Purpose - Entrepreneurial competencies are seen as important to business growth and success. The purpose of this paper is therefore to undertake a literature review of research on entrepreneurial competence in order to: provide an integrated account of contributions relating to entrepreneurial competencies by different authors working in different countries and different industry sectors and at different points in time; and, develop an agenda for future research, and practice in relation to entrepreneurial competencies.Design methodology approach - The article starts with a review of the development of the concept of competence, with particular reference to its use in the context of management competencies. It then draws together views on the notion of entrepreneurial competence before exploring and summarising research on the link between entrepreneurial competencies and business performance and growth. A core section then compares the models of entrepreneurial competencies cited in the literature, and on this basis proposes a set of entrepreneurial competencies which can be used as the basis for further research and practice. Finally, the different perspectives adopted by researchers to the measurement of entrepreneurial competencies are reviewed.Findings - Conclusions suggest that although the concept of entrepreneurial competencies is used widely by government agencies and others in their drive for economic development and business success, the core concept of entrepreneurial competencies, its measurement and its relationship to entrepreneurial performance and business success is in need of further rigorous research and development in practice.Originality value - This article integrates previous models of entrepreneurial competencies towards the development of an entrepreneurial competency framework.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of "rural" as a socio-spatial concept in rural entrepreneurship and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between ideal types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses concepts from human geography to develop two ideal types of entrepreneurship in rural areas. Ideal types constitute powerful heuristics for research and are used here to review and link existing literature on rural entrepreneurship and rural development as well as to develop new research avenues. Findings - Two ideal types are developed: first, entrepreneurship in the rural and second, rural entrepreneurship. The former represents entrepreneurial activities with limited embeddedness enacting a profit-oriented and mobile logic of space. The latter represents entrepreneurial activities that leverage local resources to re-connect place to space. While both types contribute to local development, the latter holds the potential for an optimized use of the resources in the rural area, and these ventures are unlikely to relocate even if economic rationality would suggest it. Research limitations/implications - The conceptual distinction allows for engaging more deeply with the diversity of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas. It increases our understanding of localized entrepreneurial processes and their impact on local economic development. Originality/value - This study contributes to the understanding of the localized processes of entrepreneurship and how these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or "place". The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories. In addition ideal types can be a useful device for further research and serve as a platform for developing rural policies.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of common undergraduate entrepreneurship classroom activities on students’ motivational processes related to entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 700 undergraduate students from a variety of majors at a large midwestern university in the USA were invited to take a web-based survey. They were asked to indicate which experiential activities they would participate/were participating in as part of their program. Findings – The findings show that students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) is a driving force in classroom activities enhancing students’ intentions. However, the authors also found that the type of classroom activities that are common in entrepreneurship education negatively impact students’ ESE. Research limitations/implications – The generalizability is limited to the US region and the link from intention to behavior goes untested, but results strongly supported the adoption of social cognitive career theory to the entrepreneurship domain. Practical implications – This study lends support to the argument that promoting the learning process in entrepreneurship education should focus on real-world experience, action, and reflective processes to engage students in authentic learning, which should lead to greater entrepreneurial abilities and propensity, and eventually to enhanced entrepreneurial performance, which benefits individuals and societies. Social implications – This study suggests that the goals and pedagogical approaches to teaching entrepreneurship are issues that educators may need to revisit and update if the economic benefits of entrepreneurship are to be fully realized. Originality/value – While the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship activity is well documented in extant literature, this study found that activities that are common in entrepreneurship education may negatively impact students’ ESE and need to be further explored.
Purpose - In order to extend the literature on predicting entrepreneurial intentions this study aims to test a model incorporating cultural, social, and psychological factors.Design methodology approach - The paper surveyed over 1,000 students at universities in the USA, Spain, and China.Findings - Across cultures, university students share generally similar views on motivations and barriers to entrepreneurship, but with some interesting differences. Further, while cultural and social dimensions explain only a small portion of intentions, psychological self-efficacy (disposition) is an important predictor.Research limitations implications - The study was restricted to university students. It generated focused conclusions and recommendations, but these may not be more widely generalizable. The study suggests directions for continued work on the relationship between cultural and psychological factors in entrepreneurship.Practical implications - Entrepreneurship education may serve students better by increasing its focus on creativity and confidence-building. Further, curricula should be adapted to specific cultures - for example, a unique dilemma faced by Chinese students is discussed in detail.Originality value - Performing a cross-cultural comparison made it possible to add fresh insight to debates over the antecedents of entrepreneurship. It also uncovered some important topics for further discussion and research.
