Sisvar is a statistical analysis system, first released in 1996 although its development began in 1994. The first version was done in the programming language Pascal and compiled with Borland Turbo Pascal 3. Sisvar was developed to achieve some specific goals. The first objective was to obtain software that could be used directly on the statistical experimental course of the Department of Exact Science at the Federal University of Lavras. The second objective was to initiate the development of a genuinely Brazilian free software program that met the demands and peculiarities of research conducted in the country. The third goal was to present statistical analysis software for the Brazilian scientific community that would allow research results to be analyzed efficiently and reliably. All of the initial goals were achieved. Sisvar gained acceptance by the scientific community because it provides reliable, accurate, precise, simple and robust results, and allows users a greater degree of interactivity.
Sisvar is a statistical analysis system with a large usage by the scientific community to produce statistical analyses and to produce scientific results and conclusions. The large use of the statistical procedures of Sisvar by the scientific community is due to it being accurate, precise, simple and robust. With many options of analysis, Sisvar has a not so largely used analysis that is the multiple comparison procedures using bootstrap approaches. This paper aims to review this subject and to show some advantages of using Sisvar to perform such analysis to compare treatments means. Tests like Dunnett, Tukey, Student-Newman-Keuls and Scott-Knott are performed alternatively by bootstrap methods and show greater power and better controls of experimentwise type I error rates under non-normal, asymmetric, platykurtic or leptokurtic distributions.
Continuous crop expansion has led to a growing demand for phosphate fertilizers. A sound knowledge of the dynamics of phosphorus, and its interaction with iron oxides and organic matter, can be useful to develop effective strategies for sustainable management, especially in a scenario of increasing shortage of mineral phosphate resources. In this paper, we review the relationship of phosphate to iron oxides and organic matter, and its effect on phosphorus availability. Crops typically obtain phosphate from weathered minerals and dissolved fertilizers. However, the amount of phosphorus present in the soil solution depends on the extent to which it is adsorbed or desorbed by iron oxides, which may be influenced by interactions with organic matter. Therefore, systems for fertilizer recomendation based on methodologies considering interactions between soil components such as oxides and organic matter, and the phosphorus sorption capacity resulting from such interactions (e.g. residual P analysis), may be more reliable to ensure efficient, rational use of phosphate.
SensoMaker is a free software for data analysis from sensory studies, which has modules with user-friendly interface. Data acquisition can be performed using different methods, such as category scale, linear scale, temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), and time-intensity (TI). Results can be analyzed by a variety of methods, such as conventional internal and external preference mapping, three-way internal and external preference mapping, principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, TDS and TI curves, in addition to Tukey and Dunnett tests. High quality graphics are easily obtained and exported to several formats. The software is useful during the development or improvement of products, when it is important to carefully note consumer preferences and to relate it to descriptive characteristics in order to ensure good product acceptance.
ABSTRACT Evaluation of the genetic potential of parent plants is fundamental for obtaining superior populations with desirable agronomic characters. The aim of this work was to obtain estimates of the general and specific combining abilities of five soybean parents to identify the most promising parents and hybrid combinations for the development of superior genotypes for grain yield. In this study, two groups of soybean cultivars were selected: group I resistance (UFUS 7910 and BR/MG 46 Conquista) and group II (TMG 4182, TMG 4185 and BRSGO Chapadões). The parents were crossedin a 2 x 3 partial diallel scheme, and the experiment was analyzed according to Griffing’s (1956) parent and F1 model and adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Six hybrid combinations and respective parents were arranged in randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. The following characters were evaluated: number of days for flowering and maturity, height of the plant in flowering and at maturity, number of nodes in flowering and at maturity, number of total pods and grain yield per plant. The BR/MG 46 Conquista, UFUS 7910 and BRSGO Chapadões parents contributed to obtaining productive segregant populations due to additivity for the total number of pods and grain yield per plant. The hybrid combinations BRSGO Chapadões x BR/MG 46 Conquista, BRSGO Chapadões x UFUS 7910 and TMG4182 x BR/MG 46 Conquista are promising for obtaining populations with high productive potential.
ABSTRACT Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) analysis can be considered one of the main recent advances for chemical characterization of earth materials. The water content of the samples can affect the pXRF performance. As a novelty, we aimed to establish relationships (linear regression) between the effect of water content on pXRF results and atomic number (Z) of the elements. Three certified reference materials (CRM) were investigated: OREAS 100a, OREAS 101a, and OREAS 101b. These materials were saturated (0.68 g g-1) with distilled water and left to air-dry naturally. During the drying, the elemental concentrations (C) were determined at different water contents using a pXRF spectrometer. For each water content, the ratio Cwet/Cdry was determined and plotted against the water content. The attenuation coefficient (σ) was also determined. High σ values mean more influence of water content upon measurement element concentration. The obtained recovery rates allowed a qualitative determination. The concentration for the most elements reduced linearly with increasing water content. A predictable behavior of the water content on pXRF results as function of atomic number was not found. Elements identified by Lα spectral line with highest Z were more impacted by water content than elements identified by Kα line with lowest Z. Ti, Cr and Fe was not significantly influenced by water content, and Sr was the most impacted. Our findings contribute to decision-making before characterization earth materials via pXRF, obliging the use of dry samples for determination of impacted elements or by using moisture-corrected data.
