This paper states that although the concept of "stress" has received increased attention in the behavioral and social sciences throughout the past five decades, it has been virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Presents conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of stress research, which suggest that many changes in individuals' consumption behaviors are efforts to cope with stressful life circumstances. A study was conducted to test specific hypotheses about the effects of stress on consumption-coping strategies of older adults. Results suggest that when older consumers experience stressful life circumstances, they may initiate, intensify, or change consumption activities to handle stress. Specific coping strategies were found to differ by gender. Implications for future consumer research are discussed.
Social scientists, public policy makers, consumer researchers, and marketers have traditionally focused on age-related differences to understand the behavior of older adults. This research focuses on the processes through which adults learn behavioral patterns and norms that characterize behavior in later life. The socialization framework is first presented as the process through which adults learn roles and norms for old age, and data from a national study are presented to test the hypotheses derived from this model. The results suggest that certain antecedents and processes are important in socializing adults to old age.
Surveys the perceptions of attributes of three- to five-star hotels by marketing managers and by older people aged 60 and over who return to a satisfying hotel. The attributes studied were price, location, facilities, hotel restaurant, room furnishings, front-desk efficiency and staff attitude. Usable data were analysed for 154 older consumers in Queensland, Australia, and 44 hotel marketing managers in Australia working at three- to five-star hotels. Respondents' ratings of a set of eight hotel attribute-level scenarios were subjected to conjoint analysis in order to infer the relative importance of each attribute to both groups. Results show that both seniors and marketing managers considered hotel facilities to be the most important attribute, followed by room furnishings. The managerial implications for hotels and future research opportunities are also discussed.
Focuses on one leisure activity enjoyed by a number of elderly consumers, heritage visiting. Drawing on the findings of a study of consumer behaviour at a recreated living industrial museum, the analysis focuses on the behaviour of elderly visitors to the site, with a particular emphasis on how the experience is constructed. Highlights the role of nostalgia as a motivational and experiential factor behind the visit, and distinguishes between two types of nostalgic reaction, "recreational", and "existential". The intensity of the reaction is interpreted in the light of the stimulus provided by the museum, and in the context of individual life circumstances such as role loss, disempowerment, social contact, and the degree of personal experience and object familiarity. Concludes by proposing that it is not always the most obvious groups of consumers who offer the greatest opportunity for sustained and repeated visits.
Given the many potential negative factors that influence food choice behaviour in older people, it is important to understand the problem areas of food shopping. Uses critical incident technique (CIT) to elicit consumers' stories of dissatisfying satisfying shopping experiences and, where dissatisfied, identifies their expectations. Volunteers from a cross-section of locations in Scotland were interviewed, eliciting 248 incidents. Results identified eight key elements contributing to the food shopping experience with all, except social aspects, having positive and negative incidents. Argues that the factors influencing the food shopping experience are much wider than previous research indicates and that, given the breadth of dissatisfaction across the elements, older consumers are lacking "power" within the marketplace. Expectations indicate that some consumers feel they do not have the ability to exercise any alternative to overcome their dissatisfaction.
Older consumers have grown in number and affluence in the UK, but past research evidence suggests that they are less likely to be portrayed in advertisements than younger people. The wisdom of this approach has been questioned, particularly where depictions of older people feature caricature portrayals of infirmity. Older people today are more likely to be fit and active, and desire to see themselves portrayed as such in advertisements. Investigates whether UK advertisements feature older people, and the nature of that portrayal, and compares and contrasts the findings with past studies in the USA and UK. The results suggest that in UK magazines specifically targeted at older consumers, the advertisements do contain acceptable levels of older characters portrayed in a favourable manner.
States that although the concept of "stress" has received increased attention in the behavioral and social sciences throughout the past five decades, it has been virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Presents conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of stress research, which suggest that many changes in individuals' consumption behaviors are efforts to cope with stressful life circumstances. A study was conducted to test specific hypotheses about the effects of stress on consumption-coping strategies of older adults. Results suggest that when older consumers experience stressful life circumstances, they may initiate, intensify, or change consumption activities to handle stress. Specific coping strategies were found to differ by gender. Implications for future consumer research are discussed.
Examines the marketing task facing managed shopping centres in the UK. The industry has generally been reluctant to fully embrace the marketing concept and this needs to change as competition increases. Defines the marketing task and identifies considerable challenges in the UK context. The marketing mix is examined, utilising a new framework (which is proposed as a useful analytical and management tool) and constraints are discussed which arise from both the nature of the shopping centre service itself and traditional industry practices. Problems with resourcing, information, knowledge and attitudes at the coal-face of active centre marketing are found to be working against effective marketing practice. Draws on literature and a series of exploratory interviews with managers involved in shopping centre management and marketing.
Discusses how marketing practice is competitively evolving as airlines, in a code-sharing environment, seek to be more effective, efficient and profitable. It complements changes to airline structures in routeing, staffing levels and technology, and by establishing strong brand presence is a means for customer attraction, retention and network expansion. Distribution channels are changing as travel agencies are affected by airlines' direct sales and Internet-based interactive communication. Traditional segmentation tactics directed to business travellers, through frequent flyer programmes and premium services, are threatened by businesses economising, staff reductions and the increasing importance of the leisure traveller. An overview of international practice is taken and points illustrated, where appropriate, by examples of specific airlines.
Based on experience working with a manufacturer of ceramic sanitaryware, whose Chief Executive has recognized the need to introduce more (some?) marketing orientation and more (some?) design skills into the organisation. A marketer and a designer were recruited simultaneously and tasked with bringing about the introduction of new models of bathroom suites. Designed to involve students in the kind of culture and interface issues which in real life often present challenges equal to those posed by the marketing environment itself. Verbatim comments from different functional areas illustrate departmental perspectives. The case also raises some issues relating to the organisation of the new product development (NPD) process, particularly to marketing research and branding.
Focus groups are an effective strategy in consumer research if conducted properly. Too often the meaning and origin of focus groups have been distorted by marketing and consumer researchers and the validity of retrieved data is questioned. By looking at the definition and evolution of focus groups, definitive advantages and disadvantages of the method emerge. Focus groups provide the collective insight of group dynamics while preserving individual preferences. If focus groups are contrived using true qualitative characteristics, this method may yield the strongest data for use by consumer and marketing researchers in truly identifying with customers today.
Marketing practitioners know that a product's color may play an important role in a consumer's purchase decision, but may not be familiar with the empirical research that has been conducted in this area. The purpose of this paper is to apply an associative learning framework to the color literature to help understand consumer color choices. Specifically, the principles of classical conditioning, a form of associative learning, will be used to make suggestions to practitioners who wish to create or change color associations for their products. The implications of the findings from the color literature are discussed.
Investigates the proposition that reasoned action theory can be successfully applied in the small business (dairy farmers) domain. That proposition is supported by the outcome and, in common with many other studies, attitude was found to be the main predictor of behavioural intention. The normative component does not improve the efficacy of the model, possibly because of the routinised nature of the behaviour under scrutiny or the expertise of the decision makers concerned. It seems likely that the influence of other people may be greater in new-buy situations, but that influence is unlikely to involve the element of social obligation that is behind consumers' tendency to comply with the expectations and beliefs of salient referents. Some recommendations for further research into the stability and generalizability of the findings are made.