Purpose - To review empirical contributions to the small business growth literature since the mid-1990s.Design methodology approach - Narrative review of the literature using the framework adopted in previous reviews: management strategies; characteristics of the entrepreneur; environment industry factors; and firm characteristics.Findings - The absence of any unifying theory means that the literature continues to feature a wide range of growth measures and model specifications. As a result of this, knowledge development appears fragmented rather than cumulative. New theoretical perspectives are needed if we are to develop our understanding of the growth process in small businesses.Research limitations implications - Alternative types of research are suggested that focus on small business growth as a process rather than an episode. Future research needs to adopt multiple measures of growth and, more importantly, be based on theory longitudinal in scope but idiosyncratic in its focus. Empirical work should seek to explain the periodicity of growth and the role that learning plays in the idiosyncratic development of small businesses.Originality value - The paper synthesizes the literature in an area that is critical in terms of the advice given to policy makers and business owners. It does so while building on the frameworks used in previous reviews and then identifying new research approaches that are needed to advance understanding of the small business growth process.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature at the intersection of resilience and entrepreneurship. It identifies six scholarly conversations, each of which draws on distinct notions of resilience and entrepreneurship. Based on those conversations, shortcomings in the existing literature are discussed and avenues for future research are outlined. Design/methodology/approach A systematic multi-disciplinary review of 144 papers that are categorized into six scholarly conversations to build the foundation for a critical discussion of each line of inquiry. Findings This paper identifies six conversations or research streams at the intersection of entrepreneurship and resilience: resilience as traits or characteristics of entrepreneurial firms or individuals, resilience as a trigger for entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial behavior as enhancing organizational resilience, entrepreneurial firms fostering macro-level (regions, communities, economies) resilience, resilience in the context of entrepreneurial failure, and resilience as a process of recovery and transformation. The review revealed these publications imprecisely define constructs and use a limited amount of the extant scholarship on both entrepreneurship and resilience. Future research should take a more holistic approach to explore entrepreneurship and resilience from a multi-level and longitudinal perspective, especially in the context of socio-ecological sustainability. Originality/value This paper incorporates insights on resilience and entrepreneurship across academic disciplines to show how future contributions could benefit by incorporating research from other fields. In doing so, it provides a starting point for more nuanced discussions around the interrelationships between the different conversations and the role entrepreneurs can play in promoting a positive, long-term trajectory for a socio-ecological system.
Purpose To fully understand the concept of social entrepreneurship (SE), contextual factors need to be accounted as the influence of the institutional environment on individual behaviour has received little attention in the literature. By heeding the research call for quantitative work in this emerging field, hypotheses are formulated which predict the influence of different institutional profiles on SE intentions. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey design was administered in an under-researched emerging market context – South Africa. Hypotheses were then statistically tested using correlational analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicate that the regulatory environment has a positive and significant impact on feasibility and desirability, and furthermore both feasibility and desirability positively affect intentions. Originality/value The study contributes towards a new understanding of the influence of the institutional environment on social entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents in an African emerging market context, and may serve as a catalyst for this emerging and important global activity.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reassess whether individuals choose to become self-employed for "pull" or "push" reasons, to discuss and describe ambiguities in this distinction, with focus on differences between men and women, and draw conclusions for further conceptual work.Design methodology approach - The paper reviews current literature, from which specific hypotheses are developed. For illustration and evaluation secondary analysis is undertaken of an existing large-scale data source available in UK Quarterly Labour Force Surveys over the period 1999-2001.Findings - It was found that 86 per cent state only a single reason for self-employment. Response patterns differ significantly between men and women. Independence is the most commonly cited motivation but 22 per cent of women cite family commitments. "Push" motivations may account for as much as 48 per cent depending on interpretation. Men who report two or more factors tend to combine "pull" factors, but women tend to combine "push" with "pull".Research limitations implications - Respondents may display recall bias. Potential ambiguity in the way in which respondents may interpret particular motivations points to the need for future detailed qualitative research, and questionnaire item development. Further work is recommended to assess whether conclusions hold in recent recessionary economic conditions.Practical implications - Clarity between "push" and "pull" factors is important in the design of entrepreneurship policy, especially during a recession. Further work is needed to provide this clarity to inform policy design.Originality value - Few previous studies investigate reasons for choosing entrepreneurship using large, population-generalisable data, and do not consider the conceptual ambiguities inherent in categorising motivations as either "pull" or "push".