ABSTRACT The use of fertilizers with some degree of protection of the phosphate ions can reduce soil adsorption and increase the absorption by plants, increasing the efficiency of phosphorus (P) fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a phosphate fertilizer associated with biochar in granules in a P-fixing soil in a greenhouse experiment. Biochars were produced from two sources of biomass: sugarcane bagasse (SB) and wood sawdust (WS), which were pyrolysed at two temperatures (350 °C and 700 °C). After chemical and physical characterization, the biochar samples were granulated with triple superphosphate (TSP) in a 3:1 ratio (TSP: biochar). The agronomic evaluation of the fertilizers was carried out by two successive maize crops (Zea mays L.) in the greenhouse, using a factorial scheme of (5x3) in randomized block design with four replicates. The treatments consisted of five fertilizers (TSP-WS350, TSP-WS700, TSP-SB350, TSP-SB700, and TSP) and three P doses (100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3). It was evaluated the dry matter production, P uptake in maize and P available in the soil after cultivation. The results indicate that dry matter production, considering the P uptake by the plant and the P available in the soil when using a dose of 400 mg dm-3, presented higher results in both crop cycles and the recovery rate in both cultivations occurred inversely to the P doses. The simple association of biochar with soluble phosphate fertilizer did not increase the efficiency of P use by maize, but it increased available P in soil.
ABSTRACT Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst, commonly called African star grass, is excellent forage in pasture formation and herd feeding. However, little information is available regarding weed management in areas of star grasses. Two field experiments were carried out in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the response of African star grass to postemergence herbicides. The treatments applied were as follows: 2,4-D (1,340.0 g ae ha-1); 2,4-D + picloram (720.0 +192.0 g ae ha-1 + 0.3% v/v nonionic surfactant); fluroxypyr + picloram (80.0 + 80.0 g ae ha-1 + 0.3% v/v mineral oil); fluroxypyr + aminopyralid (160.0 + 80.0 g ae ha-1 + 0.3% v/v mineral oil); fluroxypyr + triclopyr (320.0 + 960.0 g ae ha-1 + 0.3% v/v mineral oil); bentazon (720.0 g ai ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil); imazapyr (25.0 g ai ha-1); monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) (1,440.0 g ai ha-1 + 0.1% v/v nonionic surfactant); atrazine + S-metolachlor (1,480.0 + 1,160.0 g ai ha-1); atrazine + tembotrione (1,000.0 + 100.8 g ai ha-1 + 0.3% v/v mineral oil) and a control without herbicide application. The most phytotoxic treatments for the African star grass plants were fluroxypyr + amininopyralid, fluroxypyr + triclopyr and atrazine + tembotrione. The dry matter yield of star grass plants was not reduced by the applications of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, bentazon, imazapyr, MSMA and atrazine + S-metolachlor. These herbicides can be considered potential practices in African star grass crop management.
Dehydration of plant products extends its shelf life and reduces its mass and volume, which increases transport and storage efficiency and adds value to food. However, it is an intensive process in energy and time, making necessary the search for more efficient technologies, Thus, this study aimed to investigate the infrared ginger dehydration process by approaching the constant period of dehydration to the theory of mass and heat transfer process to the wet bulb thermometer and the decreasing period of dehydration to liquid diffusion theory. We submitted 5.0 mm thickness and 2.0 cm diameter slices to a dryer with infrared radiation at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 degrees C until constant mass. Heat and mass transfer coefficients, and effective diffusion coefficient increased linearly with temperature increasing, resulting in values ranging from 69.40 to 92.23 W m(-2) degrees C-1, 0.062 to 0.089 m s(-1) and 3.81 x 10(-9) to 1.13 x 10(-8) m(-2) s(-1). Variation of heat and mass transfer coefficients was described by a linear model and the variation of effective diffusion coefficient with the temperature was described with the Arrhenius relation, whose activation energy was 22.07 kJ mol(-1). The modified Henderson and Pabis model was able to satisfactorily describe the period of decreasing drying rate.
