Background: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. Methods: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases. Articles published in the English language between January 1, 1990 and March 1, 2017 were identified and isolated based on the analysis of p53 in skeletal muscle in both animal and cell culture models. Results: Literature was categorized according to the modality of imposed oxidative stress including exercise, diet modification, exogenous oxidizing agents, tissue manipulation, irradiation, and hypoxia. With low to moderate levels of oxidative stress, p53 is involved in activating pathways that increase time for cell repair, such as cell cycle arrest and autophagy, to enhance cell survival. However, with greater levels of stress intensity and duration, such as with irradiation, hypoxia, and oxidizing agents, the role of p53 switches to facilitate increased cellular stress levels by initiating DNA fragmentation to induce apoptosis, thereby preventing aberrant cell proliferation. Conclusion: Current evidence confirms that p53 acts as a threshold regulator of cellular homeostasis. Therefore, within each modality, the intensity and duration are parameters of the oxidative stressor that must be analyzed to determine the role p53 plays in regulating signaling pathways to maintain cellular health and function in skeletal muscle. Abbreviations: Acadl: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain; Acadm: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain; AIF: apoptosis-inducing factor; Akt: protein kinase B (PKB); AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATF-4: activating transcription factor 4; ATM: ATM serine/threonine kinase; Bax: BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator; Bcl-2: B cell Leukemia/Lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator; Bhlhe40: basic helix-loop-helix family member e40; BH3: Borane; Bim: bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death; Bok: Bcl-2 related ovarian killer; COX-IV: cytochrome c oxidase IV; cGMP: Cyclic guanosine monophosphate; c-myc: proto-oncogene protein; Cpt1b: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B; Dr5: death receptor 5; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ERK: extracellular regulated MAP kinase; Fas: Fas Cell surface death receptor; FDXR: Ferredoxin Reductase; FOXO3a: forkhead box O3; Gadd45a: growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 alpha; GLS2: glutaminase 2; GLUT 1 and 4: glucose transporter 1(endothelial) and 4 (skeletal muscle); GSH: Glutathione; Hes1: hes family bHLH transcription factor 1; Hey1: hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1; HIFI-α: hypoxia-inducible factor 1, α-subunit; HK2: Hexokinase 2; HSP70: Heat Shock Protein 70; H 2 O 2 : Hydrogen Peroxide; Id2: inhibitor of DNA-binding 2; IGF-1-BP3: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; IL-1β: Interleukin 1 beta; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IRS-1: Insulin receptor substrate 1; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinases; LY-83583: 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione; inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase and of cGMP production; Mdm 2/ 4: Mouse double minute 2 homolog (mouse) Mdm4 (humans); mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; MURF1: Muscle RING-finger protein-1; MyoD: Myogenic differentiation 1; MyoG: myogenin; Nanog: Nanog homeobox; NF-kB: Nuclear factor-κB; NO: nitric oxide; NoxA: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (Pmaip1); NRF-1: nuclear respiratory factor 1; Nrf2: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; P21: Cdkn1a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21); P38 MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinases; p53R2: p53 inducible ribonucleotide reductase gene; P66Shc: src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein C1; PERP: p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22; PGC-1α: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PGM: phosphoglucomutase; PI3K: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; PKCβ: protein kinase c beta; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; PTIO: 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) has been used as a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger; Puma: The p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis; PW1: paternally expressed 3 (Peg3); RNS: Reactive nitrogen species; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SCO2: cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein; SOD2: superoxide dismutase 2; Tfam: transcription factor A mitochondrial; TIGAR: Trp53 induced glycolysis repulatory phosphatase; TNF-a: tumor necrosis factor a; TRAF2: TNF receptor associated factor 2; TRAIL: type II transmembrane protein.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) and other redox active molecules fulfill key functions in immunity. Beside the initiation of cytocidal reactions within the pathogen defense strategy, redox reactions trigger and shape the immune response and are further involved in termination and initialization of cellular restorative processes. Regulatory mechanisms provided by redox-activated signaling events guarantee the correct spatial and temporal proceeding of immunological processes, and continued imbalances in redox homeostasis lead to crucial failures of control mechanisms, thus promoting the development of pathological conditions. Interferon-gamma is the most potent inducer of ROS-RNS formation in target cells like macrophages. Immune-regulatory pathways such as tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and neopterin production by GTP-cyclohydrolase-I are initiated during T helper cell type 1 (Th1-type) immune response concomitant to the production of ROS-RNS by immunocompetent cells. Therefore, increased neopterin production and tryptophan breakdown is representative of an activated cellular immune system and can be used for the in vivo and in vitro monitoring of oxidative stress. In parallel, the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B is a central element in immunity leading to cell type and stimulus-specific expression of responsive genes. Furthermore, T cell activation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the redox potential of the extracellular microenvironment. T cell commitment to Th1, Th2, regulatory T cell, and other phenotypes appears to crucially depend on the activation of redox-sensitive signaling cascades, where oxidative conditions support Th1 development while 'antioxidative' stress leads to a shift to allergic Th2-type immune responses.