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide fresh insights into rural artisanal activities in a developing world context. It highlights key determinants of the decision to engage in an artisanal business and the challenges that impact upon the growth of these activities. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts a mix-method research approach to explore a rural setting where most respondents (81 per cent) combine farm and non-farm livelihood activities. Quantitatively, a multi-nominal regression is used to examine the determinants of diversified artisanal livelihoods. It modelled the differences between farming livelihoods that have not diversified, compared to those also involved in the artisanal activity or wage employment and the intensity of participation. Findings The findings show that nearly half of artisanal businesses (45.4 per cent) comprise only the owners and no employee, while 54.6 per cent employ one to three workers. Also, some artisanal ventures were more gender-specific than the gender-neutral activities. Other observations were in age (most artisans were under the age of 46 years) and vocational training (most were self-trained followed by a third receiving training only in specific areas such as technical works, building and construction and general trading apprenticeships). Research limitations/implications The study is based on a relatively small sample size of 306 business owners, which makes it difficult to generalise despite the persuasiveness of the observations made. Practical implications First, the use of econometric methods enabled the development of valid data sets (and various descriptive statistical and logit regression) to analyse determinants of the decision to engage in artisanal work, and the intensity of participation. Second, the ambiguity in categorising artisanal activities is unravelled. The study characterises the local artisanal sector and examines the intensity of participation. Without these, targeted support would remain elusive for practical and policy interventions. Originality/value Artisanal activities constitute a high proportion of small businesses in the study area – with more than half (54.2 per cent) of respondents being classified as artisans, yet it is an overlooked area of entrepreneurship. Highlighted here are both types of activities and challenges regarding better conceptualising the understanding of artisans and regarding this mostly unarticulated base of practice.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of culture in artisan entrepreneurship. It is argued that culture plays a critical role in entrepreneurial behaviour as culture is a key determinant of what it means to be a person. The concept of culture is explored from a micro level of analysis therefore, conceptualising culture from the perspective of the individual entrepreneur’s personality. The main research question being investigated within this paper is: whether artisan entrepreneurs share common personality traits with other entrepreneur groups, using the five factor model (FFM) of personality as the basis of the conceptual model presented herein. Design/methodology/approach A literature review on the emerging field of artisan entrepreneurship, followed by a review of the literature on personality theory and entrepreneurship. Then, drawing upon the FFM of personality, a conceptual framework is introduced which proposes a relationship between the Big Five personality traits and four dimensions of artisan entrepreneurship such as cultural heritage, community entrepreneurship, craftsmanship and innovation, developed from concepts derived from extant literature. Findings The theoretical contribution is in the form of propositions. Four propositions have been formulated around the entrepreneurial personality of artisan business owners for each of the four dimensions: cultural heritage, community entrepreneurship, craftsmanship and innovation. Originality/value The paper is the first to propose a relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and the likelihood of starting and/or running a business among an entrepreneur group rather than explaining personality differences among entrepreneur and non-entrepreneur groups. The focus of the paper is specifically on artisan entrepreneurs and it has been proposed that the personality trait of agreeableness is important in the decision to start a cultural-based business. It has also been proposed that artisan entrepreneurs possess personal characteristics of openness to newness and openness to innovation that are integral to regional development.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the role of entrepreneurial artisan products in regional tourism competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach This study applies secondary data from different sources (Regional Directorate of Statistics of Madeira, the Madeira Institute of Wine, Embroideries and Handicrafts) covering a temporal period spanning the last 15 years (2001-2015). This deployed quantitative data analysis through an econometric approach with recourse to regression models and the Pearson’s correlation technique. Findings According to the results, it is suggested that in terms of external support and funding, there should be a greater role and a boost in the number of projects carried out not only under the auspices of the European Union but also under the Autonomous Region of Madeira. Thus, participant companies may invest in greater business efficiency and entrepreneurship, in innovation, promotion and the internationalisation of their products, and thereby obtain greater overall regional competitiveness. Research limitations/implications The generalisation of results remains to a certain extent limited, given the findings stem from only one particular region. The exclusive utilisation of secondary data may also undermine the robustness of the results obtained. Originality/value The study provides empirical evidence that helps in identifying the role of artisan products within the capacity for regional tourism sector entrepreneurship and competitiveness. Furthermore, this also contributes to the knowledge of the scientific community particularly interested in artisan and cultural entrepreneurship and regional competitiveness in the tourism sector.
