Activated carbon (AC) composite with HKUST-1 metal organic framework (AC–HKUST-1 MOF) was prepared by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis and laterally was applied for the simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of crystal violet (CV), disulfine blue (DSB) and quinoline yellow (QY) dyes in their ternary solution. In addition, this material, was screened in vitro for their antibacterial actively against Methicillin-resistant ( ) and ( ) bacteria. In dyes removal process, the effects of important variables such as initial concentration of dyes, adsorbent mass, pH and sonication time on adsorption process optimized by Taguchi approach. Optimum values of 4, 0.02 g, 4 min, 10 mg L were obtained for pH, AC–HKUST-1 MOF mass, sonication time and the concentration of each dye, respectively. At the optimized condition, the removal percentages of CV, DSB and QY were found to be 99.76%, 91.10%, and 90.75%, respectively, with desirability of 0.989. Kinetics of adsorption processes follow pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model as best method with high applicability for representation of experimental data, while maximum mono layer adsorption capacity for CV, DSB and QY on AC–HKUST-1 estimated to be 133.33, 129.87 and 65.37 mg g which significantly were higher than HKUST-1 as sole material with to equate 59.45, 57.14 and 38.80 mg g , respectively.
The present study was focused on the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption onto the gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC). This nanomaterial was characterized using different techniques such as SEM, XRD, and BET. The effects of variables such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), temperature and sonication time (min) on MB removal were studied and using central composite design (CCD) and the optimum experimental conditions were found with desirability function (DF) combined response surface methodology (RSM). Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models show the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Analysis of experimental adsorption data to various kinetic models such as pseudo-first and second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models show the applicability of the second-order equation model. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.01 g) is applicable for successful removal of MB (RE > 95%) in short time (1.6 min) with high adsorption capacity (104–185 mg g ).
Undoped and Pr-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sonochemical method, and their sonocatalytic activity was investigated toward degradation of Acid Red 17 (AR17) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The extent of sonocatalytic degradation was higher compared with sonolysis alone. The decolorization efficiency of sonolysis alone, sonocatalysis with undoped ZnO and 5% Pr-doped ZnO was 24%, 46% and 100% within reaction time of 70 min, respectively. Sonocatalytic degradation of AR17 increased with increasing the amount of dopant and catalyst dosage and decreasing initial dye concentration. Natural pH was favored the sonocatalytic degradation of AR17. With the addition of chloride, carbonate and sulfate as radical scavengers, the decolorization efficiency was decreased from 100% to 65%, 71% and 89% at the reaction time of 70 min, respectively, indicating that the controlling mechanism of sonochemical degradation of AR17 is the free radicals (not pyrolysis). The addition of peroxydisulfate and hydrogen peroxide as enhancer improved the degradation efficiency from 79% to 85% and 93% at the reaction time of 50 min, respectively. The result showed good reusability of the synthesized sonocatalyst.
γ-Fe O nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded on activated carbon. The prepared nanomaterial was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The γ-Fe O nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon (γ-Fe O -NPs-AC) was used as novel adsorbent for the ultrasonic-assisted removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG). Response surface methodology and artificial neural network were applied to model and optimize the adsorption of the MB and MG in their individual and binary solutions followed by the investigation on adsorption isotherm and kinetics. The individual effects of parameters such as pH, mass of adsorbent, ultrasonication time as well as MB and MG concentrations in addition to the effects of their possible interactions on the adsorption process were investigated. The numerical optimization revealed that the optimum adsorption (>99.5% for each dye) is obtained at 0.02 g, 15 mg L , 4 min and 7.0 corresponding to the adsorbent mass, each dye concentration, sonication time and pH, respectively. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms were studied. The Langmuir was found to be most applicable isotherm which predicted maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 195.55 and 207.04 mg g for the adsorption of MB and MG, respectively. The pseudo-second order model was found to be applicable for the adsorption kinetics. Blank experiments (without any adsorbent) were run to investigate the possible degradation of the dyes studied in presence of ultrasonication. No dyes degradation was observed.
