working tools. This new PKM model facilitates interaction, collaboration and knowledge exchanges on the web and in organisations. Practical implications - Based on these findings, professionals and scholars will gain a better understanding of the potential role of Web 2.0 technologies for harnessing and managing personal knowledge. The paper provides concrete examples of how Web 2.0 tools are currently used ill organisations. Originality/value - As Web 2.0 has become integrated in our day-to-day activities, there is a need to further understand the relationship between Web 2.0 and PKM.
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to examine the critical success factors of mobile web site adoption.Design methodology approach - Based on the valid responses collected from a questionnaire survey, the structural equation modelling technique was employed to examine the research model.Findings - The results indicate that system quality is the main factor affecting perceived ease of use, whereas information quality is the main factor affecting perceived usefulness. Service quality has significant effects on trust and perceived ease of use. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and trust determine user satisfaction.Practical implications - Mobile service providers need to improve the system quality, information quality and service quality of mobile web sites to enhance user satisfaction.Originality value - Previous research has mainly focused on e-commerce web site success and seldom examined the factors affecting mobile web site success. This research fills the gap. The research draws on information systems success theory, the technology acceptance model and trust theory as the theoretical bases.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a research model examining users' perceived value of a location-based social networking service (LB-SNS) through hedonic, utilitarian, and social values. This study investigates the impact for each type of perceived value on user satisfaction, behavioural intention: to use, and word-of-mouth for LB-SNS. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected from 172 Korean smartphone users with experience using LB-SNS. This study employed PLS to test the proposed model and corresponding hypotheses. Findings - A positive influence exists for each type of perceived value on satisfaction with hedonic value having the strongest relationship. Hedonic value is positively correlated with behavioural intention to use LB-SNS and positive word-of-mouth while social value affects positive word-of-mouth. Utilitarian value did not influence either behavioural intention to use LB-SNS or positive word-of-mouth. User satisfaction has a significant influence on both behavioural intention to use LB-SNS and positive word-of-mouth. Research limitations/implications - This study is at the forefront of research focused on LB-SNS adoption, extending beyond the utilitarian-hedonic value dichotomy to include a social dimension. This study confirmed that perceived value is an antecedent of satisfaction, which leads to behavioural intentions. Practical implications - The advantages and benefits of LB-SNS should be emphasised to increase users' perceived value. LB-SNS providers can improve user satisfaction by increasing the hedonic, utilitarian, and social value of their services. Organisations should seek out and explore the possibilities of marketing campaigns through LB-SNS. Originality/value - This study is the first empirical study examining user acceptance of LB-SNS incorporating users' perceived value satisfaction and behavioural intentions
Purpose – This study aims to explore Twitter use by Korea's central government by classifying the government's Twitter-based networking strategies into government-to-citizen (G2C) and government-to-government (G2G) strategies. Design/methodology/approach – The study investigates the nature of social media interactions and networking strategies in the Korean government by extracting tweets, follower/following relationships, and hyperlinks for 32 ministries. Network patterns and networking strategies are reviewed through descriptive statistical analysis and social network analysis to map the government's Twitter activity. Findings – The results indicate that the government's direct networking strategy targeting citizens does not necessarily motivate their participation in the government's social media activities but that it plays an instrumental role in reinforcing G2G relationships. Originality/value – This study investigates the social media use patterns (e.g. network properties and co-link analyses) and strategies (e.g. the reciprocity of relationships and content-push strategies) in the context of G2C and G2G relationships in Korea's public sector.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report on and describe the use of MediaWiki and Google Docs at undergraduate level as online collaboration tools for co-constructing knowledge in group project work.Design methodology approach - Participants included 22 undergraduate students from the Information Management Programme at the University of Hong Kong. All the students had used MediaWiki for the major project in their knowledge management course and Google Docs for their final year project. Questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews were administered after completion of the course final year project. All interview conversations were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Each transcript was e-mailed to the interviewee for accuracy review. The qualitative data supplemented, enriched and clarified the quantitative responses from the online surveys.Findings - The results indicated that some of the students had positive experiences using the tools for online collaboration in the group projects. Although more students found MediaWiki an effective knowledge management tool than Google Docs, many students highlighted the user-friendly features of Google Docs.Originality value - These platforms (MediaWiki and Google Docs) gave teachers the facility to closely monitor student progress, and to provide feedback to assist in the effective management of the report-writing process. Moreover,the use of Google Docs in an academic setting remains largely unexplored in the literature, even though the collaborative features of MediaWiki and Google Docs are relatively comparable.