Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to provide a mature reflection upon the work of Hofstede by tracking various subtleties in the evolution of his thought and dispelling prevalent misconceptions.Design methodology approach - The goal of the paper is achieved by analyzing Hofstede's output from 1970 to the present day in parallel with contemporary research and criticism.Findings - The paper arrives at the conclusion that the recent expansion and update of Hofstede's doctrine is indebted to the original groundbreaking work of the 1970s yet a key strength of Hofstede's work has been its ability to adapt and remain progressive.Originality value - The paper offers insights into the evolution of Hofstede's doctrines.
Purpose - This paper intends to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational companies manage their subsidiary operations.Design methodology approach - The authors explain the importance of the field and expose a dearth of prior research. Subsequently, they define the "language barrier" and elaborate on the causes underlying this barrier, drawing on social identity theory.Findings - The authors we propose an integrative model that consists of two coupled vicious cycles: the communications cycle - composed of the eight aspects of the language barrier - and the management cycle.Research limitations implications - This contribution to an otherwise ignored field of business study should be considered only a first step in opening up a new research agenda. Specialists in each of the fields touched upon are invited to make a contribution to the debate.Practical implications - The management cycle suggests implications of the language barrier for various aspects of the HQ-subsidiary relationship: strategic decision-making, organization and personnel selection, global integration strategies, and autonomy and control procedures.Originality value - This paper uses socio-linguistic theory to define and elaborate on the construct of the language barrier, a construct which is believed will be helpful in furthering research on the impact of language-difference on multinational management.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to argue that in cross-cultural and strategic management, we must pay attention to the processes creating and maintaining culture. How can everyday interactions give rise to national, "deep" cultures, recognizable across centuries, or organizational cultures, recognizable across decades? Design/methodology/approach - This is a conceptual paper using the evidence provided by research about cultural patterns, and using sociological status-power theory to explain the causation of these patterns. Emergence, also called self-organization, is introduced as mechanism connecting individual-level causation with resulting system-level patterns. Cases are used to illustrate points. Findings - Simulation gaming and computational social simulation are introduced. These methods allow "growing" a system, thus allowing to experiment with potential interventions and their unanticipated effects. Research limitations/implications - This essay could have major implications for research, adding new methods to survey-based and case-based studies, and achieving a new synthesis. Strategic management today almost invariably involves cross-cultural elements. As a result, cross-cultural understanding is now strategically important. Practical implications - The suggestions in this essay could lead to new collaborations in the study of culture and organizational processes. Examples include team formation, negotiation, mergers and acquisitions, trans-national collaboration, incentive systems and job interviews. Social implications - The suggestions in this essay could contribute to our ability of proactively steering processes in organizations. In particular, they can provide a check to the notion that a control measure necessarily results in its intended effect. Originality/value - The synthesis of biological, sociological and cross-cultural psychological viewpoints with design-oriented method, using games or social simulations as research instruments, is original in the field.
Purpose - Organizations in India are multicultural in nature. In this context, cultural intelligence is a tool, which can increase an individual's ability to interact with people outside his/her culture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of cultural intelligence on task performance as well as to investigate the mediating role of cultural adjustment between the two. Design/methodology/approach - Extensive review of literature was done to acknowledge the cultural intelligence and task performance concept. Data for the study has been collected from the 225 managers working in nationalized banks in Jammu province (J& K, India). Data collected has been validated using confirmatory factor analysis and hypotheses have been tested through structural equation modeling. Findings - The study reveals that cultural intelligence significantly contributes toward task performance. The findings further reveal full mediation of cultural adjustment between cultural intelligence and task performance. Research limitations/implications - The study has been conducted in Indian cultural context, which can be extended to other Asian countries. Further, more outcomes of cultural intelligence can be taken into consideration in future for better understanding of the concept. Practical implications - The study contributes toward cultural intelligence theory. Organization should provide cultural training to the managers before sending them to out of home state assignment, which helps to understand the culture of that state and effectively interact with people belonging to that place. Originality/value - The paper empirically identifies the relationship between cultural intelligence and task performance in Indian context. Further, this relationship has been explored by using cultural adjustment as a mediator between the two. The model developed can be used for future research keeping it as a base.