The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between bullying, victimization and a number of social-emotional variables such as trait emotional intelligence, empathy and self-efficacy in 206 elementary school 6th graders in Greece. Results indicated that boys reported significantly more direct and indirect bullying behaviors than girls, and higher victimization. Bullying was negatively correlated with overall self-efficacy and its academic component, trait emotional intelligence, empathy and its cognitive component, while victimization was negatively correlated with overall self-efficacy and its three dimensions, trait emotional intelligence, affective and cognitive empathy. Gender, trait emotional intelligence, and cognitive empathy significantly predicted bullying, whereas victimization was predicted by gender, trait emotional intelligence and affective empathy.
Whether bullying in schools is increasing, as is widely believed, was investigated drawing upon empirical studies undertaken in a wide range of countries in which findings had been published describing its prevalence at different points in time between 1990 and 2009. Results do not support the view that reported bullying in general has increased during this period; in fact, a significant decrease in bullying has been reported in many countries. However, there are some indications that cyber bullying, as opposed to traditional bullying, has increased, at least during some of this period. The reported decreases in the prevalence of school bullying are consistent with reports of significant but small reductions in peer victimisation following the implementation of anti-bullying programs in schools world-wide.
This paper examines the effects of group performance anxiety on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math, and engineering majors. While past research has relied primarily on the academic deficits and lower socioeconomic status of women and minorities to explain their absence from these fields, we focus on the impact of stereotype threat—the anxiety caused by the expectation of being judged based on a negative group stereotype. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, our findings indicate that minorities experience stereotype threat more strongly than whites, although women do not suffer from stereotype threat more than men. Our findings also reveal that stereotype threat has a significant positive effect on the likelihood of women, minorities, and surprisingly, white men leaving science, technology, engineering and math majors.
Little is known about factors other than students’ abilities and background variables that shape teachers’ achievement expectations. This study was aimed at investigating the role of teachers’ perceptions of students attributes (working habits, popularity, self-confidence, student–teacher relationships, and classroom behavior) in shaping teachers’ expectations. The sample analyzed consisted of 5316 students and 469 classes in grade 6 in Dutch primary education. Teachers had higher expectations for students who they perceived as self-confident and having positive work habits. Differences in expectations between boys and girls could partly be explained by the teachers’ perceptions of students’ work habits. Teachers differed in the extent to which they let their perceptions of student attributes shape their expectations.
In Germany, Turkish students are overrepresented on lowest school tracks. Research has provided evidence that stereotypical expectations can color judgments. We experimentally investigated whether student information that strongly confirmed or disconfirmed Turkish stereotypical expectations led to student teachers’ judgments that were biased against nationality. Furthermore, we explored whether judging an expectation-confirming or expectation-disconfirming Turkish student resulted in changes in stereotypical beliefs. Results showed that student teachers’ judgments were biased against nationality when it came to an expectation-confirming student and that the expectation-disconfirming student could change stereotypical beliefs into slightly more positive ones. Results are discussed with regard to their theoretical relevance as well as to their importance for teacher education.
The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9–17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years, a slow stabilization until 15 years old, followed by an increase after that point. Second, non self-determined extrinsic motivation showed a decrease up to 12 years old and a slow stabilization after that point. Finally, amotivation was relatively low and stable from age 9 to 17 years. Of importance is that the present results also revealed that teacher autonomy support mediated the age-school motivation relationships. The present results underscore the importance of a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lower intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation in older students take place, eventually leading to appropriate interventions and optimal motivation in students of all ages.
The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women’s worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use Expectancy Value Theory to examine whether and how stereotype threat concerns might influence women’s science identification. To do this, we collected survey data from 388 women enrolled in introductory physics (male-dominated) and biology (female-dominated) undergraduate laboratory classes at three universities. We examined multiple indirect effect paths through which stereotype threat could be associated with science identity and the associated future motivation to engage in scientific research. In addition to replicating established expectancy-value theory motivational findings, results support the novel prediction that one route through which stereotype threat negatively impacts women’s science identity is via effects on perceptions about the communal utility value of science. Especially among women in physics who expressed greater stereotype threat concerns than women in biology, science identification was lower to the extent that stereotype threat reduced how useful science was seen for helping other people and society. Implications for ways to create an inclusive learning context that combats stereotype threat concerns and broadens undergraduate women’s participation in science are discussed.
This study attempts to bring together two lines of enquiry into teacher emotion, emotional labor and emotion regulation, arguing that the process of teachers’ emotional labor is their regulation of feelings and expressions to achieve professional goals. Through the analysis of qualitative data collected from two projects concerning teacher emotion in China, the study summarizes three categories and seven strategies adopted by Chinese teachers to regulate their emotions in the classroom. Teachers regulate their emotions by genuinely expressing their feelings in teaching, along with surface acting and deep acting. These emotion regulation strategies help teachers fulfill their professional goals, and may therefore influence their well-being. The influence of Chinese culture on the emotion regulation of teachers, and the teacher–student relationship in China, are also discussed.
Teachers' stereotypes may be one factor that contributes to the disadvantages ethnic minority students experience in school. According to dual-process theories, teachers have two strategies that they can apply to derive judgments of students. Teachers' judgments are based on stereotypes when the information they have about students is consistent with teachers' expectations, whereas teachers make judgments on a more individualized basis when their expectations are not supported by student information. We experimentally investigated this hypothesis with regard to teachers' judgments of female ethnic minority and majority students. Teachers were presented with one of four different descriptions of a female student. The below average student was described as low performing, and the above average student represented an easy-to-teach student with high academic achievement. The two student descriptions were compiled for both an ethnic minority student and an ethnic majority student. Results showed that teachers judged the ethnic minority female student less favorably but only when comparing the below average students. The above average female ethnic minority student was judged more favorably than the above average ethnic majority student. Results are discussed with respect to the conditions that might result in advantages or in disadvantages for female ethnic minority students and their implications for future research.
This retrospective investigation examined the association among childhood bullying victimization, multiple forms of victimization, and psychological functioning in a college sample. Four hundred-and-eighty-two undergraduate students participated in the study (M = 19.98 years, SD = 1.82). The sample included 65 % women. For race/ethnicity, 66.4 % were European-American (N = 320), 16.8 % African-American (N = 81). For grade level, 21.6 % were freshmen (N = 104), followed by 38.2 % sophomores (N = 184), 16.2 % juniors (N = 78), and 23.4 % seniors (N = 113). Participants completed a survey packet of measures assessing childhood bullying victimization experiences and current levels of psychological functioning. Findings indicated that bullying victimization significantly predicted greater levels of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS) after controlling for other childhood victimization experiences. PTS symptoms were predicted by exposure to community violence and child abuse with bullying victimization was found to be the strongest predictor. College-level practitioners need to assess for a wide range of childhood victimization experiences, including bullying victimization.