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of trust management on the fundraising performance in reward-based crowdfunding. Design/methodology/approach – A research model was constructed based on elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and literatures with five hypotheses developed. Data were collected from www.demohour.com - the first and one of the largest reward-based crowdfunding platforms in China. In total, 829 reward-based crowdfunding projects were analyzed to test hypotheses. To test the hypotheses, partial least squares was used to analyze data of entrepreneur/sponsor profiles, entrepreneur/sponsor behaviors, and crowdfunding projects. Findings – Results indicated trust management significantly promoted fundraising performance via central (entrepreneur’s creditworthiness) and peripheral (entrepreneur-sponsor interactions) routes. The peripheral route (entrepreneur-sponsor interaction) showed significantly higher effects than the central route (entrepreneur’s creditworthiness). The finding aligns with authors’ assumptions derived from unique characteristics of reward-based crowdfunding – community and collaboration because personal, dynamic message interactions were more effective than static, historical success records on the trust establishment. In addition to the main effects, the results also showed entrepreneur’s prior success crowdfunding records positively moderated the effect of entrepreneur-sponsor interaction on fundraising performance. Originality/value – This study is the first paper that reveals the value of trust management in reward-based fundraising, especially the effect of dynamic entrepreneur-sponsor message interactions. Entrepreneur-sponsor interactions not only promoted community benefits in crowdfunding, but also cultivated trust relationships between entrepreneurs and sponsors. Previous studies mainly focussed on the entrepreneur’s popularity level on third-party social media (such as Facebook) toward fundraising performance. This study examines the effect of direct entrepreneur-sponsor interactions on the crowdfunding platform. Additionally, this study found one moderating effect from the central route to the peripheral route. It is a rare case in studies based on ELM. Finally, this study demonstrates how to incorporate a theoretical framework guiding the analysis of structured and unstructured data for in-depth analysis, result interpretation, and corresponding intervention strategy development.
Purpose - The rapid development of Web 2.0 and social media enables the rise of crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing contest is a typical case of crowdsourcing and has been adopted by many organisations for business solution and decision making. From a participant's perspective, it is interesting to explore what motivates people to participate in crowdsourcing contest. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the category of motivation based on self-determination theory and synthesises various motivation factors in crowdsourcing contest. Meanwhile, perceived motivational affordances and task granularity are also examined as the moderate constructs. Design/methodology/approach - The paper builds a conceptual model to illustrate the relationships between various motivations (extrinsic and intrinsic) and participation effort under the moderating of perceived motivational affordances and task granularity. An empirical study is conducted to test the research model by surveying the Chinese participants of crowdsourcing contest. Findings - The results show that various motivations might play different roles in relating to participation effort expended in the crowdsourcing contest. Moreover, task granularity may positively moderate the relationship between external motivation and participation effort. The results also show that supporting of a participant's perceived motivational affordances might strengthen the relationship between the individual's motivation with an internal focus (intrinsic, integrated, identified and introjected motivation) and participation effort. Originality/value - Overall, the research has some conceptual and theoretical implications to the literature. This study synthesises various motivation factors identified by previous studies in crowdsourcing projects or communities as a form of motivation spectrum, namely external, introjected, identified, integrated and intrinsic motivation, which contributes to the motivation literatures. Meanwhile, the findings indicate that various motivations might play different roles in relating to participation effort expended in the crowdsourcing contest. Also, the study theoretically extends the crowdsourcing participation research to incorporate the effects of perceived motivational affordances in crowdsourcing contest. In addition, the study may yield some practical implications for sponsors, managers and designers in crowdsourcing contest.
