Purpose The equal representation of employees on codetermined supervisory boards is one of the distinctive features of the German corporate governance system. This study aims to examine the relevance of the frequent assumption according to which this system is rooted in a typically “German culture”. Design/methodology/approach This research applies Davis and Thompson’s (1994) mobilization theory as an interpretive grid to historical sources to reveal the determinants of the institutionalization of equal board representation in post-war Germany. Findings The present contribution reveals that the supposedly “German tradition” of board representation is a myth. The specific regime of codetermined supervisory boards is instead the outcome of the dramatic political and institutional circumstances of the late 1940s, which saw fierce struggles and the mobilization of various actors ranging from politicians and industrialists to trade unionists. Originality/value The German Catholic Church is shown to have played a significant, albeit seldom recognized, role in this search for institutional consensus. It acted as a broad-based “supporting institution”, positively influencing mobilization efforts in favor of board codetermination and ultimately enabling an agreement to be reached.
The aim of the article is to contrast the historical rise of the managerial function and its reception in law. It thus contributes to the debates on the separation of ownership and control, by showing that managers were never recognized in law. As a result, the managerial function was not protected in law.Design/methodology/approachWe bring together management history and the history of UK company law to study the emergence of management in the early twentieth century and the law’s response. We bring new historical evidence to bear on the company law reforms of the second half of the twentieth century, and in particular, on the changes brought about by the Cohen Committee report of 1945.FindingsScientific progress and innovation were important rationales for the emergence of managerial authority. They implied new economic models, new competencies and wider social responsibilities. Our analysis shows that these rationales have been overlooked by company law. The lack of conceptualization of the management in law allowed reforms after 1945 that gave shareholders greater influence over corporate strategy, reducing managerial discretion and the scope for innovation. Research limitationsOur study focuses on the UK. Further research is needed to confirm whether other countries followed a similar path, both in terms of the emergence of management, and in terms of the law’s approach. Originality/valueThis article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the law’s historical approach to management. It calls for a reappraisal of the status of managers and the way corporate governance organizes the separation of ownership and control.
Purpose This research aims to compare the contributions of two authors and practitioners from the 1920s whose work was to a certain extent at odds with the dominant scientific management approach of the period. Design/methodology/approach In this article, we carry out a comparative textual analysis of texts written by Sheldon and Follett in the 1920s. This technique consists of a hierarchical descendant classification, which we use to uncover the thematic universes that Sheldon and Follett create in characterizing the fundamentals of management activity. Findings This comparative textual analysis demonstrates that Follett and Sheldon developed two different ways of relying on a singular fundamental principle of management: integration. Originality/value A comparative analysis of Follett and Sheldon’s work has never been attempted. While textual analysis has been used in management research, to our knowledge, such analyses are rare in research seeking to understand management history.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the growing popularity of coaching; a concept whose influence increasingly spans academic disciplines and institutional fields.Design methodology approach - The paper makes sense of coaching by using actor network theory, an approach that seeks to understand how a phenomenon becomes macro social. By examining a wide array of historical documents it traces the characteristics that underlie the transformation of the coach from a technological object to a management concept. In doing so it outlines the fundamental characteristics of coaching.Findings - Specifically coaching involves a post technological nature where performances often occur in extreme conditions that involve the reciprocal interdependence of bodies (teams). These performances may also be viewed as involving impurity, as amateurs who participated purely for the love of the game have usually paid coaches for their services.Originality value - While there is no denying the influence of coaching, little attention has been given to the history of this concept. This article provides an example of how the past frequently remains present and offers explanation for the popularity of coaching. In doing so it outlines a potential framework for consistently discussing the concept across organizational forms.
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to highlight the way Mary P. Follett’s ideas on management have emerged.Design/methodology/approach – The research explores the different opportunities Mary P. Follett has regarding management issues. It also analyses Follett’s way of reasoning in some of her conferences on management.Findings – Follett’s ideas on management have been based on her practical management experience and on her political philosophy. The paper particularly demonstrates that Follett was currently proceeding in three different areas: instantiation, conceptual linkage and deduction of management principles. A management problem becomes a particular instance of social interaction situation, within a broader category of problems and situations: that is what we identify as “instantiation”. Follett makes connections with concepts she has developed about democracy: that is what we named “conceptual linkage”. Deduction of management ideas is then made possible by combining instantiation and conceptual linkage.Originality/value – This paper helps to explain why so many management authors have considered Mary P. Follett as a pioneer, a “prophet of management”.