In present work, a graphene oxide chemically modified with 2,2′-dipyridylamine (GO-DPA), was synthesized by simple, fast and low-cost process for the simultaneous adsorption of four toxic heavy metals, Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), from aqueous solutions. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM measurements. The effects of variables such as pH solution, initial ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and sonicating time were investigated on adsorption efficiency by rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions, specified as 8 mg of adsorbent, 20 mg L of each ion at pH 5 and short time of 4 min led to the achievement of a high adsorption capacities. Ultrasonic power had important role in shortening the adsorption time of ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent in solution. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities ( ) of this adsorbent were 369.749, 257.201, 180.893 and 358.824 mg g for lead, cadmium, nickel and copper ions, respectively. The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes.
The manganese impregnated zinc sulfide nanoparticles deposited on activated carbon (ZnS: Mn-NPs-AC) which fully was synthesized and characterized successfully applied for simultaneous removal of malachite green and methylene blue in binary situation. The effects of variables such as pH (2.0–10.0), sonication time (1–5 min), adsorbent mass (0.005–0.025 g) and MB and MG concentration (4–20 mg L ) on their removal efficiency was studied dy central composite design (CCD) to correlate dyes removal percentage to above mention variables that guides amongst the maximum influence was seen by changing the sonication time and adsorbent mass. Sonication time, adsorbent mass and pH in despite of dyes concentrations has positive relation with removal percentage. Multiple regression analysis of the experimental results is associated with 3-D response surface and contour plots that guide setting condition at pH of 7.0, 3 min sonication time, 0.025 g Mn: ZnS-NPs-AC and 15 mg L of MB and MG lead to achievement of removal efficiencies of 99.87% and 98.56% for MG and MB, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model as best choice efficiency describe the dyes adsorption behavior, while MG and MB maximum adsorption capacity according to Langmuir was 202.43 and 191.57 mg g .
In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only “in situ” water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm and 59.83 °C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mg GA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled “in situ” water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water.
The ultrasound-assisted simultaneous adsorption of brilliant green (BG) and malachite green (MG) onto Mn-doped Fe O nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon (Mn-Fe O -NP-AC) as a novel adsorbent was investigated and analyzed using first derivative spectrophotometry. The adsorbent was characterized using FT-IR, FE-SEM, EDX and XRD. Plackett–Burman design was applied to reduce the total number of experiments and to optimize the ultrasound-assisted simultaneous adsorption procedure, where pH, adsorbent mass and sonication time (among six tested variables) were identified as the most significant factors. The effects of significant variables were further evaluated by a central composite design under response surface methodology. The significance of independent variables and their interactions was investigated by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) within 95% confidence level together with Pareto chart. Using this statistical tool, the optimized ultrasound-assisted simultaneous removal of basic dyes was obtained at 7.0, 0.02 g, 3 min for pH, adsorbent mass, and ultrasonication time, respectively. The maximum values of BG and MG uptake under these experimental conditions were found to be 99.50 and 99.00%, respectively. The adsorption process was found to be followed by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order model using equilibrium and kinetic studies, respectively. According to Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent were obtained to be 101.215 and 87.566 mg g for MG and BG, respectively. The value of apparent energy of adsorption obtained from non-linear Dubinin–Radushkevich model (4.348 and 4.337 kJ mol for MG and BG, respectively) suggested the physical adsorption of the dyes. The studies on the well regenerability of the adsorbent in addition to its high adsorption capacity make it promising for such adsorption applications.