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque. As such, detection, quantification and imaging of MPO mass and activity have become useful in cardiac risk stratification, both for disease assessment and in the identification of patients at risk of plaque rupture. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of MPO in CAD with a focus on its possible roles in plaque rupture and recent advances to quantify and image MPO in plasma and atherosclerotic plaques.
Objectives and methods: Compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 55), patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 26) showed increased oxidative stress as indicated by a significantly increased percentage of oxidized coenzyme Q10 (%CoQ10) in total plasma coenzyme Q10, a significantly decreased level of plasma uric acid, and a significantly decreased percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Therefore, the efficacy of edaravone, a radical scavenger, in these ALS patients was examined. Results and discussion: Among 26 ALS patients, 17 received edaravone (30 mg/day, one to four times a week) for at least 3 months, and 13 continued for 6 months. Changes in revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) were significantly smaller in these patients than in edaravone-untreated ALS patients (n = 19). Edaravone administration significantly reduced excursions of more than one standard deviation from the mean for plasma FFA levels and the contents of palmitoleic and oleic acids, plasma markers of tissue oxidative damage, in the satisfactory progress group (ΔALSFRS-R ≥ 0) as compared to the ingravescent group (ΔALSFRS-R < −5). Edaravone treatment increased plasma uric acid, suggesting that it is an effective scavenger of peroxynitrite. However, edaravone administration did not decrease %CoQ10. Therefore, combined treatment with agents such as coenzyme Q10 may further reduce oxidative stress in ALS patients.
Objective: To explore the impact of oxidative insults on mitochondrial dynamics. In mammalian cells, oxidative insults activate stress response pathways including inflammation, cytokine secretion, and apoptosis. Intriguingly, mitochondria are emerging as a sensitive network that may function as an early indicator of subsequent cellular stress responses. Mitochondria form a dynamic network, balancing fusion, mediated by optic atrophy-1 (OPA1), and fission events, mediated by dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1), to maintain homeostasis. Methods: Here, we examine the impact of oxidative insults on mitochondrial dynamics in 143B osteosarcoma and H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines via confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and protein-based analyses. Results: When challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a ROS donor, both cell lines display fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and loss of fusion-active OPA1 isoforms, indicating that OPA1-mediated mitochondrial fusion is disrupted by oxidative damage in mammalian cells. Consistent with this, cells lacking OMA1, a key protease responsible for cleavage of OPA1, are protected against OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial fragmentation in response to H 2 O 2 challenge. Discussion: Taken together, these findings indicate that oxidative insults damage OPA1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian cells via activation of OMA1, consistent with an emerging role for mitochondrial dynamics as an early indicator of cellular stress signaling.
Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male, adult albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart whereas they showed significantly decreased level of plasma insulin. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) in liver, kidney, and heart were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of kaempferol to diabetic rats was showed brought back in plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants to near normal. Conclusion The present study indicates that kaempferol has a good antioxidant property, as evidenced by its increase of antioxidant status and decrease of lipid peroxidation markers, thus providing protection from the risks of diabetic complications.
Diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate and, despite anti-hypertensive and insulin therapies, diabetic patients are still at risk of developing complications such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and retinopathy. There is therefore an urgent need for more effective therapies to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications. Oxidative stress is a major player in the aetiology of diabetic complications. However, results from clinical trials thus far using general antioxidants have been disappointing. Mechanism-based antioxidants have gained considerable attention due to their more targeted approach at reducing oxidative stress and associated complications in diabetes. The transcription factor, NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a master regulator of redox homeostasis and the cellular detoxification response. Instead of relying on a single antioxidant, activation of Nrf2 results in the concerted upregulation of several antioxidant enzymes and cytoprotective genes, making it an attractive therapeutic target for diabetic complications. Several Nrf2 activators have been discovered and have proven effective at activating Nrf2 signalling through different mechanisms in both in vitro and in vivo models of diabetes. This review will address some of the most promising and well-known Nrf2 activators and their roles in preventing the development and progression of diabetic complications. Challenges facing the advancement of this drug class into the clinic will be discussed, as will be the future of Nrf2 activation as a therapeutic strategy in preventing the development of diabetic complications.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH) along with its phosphorylated form (NADP + /NADPH) are two molecules ubiquitously present in all organisms, and they play key roles as cofactors in fundamental catabolic and anabolic processes, respectively. The oxidation of NADPH to NADP + initiates a cascade of reactions, where a network of molecules is implicated. The molecules of this cascade form a network with eminent translational potential in redox metabolism. A special point of interest is that spectrophotometric assays have been developed both for NADH/NADPH and the molecules directly regulated by them. Therefore, crucial molecules of the NADPH-dependent redox network can be measured, and the results can be used to assess the bioenergetic and/or oxidative stress status. The main aim of this review is to collectively present the NADPH-related molecules, namely NADPH, NADH, NAD + kinase, NADPH oxidase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and nitric oxide synthase, that can be measured in blood and tissues with the use of a spectrophotometer, which is probably the most simple, inexpensive and widely used tool in biochemistry. We are providing the researchers with reliable and valid spectrophotometric assays for the measurement of the most important biomarkers of the NADPH network in blood and other tissues, thus allowing the opportunity to follow the redox changes in response to a stimulus.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress and thiol/disulfide status with a novel automated homeostasis assay in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Thirty-five patients with advanced NSCLC, who had been newly diagnosed and previously untreated, and 35 healthy subjects were chosen for the study. We measured plasma total thiol (-SH+-S-S-), native thiol (thiol) (-SH), and disulfide (-S-S-) levels in the patients with NSCLC and the healthy subjects. The thiol/disulfide (-SH/-S-S-) ratio was also calculated. Results: Statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group were detected for the thiol/disulfide parameters. The mean native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were significantly lower in the group with advanced stage NSCLC. The cut-off value was 313 and 13.8 for native thiol and disulfide, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly shorter in patients with low native thiol and disulfide levels according to the cut-off value (respectively, P = 0.001; P = 0.006). Native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were correlated with Karnofsky performance status (KPS), OS, and age. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses showed gender, KPS, lung metastases, and plasma native thiol levels were the determinants of OS in the final model. Conclusion: These results suggest that in advanced stage NSCLC, the native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels decrease, while the native thiol/disulfide ratio does not change. Low levels of thiol/disulfide parameters are related to tumor aggressiveness and may predict a poor outcome for patients with NSCLC.
Objective: To examine the effect of galangin on hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of low-dose STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)) into male albino Wistar rats. Galangin (8 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was given orally, once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes. The levels of insulin and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were decreased significantly in diabetic control rats. These altered plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants ions were reverted to near-normal level after the administration of galangin and glibenclamide. Conclusion: The present study shows that galangin decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status in diabetic rats, which may be due to its antidiabetic and antioxidant potential.
Objective: The objective of this paper was to link the phytochemical and metabolic research treating quinolinic acid induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, plays a role in the oxidative stress associated with many neurological disorders and is used to simulate disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Results: In these models, phytochemicals have been shown to reduce striatal lesion size, reduce inflammation and prevent lipid peroxidation caused by quinolinic acid. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds, a class of phytochemicals, including flavonoids and diarylheptanoids, should be further studied to develop new treatments for oxidative stress related neurological disorders.
Objectives: Mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. The objective of our study is to identify the mechanisms of renal mitochondrial oxidative stress, focusing on Sirt3, which is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ; oxidized NAD)-dependent deacetylase in mitochondria. Methods: Renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and Sirt3 activity, using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDFRs) and cultured proximal tubular cells under high-glucose condition were evaluated. Results: At 28 weeks of age, ZDFRs exhibited the increased urinary albumin/liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP)/8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion, histological tubular cell damage, compared to non-diabetic Zucker Lean rats. In renal mitochondria, acetylated isocitrate dehydrogenase2 (IDH2) and superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2), accompanied with mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial morphologic alterations, were increased in ZDFRs, indicating inactivation of Sirt3. Additionally, expression of the NAD-degrading enzyme, CD38, was increased, and the NAD + /NADH (reduced NAD) ratio was reduced in the renal cortex of ZDFRs. High-glucose stimulation in cultured proximal tubular cells also resulted in an increase in acetylated IDH2/SOD2, CD38 overexpression and a reduction in the NAD + /NADH ratio. Conclusions: Enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney was mediated by the reduction of Sirt3 activity. CD38 overexpression may be related to a reduction in the NAD + /NADH ratio in the diabetic kidney.