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a coherent but critical treatment of Islamic work ethic (IWE). It explores the nature of IWE in the context of cultural and political evolution and offers a cultural and religious perspective pertaining to organization and management.Design methodology approach - It briefly investigates the economic and cultural conditions that facilitate the emergence of work ethics and the centrality of trade in Islamic culture. The paper, then, reviews the pillars and foundations of IWE and investigates various empirical studies conducted in various countries.Findings - IWE has economic as well as moral and social dimensions. These along with basic elements of IWE seem to provide the faithful with a sense of worthiness and strengthen organizational commitment and continuity. That is, work is viewed not as an end in itself, but as a means to foster personal growth and social relations.Practical implications - Offers managers and consults various avenues on how to design teamwork and new methods of change that focus on producing results which reinforce existing commitment and enthusiasm. As justice and generosity in the workplace are considered virtues, issues of a hiring and firing become part of a broader concern with consequences far beyond the organization.Originality value - IWE is a multidimensional concept. It links an organization's prosperity and continuity to societal welfare. Its four elements - effort, competition, transparency and morally responsible conduct - have the promise to strengthen commerce and economic progress in today's world.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of high-performance human resource practices on job satisfaction across four cultural regions - Asia, Europe, North America, and Latin America. High-performance human resource practices were used to predict job satisfaction for each region and then compared to determine significant differences. Hofstede's cultural dimensions were employed as a basis for structuring hypothesized differences across cultural regions. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected from a proprietary industry survey on employee work attitudes. The sample consisted of over 70,000 employees from four large multinational organizations with at least four offices in each of the four regions. Data were analyzed using regression analysis and comparison testing across models. Findings - There are significant relationships between job characteristics and job satisfaction across all regions of the world, with a sense of achievement universally the most important driver. Although job characteristics impact job satisfaction across all regions, there are significant differences in the relative importance of job characteristics on job satisfaction, consistent with Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Practical implications - The findings have implications for tailoring human resource management practices across locations within multinationals. Originality/value - This research is believed to be the first cross-cultural study of human resource practices affecting job satisfaction using multiple organizations and industries.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the conditional effect of team composition on team performance; specifically, how collective team orientation, group consensus, faultline configurations and trust among team members explain the objective performance of project teams in cross-cultural contexts. Design/methodology/approach - Employing path analytical framework and bootstrap methods, the authors analyze data from a sample of 73 cross cultural project teams. Relying on ordinary least-squares regression, the authors estimate the direct and indirect effects of the moderated mediation model. Findings - The findings demonstrate that the indirect effect of collective team orientation on performance through team trust is moderated by team member consensus, diversity heterogeneity and faultlines' strength. By contrast, high dispersion among members, heterogeneous team configurations and strong team faultlines lead to low levels of trust and team performance. Research limitations/implications - The specific context of the study (cross-cultural students' work projects) may influence external validity and limit the generalization of the findings as well as the different compositions of countries-of-origin. Practical implications - From a practical standpoint, these results may help practitioners understand how the emergence of trust contributes to performance. It will also help them comprehend the importance of managing teams while bearing in mind the cross-cultural contexts in which they operate. Social implications - In order to foster team consensus and overcome the effects of group members' cross-cultural dissimilarities as well as team faultlines, organizations should invest in improving members' dedication, cooperation and trust before looking to achieve significant results, specially in heterogeneous teams and cross-cultural contexts. Originality/value - The study advances organizational group research by showing the combined effect of team configurations and collective team orientation to overall team performance and by exploring significant constructs such as team consensus, team trust and diversity faultline strength to examine their possible moderated mediation role in the process.