This essay focuses on the long term emergence of management research journals, and highlights the social, cultural, technological and financial factors that facilitate or constrain such modes of writing. Drawing on historical material and direct observations, two future scenarios can be projected. The first is based on a vast and entirely electronic (co)citation market, in which a writer's "e-reputation" is of central importance. In this context, incentives are purely individual; paradigmatic dimensions have disappeared. The second scenario involves a plurality of paradigms, and consists of diverse communities that employ relatively compatible modes of writing and evaluation. The implications of both scenarios are discussed.
Purpose - The objective is to re-visit and up-date a seminal framework of marketing schools.Design methodology approach - The authors provide a conceptual description and positioning of old, modern and recent marketing schools.Findings - Recent developments in marketing - such as services marketing, industrial marketing and relationship marketing - do not fit into the seminal framework of marketing schools.Research limitations implications - The authors have limited the discussion to the human practice of marketing and the academic discipline of marketing. In addition, the authors' focus is on marketing as part of business.Practical implications - The up-dated framework of marketing schools may assist practitioners to understand the current status of marketing by connecting to the past, and the future by revealing unexplored areas of the marketing discipline.Originality value - The up-dated framework of marketing schools builds on and extends the seminal framework in question to incorporate the recent developments in marketing. In extension, it reveals a white spot in the research of the marketing discipline - a field of further research that may focus on a combination of economic and relational dimensions of marketing.
Purpose - Studies of strategic change are mainly characterized by a linear time view, treating time as a variable, a package of narrative events or as a path that the organization "travels" over time. The purpose of this paper is to move beyond this view providing an alternative, nonlinear conception of time.Design methodology approach - Framed by the logics of consequence and appropriateness an empirical example of strategic change within the Scandinavian consumer co-operation is given, illustrating the exploration of business opportunities and the exploitation of socially and historically rooted values and principles. Drawing on philosophical hermeneutics a qualitative method is chosen, the basis on which the empirical material through interviews and documents is generated.Findings - The empirical study illustrates that the logic of consequence communicates with the logic of appropriateness in a nonlinear manner while interrelating the future and the past. The exploration of business opportunities shapes the past, which is brought to light when opportunities are expressed through the present, continuously forming and reforming the present and in turn shedding new light on the past.Originality value - Although various forms of intellectual bridging and transfer are encouraged within the field of strategic management, notably lacking are studies that focus on time. This paper brings to the fore an alternative conception of time. It acknowledges the past in its hermeneutical significance when ascribing the past a dynamic repetitive role.
Purpose - The primary purpose of this paper was to perform an in-depth analysis of the strategic process that occurs within family firms.Design methodology approach - This study analyzed the historical development of the growth strategies of four family firms in the US, Finland, and Sweden.Findings - The results of this study suggest that family firms typically adopt conservative strategies in the early part of their life cycle. During their formative years, family firms often implement financially conservative strategies and place an emphasis on maintaining tight control of the strategic decision-making process within the family unit. However, the competitive pressures experienced by family firms over time often force these companies to embrace a more entrepreneurial posture during the latter stages of their life cycle.Research limitations implications - The stage in the company life cycle plays an important role in determining the strategic behavior of family firms. Future research aimed at replicating the results of this study may help shed further light on the strategic process that occurs within family firms.Practical implications - Although the firms examined in this study were from various cultures, their strategic development over time was very similar. This tentatively suggests that the evolution of the strategic process that occurs within family firms may be generalizable across cultures.Originality value - Our findings indicate that there may be an important distinction between family firms and entrepreneurial organizations. That is, all family firms are not necessarily entrepreneurial, especially early on in their company life cycle.