Purpose Throughout Macedonia, beekeeping is becoming popular regardless of ethnicity. Studying ethnicity, the purpose of this paper is to determine what beekeepers in Macedonia thought in their own words about their beekeeping entrepreneurship. The objective is to identify whether motivations of ethnic Albanian beekeepers in Macedonia were the same or different compared to those of ethnic Macedonians in the same country, and if different, how. Design/methodology/approach To accomplish this objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 beekeepers in Macedonia. A total of 29 interviews were conducted face-to-face and the other 11 by phone. The first set of interviews took place between December 2016 and February 2017, followed by more interviews in June 2017. In total, 27 respondents said they were ethnic Albanians, and 13 identified themselves as ethnic Macedonians. Also, ten respondents were women. While eight were full-time beekeepers, 32 were part-time beekeepers. Findings The results indicated that beekeeping businesses play a significant role in the transition economy of Macedonia. Beekeeping provides additional earnings that support rural families and keeps them financially stable. The majority of both Albanians and Macedonians understood that beekeeping on a part-time job basis provided a needed supplement to their income. Some part-time beekeepers are also working as auto-mechanics, locksmiths, medical doctors, restaurant/cafeteria owners, and tailors. A few in the sample were retired from their jobs or full-time beekeepers. An important difference between ethnic Albanian beekeepers and ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia is that the majority of ethnic Albanian participants see beekeeping as following in “my father’s footsteps”, while most Macedonians were motivated by the perceived opportunity of having a good business. Research limitations/implications Limitations of the research are twofold. First, financial data of family beekeeping are not available, which would be useful in determining the contribution made to economic development. It is common, especially in transition economies such as the western Balkans, that financial results are very sensitive to their owners. Second, unavailable databases for beekeepers make any quantitative approach difficult, if not impossible, resulting in most research using the qualitative research approach. Originality/value This paper is one of the first to treat beekeeping as a form of artisan entrepreneurship, which also contributes to the understanding of family business. As in other countries, the important and operation of the family business among family members in Macedonia is passed from generation to generation. The results of this research revealed the value of networking, which was found to be very important to income. For beekeepers to develop, grow, and be branded in the community, networking is an important ingredient.
Purpose Entrepreneurship research in the context of developing countries has typically investigated the ways in which culture, politics or economic institutions prohibit or enable entrepreneurial activities using macro-level surveys and deductive designs. In contrast, the purpose of this paper is to take a micro-institutional perspective to study these three institutions influencing entrepreneurial activities in such a context. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on inductive, qualitative field data from a challenging institutional environment, Tanzania. This includes two focus groups, one with experts and one with entrepreneurs; and 24 individual interviews with entrepreneurs. Findings Entrepreneurial activities in Tanzania are not constrained only by bureaucracy and arbitrary enforcement, access to capital, competition and consumer spending, but also by language barriers, negative media portrayals and gender disparity. In their favour, recent trade policy, opening up of borders and changing gender relations, has led to more opportunities, but just as important are traditional festivals, marital gift-giving and familial support. Entrepreneurs respond to institutional constraints in many creative ways, including undertaking entrepreneurial strategies, developing inner strength, joining associations, giving back to communities and skilfully managing relations with authorities. Originality/value The fine-grained discussion of the findings of this study specifically contributes to theory by illustrating the constraining and enabling role of under-represented institutions, such as festivals and marriages, as well as entrepreneurial creative responses that define everyday entrepreneurial life in a developing country.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of how the interplay of individual-level resources and culture affects entrepreneurs' propensity to adopt social value creation goals. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 12,685 entrepreneurs in 35 countries from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, it investigates the main effects of individual-level resources - measured as financial, human and social capital - on social value creation goals, as well as the moderating effects of the cultural context in which the respective entrepreneur is embedded, on the relationship between individual-level resources and social value creation goals. Findings Drawing on the resource-based perspective and Hofstede's cultural values framework, the results offer empirical evidence that individual-level resources are relevant for predicting the extent to which entrepreneurs emphasise social goals for their business. Furthermore, culture influences the way entrepreneurs allocate their resources towards social value creation. Originality/value The study sheds new light on how entrepreneurs' individual resources influence their willingness to create social value. Moreover, by focussing on the role of culture in the relationship between individual-level resources and social value creation goals, it contributes to social entrepreneurship literature, which has devoted little attention to the interplay of individual characteristics and culture.