Brackish waters may vary in their chemical compositions, interfering with different plant responses to stress; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the production components of parsley plants subjected to levels of electrical conductivity in nutrient solutions with an initial ECns of 1.58 dS m(-1), which was solubilized in water with the following water electrical conductivity configurations (ECw): 0.12 (control), 1.12, 2.12, 3.12, 4.12 and 5.12 dS m(-1), resulting in six isosmotic levels (ECns = 1.7, 2.7, 3.7,4.7, 5.7 and 6.7 dS m(-1)) in an interaction with four types of salt: NaCI, CaCl2, MgCl2 and KCl. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme with five replicates. Two strategies were used to restore the volume consumed by the parsley plants, and the replacement was made with municipal-supply water (ECa = 0.12 dS m(-1)) in the first strategy and with the respective brackish waters in the second strategy. The total fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots were evaluated as well as the total dry mass percentage of the shoots and roots. The responses of the plants to the different cationic natures was more evident at the highest levels of electrical conductivity tested, and the use of municipal-supply water to replace the evapotranspired depth mitigated the deleterious effects of salinity. In addition, greater reductions were observed in the fresh and dry mass when the replacement of the volume consumed was with the brackish waters.
Crambe is an oilseed plant whose oil is suitable for various industrial purposes, such as production of biodiesel, plastics, rubbers, and cosmetics. There are reports of the rusticity of this species and its potential for growth in arid and semi-arid environments, where water scarcity and soil salinity are common. However, studies regarding the tolerance of its seeds to these stresses and the physiological responses triggered during germination and seedling establishment under these conditions are incipient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of crambe seeds to water deficit and salt stress during germination and early seedling development, as well as to investigate the role of antioxidant enzymes on tolerance to these conditions. The seeds were exposed to water and salt stresses and their performance was analyzed. Seed water content, imbibition rate, percentage and speed of germination, and the base water potential for seed germination were evaluated. In the seedlings, the following measurements were made: root and shoot length, fresh and dry matter of roots and shoots, moisture content, and activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), cataiase (CAT), and peroxidase (PDX). Water deficit and salt stress reduce the water uptake rate of the seeds, the germination and growth of seedlings. The crambe seeds had higher tolerance to salt stress than to water deficit. Absorption of salt and the action of the SOD and CAT antioxidant enzymes are part of the tolerance mechanisms of crambe seeds to salt stress.
Many organophosphorus compounds (OP) are used until today in agriculture as pesticides and, unfortunately, they are used as chemical warfare agents (or nerve agents) as well. Organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents are extremely toxic molecules, since they act as Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The most worrying effect of the exposure to these compounds is the acute cholinergic toxicity, which is the loss of muscle coordination. Once one is contaminated, the intoxication process begins through the binding of the OP in the active site of the AChE enzyme inactivating it. Current treatments for people exposed to low doses of OP can be performed with atropine, oximes and benzodiazepines. Important remediation processes involve the employment of bioremediation techniques using different degrading enzymes, such as the Phosphotriesterase from Agrobacterium radiobacter and SMP-30. Due to the high number of intoxications annually, it is crucial to search for more potent and effective treatment methods, and in this line, the techniques involving bioremediation seem to be quite promising for this purpose.
Models have been used by man for thousands of years to control his environment in a favorable way to better human living conditions. The use of hydrologic models has been a widely effective tool in order to support decision makers dealing with watersheds related to several economic and social activities, like public water supply, energy generation, and water availability for agriculture, among others. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss some models on soil and water movement on landscapes (RUSLE, WEPP, GeoWEPP, LASH, DHSVM and AnnAGNPS) to provide information about them to help and serve in a proper manner in order to discuss particular problems related to hydrology and soil erosion processes. Models have been changed and evaluated significantly in recent years, highlighting the use of remote sense, GIS and automatic calibration process, allowing them capable of simulating watersheds under a given land-use and climate change effects. However, hydrology models have almost the same physical structure, which is not enough for simulating problems related to the long-term effects of different land-uses. That has been our challenge for next future: to understand entirely the hydrology cycle, having as reference the critical zone, in which the hydrological processes act together from canopy to the bottom of aquifers.
Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF) has been recently adopted by the Soil Science community for uses in both field and laboratory, obtaining the total content of several chemical elements in a few seconds. Sulfuric acid digestion is an expensive and time-consuming laboratory analysis that provides contents of Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and P2O5, important for soil studies. Due to few pXRF studies in tropical soils, this work aimed to compare contents of Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and P2O5 obtained by pXRF with sulfuric acid digestion results, and to evaluate the effects of varying forms of preparing soil samples and scanning with pXRF on the resulting values in Brazilian soils. Soils were scanned in five conditions in-field (in situ) and in laboratory, evaluating varying sample preparation methods, particle sizes and soil moisture. Four pXRF scanning operational modes were tested. Linear regressions were adjusted between results of pXRF and sulfuric acid digestion. Equations were validated with an independent set of samples. Statistical analyses compared the methods of preparing the samples. Adequate linear models reached R-2 of 0.99 and 0.89 for Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively. Validation promoted R-2 greater than 0.97 and RMSE and ME close to zero for both oxides. Statistical differences of pXRF results were found among the methods of preparing samples. pXRF spectrometer has great potential to obtain Fe2O3 and TiO2 content rapidly and economically with high correspondence with laboratory results of sulfuric acid digestion analysis. Varying methods of preparing the samples promote differences in the results of pXRF.