Purpose - The objective is to re-visit and up-date a seminal framework of marketing schools.Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a conceptual description and positioning of old, modern and recent marketing schools.Findings - Recent developments in marketing - such as services marketing, industrial marketing and relationship marketing - do not fit into the seminal framework of marketing schools.Research limitations/implications - The authors have limited the discussion to the human practice of marketing and the academic discipline of marketing. In addition, the authors' focus is on marketing as part of business.Practical implications - The up-dated framework of marketing schools may assist practitioners to understand the current status of marketing by connecting to the past, and the future by revealing unexplored areas of the marketing discipline.Originality/value - The up-dated framework of marketing schools builds on and extends the seminal framework in question to incorporate the recent developments in marketing. In extension, it reveals a white spot in the research of the marketing discipline - a field of further research that may focus on a combination of economic and relational dimensions of marketing.
Purpose - The objective is to re-visit and up-date a seminal framework of marketing schools. Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a conceptual description and positioning of old, modern and recent marketing schools. Findings - Recent developments in marketing - such as services marketing, industrial marketing and relationship marketing - do not fit into the seminal framework of marketing schools. Research limitations/implications - The authors have limited the discussion to the human practice of marketing and the academic discipline of marketing. In addition, the authors' focus is on marketing as part of business. Practical implications - The up-dated framework of marketing schools may assist practitioners to understand the current status of marketing by connecting to the past, and the future by revealing unexplored areas of the marketing discipline. Originality/value - The up-dated framework of marketing schools builds on and extends the seminal framework in question to incorporate the recent developments in marketing. In extension, it reveals a white spot in the research of the marketing discipline - a field of further research that may focus on a combination of economic and relational dimensions of marketing.
Henri Fayol was born in 1841 and died in 1925. After 30 years of an eminently successful career as a practitioner, Fayol devoted the remainder of his life, from 1918 to 1925, to promoting his theory of administration. Fayol was perhaps the first to note the need for management education. His Administration Industrielle et Generale was published in French in 1916. Fayol argued that all industrial undertakings precipitate activities that can be categorised into six groups: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and management. Fayol's work focused on the latter category, management. The Fayol model is relevant and appropriate to contemporary management.
Within the context of America's Depression, the Women's Bureau of the US Department of Labor produced a unique film, Behind the Scenes in the Machine Age. The movie emphasized the seriousness of economic crisis, but promised that by eliminating "waste", America could return to solid ground. The concept of "waste" allowed the Bureau to link scientific management to a broader message preaching workplace safety, endorsing government expertise and economic planning, and underlining women's role in modern industrial production. The organization tailored its philosophy of scientific management to a popular audience, while highlighting woman-centered aspects of economic life.
As a pioneer of both scientific management and industrial psychology, Lillian Gilbreth was ideally equipped to extend scientific management into the service sector in the 1920s. When her husband and partner Frank Gilbreth died in 1924 and she encountered sex discrimination among industrialists and engineers, she volunteered her consulting services at Macy's department store, a work site rife with gender-based conflict, coordination problems and inefficiency. This paper describes her work with Eugenia Lies, Macy's director of planning, to revamp both the motions and psychological atmosphere of occupations within the store between 1925 and 1928. By uniting an industrial relations approach with personnel management techniques, Gilbreth and Lies made the Gilbreth brand of scientific management useful for the field of retail management.
The relationship between the women's reform movement and scientific management has been neglected because secondary literature has focussed primarily on class relations rather than on gender. Moreover, the neutral-sounding formulations of scientific management discourse and the diversification of the women's activism after suffrage has obscured linkages between both movements. Through the case study of the International Institute of Industrial Relations, through which many women reformers of different stripes found each other, the author argues that scientific management had a special appeal for women reformers and should prompt a reconsideration of the connections between gender and the scientific management movement.
This paper examines the 1928 Women's Bureau report, The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of Women. It argues that this was a landmark study, demonstrating that scientific management had the potential to develop into a mature applied social science which could play an important role in the identification, measurement and amelioration of recurrent social problems. It further argues that the report demonstrated the usefulness of scientific management in measuring impartially the effects of gender-specific labor legislation. The paper highlights the instrumental role Mary van Kleeck and Lillian Gilbreth played in bringing feminism and scientific management together and the manner by which they utilized the Women's Bureau report to advance the social and economic interests of women.
Analyzes the role of women in the New York Bureau of Municipal Research (BMR) in the early years of the twentieth century. It shows that early practitioners of urban-oriented scientific management had close ties to the reform social-work community.