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate various problems experienced by cottage-based women entrepreneurs to launch and develop their ventures in Oman and to focus on women going beyond their traditional family roles for various reasons to establish themselves in Omani society. Design/methodology/approach The study applies a mixed research approach using a quantitative survey of 142 cottage-based Omani women entrepreneurs and qualitative face-to-face interviews with ten women entrepreneurs, presented as six short case studies. The intensity of the business-related problems is determined through the exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis is used to confirm the model by determining the goodness of fit between hypothesized model and sample data. Findings Access to government for current business needs, access to specialized suppliers for staying ahead of the competition and high cost of raw materials were the problems mentioned as being important, while marketing-oriented problems were of least concern. Research limitations/implications This study was undertaken in one region of Oman only and thus poses problems when extrapolating the findings to other areas. Practical implications The study suggests how policymakers can support women entrepreneurs to diversify and start new ventures while simultaneously contributing to the socio-economic development of Oman. Originality/value Research on cottage entrepreneurship in the context of an Arab country is scarce and the study provides an overview of the obstacles and support required for the development of women entrepreneurship in Oman.
Purpose - This study aims to investigate the relationship between the presence of the family variable within a business enterprise and the managerial factors affecting the success of new product development (NPD). This can be structured into three research questions: What is the relationship between the presence of the family variable within a business enterprise and the managerial factors affecting the success of NPD activities? How the managerial factors affecting the NPD process are faced in family firms? Which are the main differences (e.g. strengths and/or weaknesses) in dealing with the managerial factors affecting the NPD process between family and non-family firms? Design/methodology/approach - The study employs a grounded-theory and case-study approach to investigate the relationship between the presence of the family variable within a business enterprise and the managerial factors affecting the success of NPD. The starting point is an in-depth literature review on the managerial factors differentiating family from non-family firms, and the managerial factors affecting NPD success. Then, a multiple case-study on five Italian family firms and five Italian non-family enterprises is conducted. The case-studies lead to the development of an empirically grounded theoretical framework that outlines how the distinctive characteristics of family businesses are related to the managerial factors affecting NPD success. Findings - Family firms clearly emerge as more long-term oriented than non-family enterprises. The long-term orientation of family businesses vs non-family companies seems to play a pivotal role in originating NPD projects with long-term thrust. If a company is long-term oriented it is reasonable to expect that it will put its long-term vision in NPD programs, thus reaching a NPD long-term thrust. Research limitations/implications - The study advances research on strategic innovation and NPD in family vs non-family firms. It develops new theory at the important intersection of family business and innovation/NPD research, filling a gap in the literature and providing justification and guidance for the design of more comprehensive studies. Future research could investigate and test the theoretical framework on a wider empirical base, using either qualitative or quantitative methods. Originality/value - The paper addresses the failure of innovation management research to recognize, embrace, and deliberately incorporate family firms. It therefore fills a gap in the literature and extends prior research by introducing specific propositions that are supported by the case data and originally integrating them in the general research stream on NPD and family-firm characteristics. The originality of the study lies also in the fact that it appears to be the first comparative analysis on this specific topic involving both family and non-family enterprises.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to focus on emerging research avenues for artisan entrepreneurship. The key findings of the articles in the special journal issue are discussed in terms of potential research issues that need to be discussed in future work. Design/methodology/approach An overview of the main themes of artisan entrepreneurship in terms of cultural and tourism perspectives is undertaken. This helps to establish artisan entrepreneurship as a new and emerging field of entrepreneurship studies. Findings There is more interest in artisan entrepreneurship due to its role in revitalizing economies and placing emphasis on cultural heritage and traditions. Originality/value This paper will provide directions for future research on artisan, cultural and tourism entrepreneurship.