ABSTRACT Given the impact of climate issues and their direct influence on agricultural production, the aim of this study was to identify superior genotypes of dry edible common bean under water deficit. Thus, 30 common bean genotypes were evaluated under controlled greenhouse conditions in a randomized block experimental design with split plots and four replications; the plots consisted of the water treatments (irrigated and water deficit) and the split plots consisted of the genotypes. The results showed genetic variability among the accessions evaluated, and in spite of significant reduction in grain yield and stomatal conductance under water deficit, these two traits showed significant, positive correlation and are able to be applied in early selection of genotypes under this stress condition. Another important response was in relation to the genotypes SER-16, SEN 92, FT Paulistinha, Carioca Precoce, IAC Imperador, and SXB 410, which showed the best yield performances in the two water treatments applied. They can be widely used in breeding programs for development of new cultivars, especially aiming at drought tolerance.
ABSTRACT The use of inoculants containing plant growth-promoting bacteria is an alternative to increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers. Studies evaluating the effects of inoculation on forage yield, straw yield, and grain yield in dual-purpose wheat cultivars are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield and grain yield in dual-purpose wheat inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and fertilized with increasing nitrogen rates during two agricultural years (2016-2017) under cutting management. The trial was carried out in a completely randomized block design with four replicates, using a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The factors were the inoculation (control or A. brasilense) and nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 of N). Forage, grain and straw yield, and number of tillers were evaluated. Forage yield differed between treatments with inoculation and without inoculation, 3952 and 3350 kg DM ha-1, respectively. There was no effect of inoculation on grain yield. The forage and leaf biomass yield, the number of tillers and straw yield increased with inoculation.
ABSTRACT The Straw Test is an assay developed to evaluate the resistance of common bean to white mold, in which the plant stems are inoculated and the symptoms of the disease are monitored. It is plausible to admit that investigating gene expression in pathogen-infected tissues may be strategically interesting. However, obtaining a quality RNA is a basic requirement for this purpose. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate adjustments in protocols of commercial kits in the expectation of improving the quality of RNA obtained from bean stems. For this, plants of two lines were inoculated and the stems pathogen-infected were collected 72 hours after. For RNA extraction, two commercial reagents were used following the manufacturer’s recommendations and then following adaptations in these protocols. In particular, the proposed modifications relate to volumes of supernatant recovered in purification steps, additional step of chloroform purification and extended time for nucleic acids precipitation. The obtained RNA was analyzed by spectrophotometer, electrophoresis and bioanalyzer, then converted into cDNA and subsequently submitted to PCR. From the obtained data, it was observed that the adaptations made in the protocols contributed to better results and that, when the indicative values of RNA quality are guaranteed, the subsequent reactions are more pure, precise and representative.
ABSTRACT The evolution of glyphosate-resistant and -tolerant weeds has caused changes in weed management around the world. Residual herbicides are crucial tools for weed management, but the rate of adoption by soybean growers remains very low in Brazil. In this research, we used glyphosate tolerant Ipomoea triloba as a model weed species to evaluate the advantages of using residual herbicides on soybeans in multiple years and locations of transition and Cerrado regions of Brazil, rather than relying only on post-emergence control. Most residual herbicides provided enough residual activity to allow a longer application window in post-emergence. Treatments with residual herbicides increased overall weed control, preventing weed interference and increasing soybean yield. When two residual herbicides were used as opposed to only one, a better I. triloba control was achieved, reflecting in higher crop yield, especially in conditions of high weed infestation. The use of pre-emergence herbicides allows growers to have a longer application window for the post-emergence treatment, which is particularly important in Brazilian Cerrado large fields when logistic could be an issue.
ABSTRACT The demand for biodegradable composite has grown worldwide in recent years, mainly in order to reduce environmental contamination by structural materials produced from the oil industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of isolates from the edible mushroom “Shiitake” (Lentinula edodes) in substrate coconut powder-based supplemented with wheat bran, as well as to analyze the influence of fungi growing period and drying time of the colonized substrate on the mechanical properties of the composite, in order to produce a biodegradable composite. The mycelial density is not influenced by the type of hyphae of L. edodes. Drying of the composite does not influence the residual odor, depending on the isolate. The compressive strength and foam type of the fungal composite may be influenced by the culture period and type of hyphae, depending on the fungal isolate. The composites colonized by the L. edodes isolates presented higher mechanical resistance at 30 days of complete colonization. The coconut powder supplemented with wheat bran colonized by isolated fungi LED 96/18 is an ecological alternative in the packaging production considering its mechanical properties.