Objectives: This is a narrative review, investigating the antioxidant properties of drugs used in the management of diabetes, and discusses whether these antioxidant effects contribute to, confound, or conceal the effects of antioxidant therapy. Methods: A systematic search for articles reporting trials, or observational studies on the antioxidant effect of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes in humans or animals was performed using Web of Science, PubMed, and Ovid. Data were extracted, including data on a number of subjects, type of treatment (and duration) received, and primary and secondary outcomes. The primary outcomes were reporting on changes in biomarkers of antioxidants concentrations and secondary outcomes were reporting on changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress. Results: Diabetes Mellitus is a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. It is often accompanied by a spectrum of other metabolic disturbances, including elevated plasma lipids, elevated uric acid, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and central obesity. This review shows evidence that some of the drugs in diabetes management have both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties through mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant gene expression. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been shown to exert an antioxidant effect..
Objective: Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in the development of many diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the extracts from fruits native to Brazil on metabolic parameters and hepatic oxidative markers in an animal model of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone (DEX). Methods: Wistar rats received water or extracts of Eugenia uniflora or Psidium cattleianum, once a day for 21 days. For the last 5 days, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline or DEX. Results: DEX caused a reduction in body weight gain and relative pancreatic weight, as well as glucose intolerance, and an increase in serum glucose and triacylglycerol levels. The extracts were found to prevent hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. DEX caused an increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reactive oxygen species production in the liver of rats, and both extracts prevented these changes. In addition, hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity was reduced by DEX. However, total thiol content and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase were not altered in any of the tested groups. Conclusion: Fruit extracts of E. uniflora and P. cattleianum exhibited considerable antihyperglycemic, antidyslipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and may be useful in the therapeutic management of alterations due to IR.
Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause of end-stage renal disease and effective and new therapeutic approaches are needed in diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammatory process are important factors contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants. KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway regulates the transcription of many antioxidant genes and modulation of the pathway up regulates antioxidants. NFB controls the expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response. Natural substances have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and have an impact on NFB and KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathways. The preclinical studies explored the effectiveness of whole herbs, plants or seeds and their active ingredients in established diabetic nephropathy. They ameliorate oxidative stress induced kidney damage, enhance antioxidant system, and decrease inflammatory process and fibrosis; most likely by activating KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and by deactivating NFB pathway. Whole natural products contain balanced antioxidants that might work synergistically to induce beneficial therapeutic outcome. In this context, more clinical studies involving whole plants or herbal products or mixtures of different herbs and plants and their active ingredients might change our strategies for the management of diabetic nephropathy. The natural products might be useful as preventive interventions and studies are required in this field.
Objective: Investigate Vitamin D-3 (VD3) effect on the Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), oxidative damage and behavioral tests in animals subjected to Intracerebroventicular injection of Streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) simulating a Sporadic Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (SDAT) and treated with VD3 (21 days). Methods: Animals were divided into eight groups: Vehicle, VD12.5 mu g/kg, VD42 mu g/kg, VD125 mu g/kg, STZ, STZ+VD12.5 mu g/kg, STZ+VD42 mu g/kg, STZ+VD125 mu g/kg. Results: VD3 prevented the increase in AChE in groups of VD42 mu g/kg and VD125 mu g/kg; in AChE of synaptossomes and TBARS levels prevented the increase in group VD125 mu g/kg; in ROS levels there was not a significant difference; for the Carbonyl Content all doses prevented the increase. Total Thiols prevent the decrease in VD42 mu g/kg and VD125 mu g/kg, and Reduced Glutathione prevented the decrease in VD125 mu g/kg, Oxidized Glutathione prevented the increase in VD125 mu g/kg. In relation to behavioral tests, the VD3 prevented the increase in time to find (days 2 and 3), in the time to find the platform (day 3) and in time spent in the quadrant (day 2). However, in relation to crossings there was not difference in groups. These results indicated the therapeutic effect of the VD3 in model of STZ in rats.