Purpose - This paper aims to explore some of the effects of belonging to a virtual brand community on consumer behaviour. It also proposes the concept of belonging as a three-dimensional construct. Design/methodology/approach - The paper proposes that belonging to a virtual community has positive effects on consumer satisfaction, affective commitment and word-of-mouth behaviour. After validation of the measurement scales the hypotheses are contrasted through modelling. Findings - The data show that belonging to a virtual community may enhance consumer satisfaction, affective commitment and word-of-mouth advertising towards the brand around which the community is developed. In addition, the paper introduces a third dimension to the construct of belonging, called non-participative belonging. Active participative belonging influences the level of satisfaction and affective commitment more positively than passive and non-participative belonging. Research limitations/implications - Data were obtained through surveys, web surveys and online interviews. There were also limitations of sample size and sampling procedure. Practical implications Managers may enhance consumer satisfaction, affective commitment and word-of-mouth advertising by developing virtual brand communities and promoting consumers' participation in them. Originality/value - Previous works that have focused on virtual brand communities have never concentrated on virtual brand communities within Facebook. In addition, prior to this study, belonging to a virtual brand community was a two-dimensional construct: active and passive participative belonging. The paper identifies a third dimension as non-participative belonging. Thus this paper offers new areas for future research.
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of perceived web site security and privacy, usability and reputation on consumer trust in the context of online banking. Moreover, the paper also aims to analyse the trust-commitment relationship since commitment is a key variable for establishing successful long-term relationships with customers.Design methodology approach - The paper describes the positive effects of security and privacy, usability and reputation on consumer trust in a web site in the online banking context. Besides this, it also suggests that trust has a positive effect on consumer commitment. After the validation of measurement scales, the hypotheses are contrasted through structural modelling. Finally, the paper compares the hypothesised model with a rival one in order to test the mediating role of trust.Findings - The data showed that web site security and privacy, usability and reputation have a direct and significant effect on consumer trust in a financial services web site. Besides this, consumer trust is positively related to relationship commitment. Finally, it is observed that trust is a key mediating factor in the development of relationship commitment in the online banking context.Research implications limitations - The high costs every company has to face in order to attract new customers make it increasingly necessary to reinforce the ties established with customers. In this respect, this research offers several alternatives for improving the levels of consumer trust and commitment in the context of online banking. The limitation is that data were collected to a web survey only of Spanish-speaking subjects.Originality value - This study proposes a model for analysing empirically the link between security, privacy and trust, amongst others, in the online banking context.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the research status and development trend of the field of event detection in social media (ED in SM) through a bibliometric analysis of academic publications. Design/methodology/approach First, publication distributions are analyzed including the trends of publications and citations, subject distribution, predominant journals, affiliations, authors, etc. Second, an indicator of collaboration degree is used to measure scientific connective relations from different perspectives. A network analysis method is then applied to reveal scientific collaboration relations. Furthermore, based on keyword co-occurrence analysis, major research themes and their evolutions throughout time span are discovered. Finally, a network analysis method is applied to visualize the analysis results. Findings The area of ED in SM has received increasing attention and interest in academia with Computer Science and Engineering as two major research subjects. The USA and China contribute the most to the area development. Affiliations and authors tend to collaborate more with those within the same country. Among the 14 identified research themes, newly emerged themes such as Pharmacovigilance event detection are discovered. Originality/value This study is the first to comprehensively illustrate the research status of ED in SM by conducting a bibliometric analysis. Up-to-date findings are reported, which can help relevant researchers understand the research trend, seek scientific collaborators and optimize research topic choices.