Purpose – Organizations are implementing sustainability initiatives in different countries with varied socio-cultural systems. The literature on sustainability, however, does not present a clear picture of how national culture can influence interpretations of the meaning of sustainability and how these differences in interpretation can result in different sustainability practices. The purpose of this paper is to build upon the current literature by identifying mechanisms (i.e. sustainability beliefs and perceptions) that mediate the relationship between national cultural values and organizational sustainability initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine the literature on culture and sustainability practices, and develop a conceptual model that identifies how cultural values influence the sustainability initiatives of organizations. Several propositions are identified that specify relationships among the constructs, and guidelines are provided for testing the model in future research. Findings – The model posits that national culture influences sustainability beliefs and perceptions, which in turn influence the quantity and scope of sustainability initiatives. The relationship between sustainability beliefs and organizational sustainability initiatives is moderated by sustainability orientation and organizational capacity. Originality/value – The model can help researchers and practitioners better understand the meaning of sustainability in the context of international business by identifying the mechanisms that explain the link between culture and sustainability. It can also help researchers generate hypotheses for future research. Finally, the model can guide multinational corporations attempting to drive sustainability programs through their subsidiaries as well as international developmental agencies trying to develop programs in partnership with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to argue that the time is ripe to establish a powerful tradition in Experimental International Business (IB). Probably due to what the Arjen van Witteloostuijn refers to as the external validity myth, experimental laboratory designs are underutilized in IB, which implies that the internal validity miracle of randomized experimentation goes largely unnoticed in this domain of the broader management discipline. Design/methodology/approach – In the following pages, the author explains why the author believes this implies a missed opportunity, providing arguments and examples along the way. Findings – Although an Experimental Management tradition has never really gained momentum, to the author, the lab experimental design has a very bright future in IB (and management at large). To facilitate the development of an Experimental IB tradition, initiating web-based tools would be highly instrumental. This will not only boost further progress in IB research, but will also increase the effectiveness and playfulness of IB teaching. Originality/value – Given the high potential of an Experimental IB, the Cross-Cultural and Strategic Management journal will offer a platform for such exciting and intriguing laboratory work, cumulatively contributing to the establishment of an Experimental IB tradition.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating role of the cultural dimensions of long-term orientation (LTO) and individualism (IND) on the relationships between satisfaction online, message involvement (MI) and perceived usefulness (PU) of the web site on attitude toward the web site. Design/methodology/approach - The authors chose a between-subjects experimental design, using culture (Spanish vs British) as the independent variable. Two versions of a web site for a fictitious tourist destination were created - one written in Spanish and the other in English. The sample comprised 491 users. Findings - The findings indicate that the LTO dimension moderates the relationship between satisfaction online and PU on attitude toward the web site. The relationships between MI and attitude toward the web site could not be confirmed. Research limitations/implications - The main limitation of this study is the comparison of only two cultures, Spain vs the UK. Practical implications - The key implication is that if marketers and web site designers can better understand how national cultural differences moderate the attitude formation and change process among tourists, this will enable them to market their destinations and services more effectively. National cultural differences explain the differences found in the effect of satisfaction and PU on attitude toward the web site. Originality/value - This study is one of the few analyzing the moderating effect of LTO and IND on three antecedents of attitude toward the web site. The original cultural values established by Hofstede (2001) were tested among the present sample to establish the extent to which they remain true today. To create an authentic browsing scenario for the experiment, a web site was specially designed for a fictitious tourist destination, with its own domain name (buyada.org). Subjects were invited to browse the site freely while carrying out the task assigned to them. This approach contributed added value to the research by simulating the real behavior of tourists who are faced with a range of choices when putting together a tourism package for a given destination.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth analysis of the knowledge sharing enablers and the moderating role of Islamic work ethic (IWE) on the relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation capability in the public sector organizations.Design methodology approach - The foundations of knowledge sharing capability, IWE and innovation capability were assessed using a validated survey instrument. A total of 472 Administrative and Diplomatic Service Officers from the Malaysian public sector organizations participated in the survey.Findings - The empirical results indicate that the intrinsic motivation to share knowledge is significant in the public sector organizations. The relationship between knowledge sharing capability and innovation capability of employees in the public sector organizations was found to be contingent on IWE.Research limitations implications - While the study was salient and confined to the Malaysian public sector organizations, it has considerable implications for the development of an optimistic workforce in other regions and across sectors. Cross-sectional studies are encouraged to further confirm the results.Practical implications - An understanding of the pledge of the workforce to knowledge sharing, IWE and its consequences for innovativeness facilitates public sector organizations in designing and implementing modernization initiatives.Originality value - In response to the substantial need to examine IWE and workplace outcomes in a non-Western environment, the paper embraces the extent to which IWE sways the link between knowledge sharing and innovation capability in the public sector organizations. Both scholars and practitioners will find the study valuable.