Many pathological conditions linked to cigarette smoking are caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of ROS on the lungs of Swiss mice exposed to cigarette smoking, focusing on autophagy-mediated mechanisms, and investigate the involvement of SESN2, AMPK, and mTOR signaling. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days; the control group was not exposed to CS. Only mice exposed to CS for 45 days were selected for subsequent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation and smoke cessation analyses. Exposure to CS increased the production of ROS and induced molecular changes in the autophagy pathway, including an increase in phosphorylated AMPK and ULK1, reduction in phosphorylated mTOR, and increases in SESN2, ATG12, and LC3B levels. NAC supplementation reduced ROS levels and reversed all molecular changes observed upon CS treatment, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in inducing autophagy upon CS exposure. When exposure to CS was stopped, there were decreases in the levels of oxidative stress, AMPK and ULK1 phosphorylation, and autophagy-initiating molecules and increase in mTOR phosphorylation. In conclusion, these results suggest the involvement of ROS, SESN2, AMPK, and mTOR in the CS-induced autophagic process in the lung.
Objetives: The goal of this study was to determine if systemic and peritoneal oxidative stress biomarkers are related to each other and to retrograde menstruation in endometriosis. Methods: Plasma and peritoneal fluid oxidative stress biomarkers and hemoglobin and erythrocytes in peritoneal fluid as retrograde menstruation indicators, were measured in 28 patients with endometriosis and 23 without endometriosis. Results: In the peritoneal fluid, carbonyls and lipohydroperoxides, indicative of protein and lipid oxidative damage, were higher in endometriosis group (21%, p = 0.016 and 46%, p = 0.009, respectively). However, these biomarkers were not different in the blood plasma of both groups, and only protein dityrosine, was increased in the plasma of endometriosis group (31%, p = 0.04). The peritoneal fluid hemoglobin content was not higher in the endometriosis group, nor related to carbonyls and lipohydroperoxides. Additionally, the peritoneal fluid oxidative biomarkers were not correlated with the blood plasma ones, and only malondialdehyde, and ischemia-modified albumin were almost two times higher in peritoneal fluid. Discussion: Our results show a peritoneal and systemic oxidative stress biomarkers increase in endometriosis, but not related to each other, and do not support the hypothesis of an increase in hemoglobin-iron supply towards the peritoneal cavity that causes oxidative damage.
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine phosphatase, is also known to be a target of ROS. The methylation of PP2A can be catalyzed by leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT1), which regulates PP2A activity and substrate specificity. In the previous study, we have showed that LCMT1-dependent PP2Ac methylation arrests H O -induced cell oxidative stress damage. To explore the possible protective mechanism, we performed iTRAQ-based comparative quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics studies of H O -treated vector control and LCMT1-overexpressing cells. A total of 4480 non-redundant proteins and 3801 unique phosphopeptides were identified by this means. By comparing the H O -regulated proteins in LCMT1-overexpressing and vector control cells, we found that these differences were mainly related to protein phosphorylation, gene expression, protein maturation, the cytoskeleton and cell division. Further investigation of LCMT1 overexpression-specific regulated proteins under H O treatment supported the idea that LCMT1 overexpression induced ageneral dephosphorylation of proteins and indicated increased expression of non-erythrocytic hemoglobin, inactivation of MAPK3 and regulation of proteins related to Rho signal transduction, which were known to be linked to the regulation of the cytoskeleton. These data provide proteomics and phosphoproteomics insights into the association of LCMT1-dependent PP2Ac methylation and oxidative stress and indirectly indicate that the methylation of PP2A plays an important role against oxidative stress.
Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effect of theaflavin on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet and streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by feeding them with high fat diet comprising of standard laboratory rat chow 84.3%, lard 5%, egg yolk powder 10%, cholesterol 0.2% and bile salt 0.5% for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the animals were kept in an overnight fast and injected with low dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b.w). Results: Theaflavin (100 mg/kg b.w /day) was administered orally to diabetic rats for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, diabetic control rats showed significant increase in plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with concomitant decrease in plasma insulin, total hemoglobin and body weight. The activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid peroxidation markers, antioxidant enzymes, glycogen content and glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were also altered in diabetic rats. Discussion: Oral administration of theaflavin to diabetic rats significantly ameliorated all the biochemical alterations to near normal levels. The results of the present study suggest that theaflavin exhibits antidiabetic effect through its antioxidant activity.