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of customer-brand relationships in the international marketplace, and empirically investigates and compares the customer-brand relationship development process between Indian and Chinese markets. In detail, four out of Hofstede's original five national culture dimensions were adopted as moderators in the process of customer-brand relationship development between two markets. Design/methodology/approach - To test hypotheses, responses from 539 Indian and 400 Chinese mobile phone consumer samples were achieved, and the proposed model was estimated by using structural equations based on the partial least squares algorithm. Findings - The results demonstrate that utilitarian value and brand affect play a significant role in building brand loyalty for Chinese consumers, while hedonic value and perceived risk contribute more in building brand loyalty for Indian consumers. Research limitations/implications - This study indicated that the cultural difference affects both on brand trust formation and on the relationship between brand trust/affect and brand loyalty, implying that more customized brand management strategies should be adopted. Practical implications - Global brand values must be communicated for each culture appropriately. It is desirable that the identified match, utilitarian value-Chinese customers and hedonic value-Indian customers, be consistently presented to each cultural market in a more integrative manner. Originality/value - This study identified that the route from the development of value proposition to building up brand trust and brand affect is a critical step toward achieving brand loyalty in Indian and Chinese markets.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the inter-relational aspects of personality traits, using the five-factor model of personality, and Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture for work-related values to evaluate the differences between the US and Indian cultures.Design methodology approach - The research method is quantitative and samples include qualified online-panel respondents, representing educated and experienced business professionals who use the internet. Data analysis includes Pearson correlation and multiple analysis of variance. Sample results show large differences in all five cultural dimensions as compared to Hofstede's 1980 data.Findings - Changes in work-related values may reflect the influence of advances in communication and internet technologies, offering insight toward problems associated with global multicultural projects. Correlations between personality traits and cultural dimensions exist for certain occupational-job categories, and provide insight on leadership characteristics.Research limitations implications - Limitations include self-reported responses via a web-based survey, rather than actual observations in the workplace.Practical implications - Technical and cultural competence is needed for global leaders, especially with increased use of the internet and networked environments. Navigating through cross-cultural situations requires cultural insight, interpersonal skills, and an ability to build trust.Originality value - This study extends Hofstede's 1980 original research by acquiring new, cross-culturally comparative data. It also extends the original research of Donnellan et al., regarding the Mini NEO assessment. The study provides confirmatory analysis to the exploratory work of Smith and Bond and McCrae, but only for one of the three predicted correlations: extraversion with individualism.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advance cross-cultural management during mergers and acquisitions (M&A), an issue that remains poorly understood despite a large body of literature accumulated over many years of study and experience.Design methodology approach - Based on literature review and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful companies, this paper clarifies the concept, the assessment and the use of corporate culture and its dimensions during all mergers and acquisitions stages, and as such shows its role as an important and influential milestone in the international business environment exploration.Findings - The paper arrives at the conclusion that the enduring paradox of the high rate of M&A failure vs the growing activity of M&A may be due to lack of synchronized activities of all merger stages.Practical implications - The paper presents frameworks and managerial tools that can help researchers and practitioners conduct better corporate culture assessment during all stages of the M&A, including screening, planning, and negotiation, and enhance the effectiveness of interventions carried out during post-merger integration process.Originality value - The paper offers insights into corporate culture and its impact during pre-merger stage, negotiation, and the post-merger integration process.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how two individual value orientations - Doing (the tendency to commit to goals and hold a strong work ethic) and Mastery (an orientation toward seeking control over outside forces) - moderate: the relationship between organizational justice and affective organizational commitment, and the mediation role of organizational trust in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach - The authors collected data from 706 employees working in 65 universities across China, South Korea, and Australia. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of the measures. Hierarchical regressions were performed to test moderating effects of the two cultural value orientations. Findings - Results from the full sample showed that Doing and Mastery moderated the distributive justice-commitment relationship and the procedural justice-trust relationship. Comparisons between countries demonstrated limited cross-cultural differences. Practical implications - The present study adds to the understanding of the impact of individual and cultural differences on the relationship between justice and commitment, helping managers understand how employees' reactions to justice are influenced by cultural value orientations. Originality/value - This study is a pioneer in empirically integrating the value orientation framework (e. g. Doing and Mastery orientations) and justice research in a cross-cultural context based in the Asia Pacific region. It also advances cross-cultural justice research through using a mediation-moderation combination.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between cross-cultural adjustment and stress of expatriate employees with families in a multinational corporation and identify common stressors reported during international transitions. Design/methodology/approach – This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods through an online survey based tool. The CernySmith Assessment captured the statistical measures of objective adjustment scales along with written in, subjective stressor responses from a sample of expatriates. Findings – Overall subjective stress level was negatively correlated with all five objective adjustment domains (organizational, cultural, relational, behavioral, and personal). Seven stressor categories (cultural, occupational, relational, historical, crisis, spiritual, physical) demonstrated statistically significant negative relationships with overall adjustment. Regression analysis indicated expatriate adjustment was predicted by spiritual, occupational, and support stressors. Write-in stressor responses provided specific expressions of individual stress challenges, strains, and hassles that support predicted relations according to the Family Adaptation and Adjustment Response model. Research limitations/implications – This study provides a snapshot of objective adjustment interacting with subjective stress for expatriate employees from a single international organization during a specific time period. Originality/value – These findings provide insights to organizations and human resource development professionals as well as to expatriates and their families on how stress impacts expatriate adjustment. It also highlights the need for support mechanisms to ease transitions and reduce stressors.
Purpose – Temporary agency workers (TAWs) are regarded as experiencing employment conditions that tend to facilitate high strain. In this study, the authors view this situation as not being inevitable and dependent on the opportunity of having positive experiences in the professional context. The purpose of this paper is to propose that perceptions of the human resource management (HRM) practices system are positively related to work engagement, which in turn, is positively related to context free well-being. Design/methodology/approach – These hypotheses were tested with two samples of TAWs, from Portugal (n=241) and Brazil (n=228), contracted by the same international agency. Data were analyzed with multiple group analyses. Findings – Results confirmed that in both the Portuguese and Brazilian samples the HRM practices system is positively related to TAWs’ context free well-being and their work engagement mediates this relationship. However, the authors also verified that the relationship between work engagement and satisfaction with life was stronger for the Portuguese TAWs than for their Brazilian counterparts. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited, due to the nature of the data (self-reported) and the lack of a longitudinal design. Practical implications – An important implication of this research study is that agencies should acknowledge the fact that HRM practices are an investment with a return from TAWs, since they are positively related to their well-being. Originality/value – The findings highlight the importance of the HRM practices system in developing positive psychological states with TAWs, not only at work, but also outside this context. This observation was confirmed in two different countries.
Purpose - Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. While the field has continued to expand over the preceding decades, research has often trailed application, especially as it relates to cross-cultural validity. The purpose of this introductory essay to this special issue of CCM serves to focus on cultural issues related to applied use of competencies in diverse cultures.Design methodology approach - Emotional and social intelligence competencies are defined and an overview provided for the papers that will follow, with original research linking these constructs to performance in various occupations and cultures, as well as issues related to their development.Findings - Emotional and social intelligence competencies are found to represent a practical and theoretically coherent, reliable and valid approach to assessing and developing individuals in diverse cultures.Research limitations implications - As an introductory essay, the paper lays the foundation for the following articles in this special issue.Originality value - Although competencies are in widespread use around the world, issues related to cross-cultural validation are seldom studied empirically. This introductory essay and subsequent articles will help clarify emotional and social competencies as a behavioral approach to applying emotional intelligence to the practical needs of organizations.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural intelligence (CQ) and specific self-efficacy (SSE), and the effect of training on CQ and SSE.Design methodology approach - Pre and post-test surveys were administered to 110 US government contracting trainees, in four separate training settings, to measure the effects of training on mean CQ and SSE scores. Two administrations included pre and post-test surveys. One was designed as a post-test only, while the fourth was taken from 25 contracting officers in a recurring training setting. Statistical analyses were performed through the use of t-tests to measure the significance of the change in means across training classes.Findings - It was found that training using a lecture format significantly improved mean levels of CQ on the cognitive and behavioral dimensions, while less significantly improving motivational CQ. SSE scores from pre- to post-training were also only marginally improved. An additional finding showed significant positive correlations between CQ and SSE, but only in post- training samples.Practical implications - These findings indicate that managers can use cultural training as an effective tool to increase the cognitive and behavioral dimensions of their employees' CQ, helping employees to be more effective in overseas assignments. In addition, improving employees' SSE on a task to be performed in a cross-cultural situation may help to improve levels of CQ, and thus cross-cultural performance.Originality value - The paper demonstrates the link between SSE and CQ, and shows that CQ and SSE can be improved through training. The relationship among these variables had not been empirically tested in past research, especially involving samples of public sector employees.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the inter-relational aspects of personality traits, using the five-factor model of personality, and Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture for work-related values to evaluate the differences between the US and Indian cultures. Design/methodology/approach - The research method is quantitative and samples include qualified online-panel respondents, representing educated and experienced business professionals who use the internet. Data analysis includes Pearson correlation and multiple analysis of variance. Sample results show large differences in all five cultural dimensions as compared to Hofstede's 1980 data. Findings - Changes in work-related values may reflect the influence of advances in communication and internet technologies, offering insight toward problems associated with global multicultural projects. Correlations between personality traits and cultural dimensions exist for certain occupational-job categories, and provide insight on leadership characteristics. Research limitations/implications - Limitations include self-reported responses via a web-based survey, rather than actual observations in the workplace. Practical implications - Technical and cultural competence is needed for global leaders, especially with increased use of the internet and networked environments. Navigating through cross-cultural situations requires cultural insight, interpersonal skills, and an ability to build trust. Originality/value - This study extends Hofstede's 1980 original research by acquiring new, cross-culturally comparative data. It also extends the original research of Donnellan et al, regarding the Mini NEO assessment. The study provides confirmatory analysis to the exploratory work of Smith and Bond and McCrae, but only for one of the three predicted correlations: extraversion with individualism.