A series of ZnO nanoparticles decorated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/CNTs composites) was synthesized using a facile sol method. The intrinsic characteristics of as-prepared nanocomposites were studied using a variety of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical properties studied using UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the absorbance of ZnO increased in the visible-light region with the incorporation of CNTs. In this study, degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) as a dye pollutant was investigated in the presence of pristine ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO/CNTs composites using photocatalysis and sonocatalysis systems separately and simultaneously. The adsorption was found to be an essential factor in the degradation of the dye. The linear transform of the Langmuir isotherm curve was further used to determine the characteristic parameters for ZnO and ZCC-5 samples which were: maximum absorbable dye quantity and adsorption equilibrium constant. The natural sunlight and low power ultrasound were used as an irradiation source. The experimental kinetic data followed the pseudo-first order model in photocatalytic, sonocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes but the rate constant of sonophotocatalysis is higher than the sum of it at photocatalysis and sonocatalysis process. The sonophotocatalysis was always faster than the respective individual processes due to the more formation of reactive radicals as well as the increase of the active surface area of ZnO/CNTs photocatalyst. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of textile wastewater was measured at regular intervals to evaluate the mineralization of wastewater.
Separation and detection of residual drug in biological fluids has directly related to human health in term of their beneficial or side effects. In biological fluid samples (complex matrix which containing drug at very low level) conduction of preliminary efficient technique as good choice for pre-concentration and clean-up of real sample before their instrumental analysis is highly recommended. In this result technique, based on nano-structure material which poses higher available surface area and larger member of reactive sites led to significant improvement in characteristic performance of analytical method. This paper focused on the synthesis and application of novel nano-sorbent for pre-concentration and extraction of atorvastatin (AT) from different biological fluids. Influence of various variables including sorbent dosage, eluent volume and sonication time on present method response was studied and optimized by central composite design under response surface methodology and accordingly an acceptable calibration curves over wide linear ranges (0.3–2000 μg L ) with high coefficient of determination higher than 0.999 strongly confirm high applicability of present method for quantification of analyte while limit of detection and quantification in plasma sample were 0.0608 and 0.2033 μg L , respectively.
Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L ). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g , respectively.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K and K of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20 mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).
The present research is focused on the synthesis and characterization of zinc (II) oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) to prepare an outstanding adsorbent for the simultaneous adsorption of heavy metals and dyes as hazardous pollutant using ultrasound energy. The adsorbent was identified by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The individual effects and possible interactions between the most effective variables including initial metal ions (Cd and Co ) and azo dyes (methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV)) concentration, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic time on the responses were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) and optimum conditions was fixed at Cd , Co , MB and CV concentrations were 25, 24, 18 and 14 mg L , respectively, 0.025 g of ZnO-NRs-AC and 5.1 min sonication to achieve maximum removal percentage (>97.0%) for targets compounds. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was applied for prediction of data with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 14 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.9646, 0.0402 and 0.0753 with high determination coefficient (R ) of 0.9996, 0.9991 and 0.9999 for train, test and validation, respectively, were able to predict and model the adsorption process. The results of examination of the time on experimental adsorption data and their subsequent fitting reveal applicability of pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The experimental equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D–R isotherm models and explored that the data well presented by Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 97.1, 92.6, 83.9 and 81.6 mg g for Cd , Co ions, MB and CV dyes, respectively.
Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry, viz. 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economical feasibility. The use of ultrasound for waste water treatment has been shown to be technically feasible by numerous reports in the literature over the years. But there are hardly any exhaustive reports which address the issue of economical feasibility of the use of ultrasound for waste water treatment on industrial scale. Hence an attempt was made to estimate the cost for the waste water treatment using ultrasound. The costs have been calculated for 1000 L/min capacity treatment plant. The costs were calculated based upon the rate constants for pollutant degradation. The pollutants considered were phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE) and reactive azo dyes. Time required for ninety percent degradation of pollutant was taken as the residence time. The amount of energy required to achieve the target degradation was calculated from the energy density (watt/ml) used in the treatability study. The cost of treatment was calculated by considering capital cost and operating cost involved for the waste water treatment. Quotations were invited from vendors to ascertain the capital cost of equipments involved and operating costs were calculated based on annual energy usage. The cost was expressed in dollars per 1000 gallons of waste water treated. These treatment costs were compared with other established Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) technologies. The cost of waste water treatment for phenol was in the range of $89 per 1000 gallons for UV/US/O to $15,536 per 1000 gallons for US alone. These costs for TCE were in the range of $25 per 1000 gallons to $91 for US + UV treatment and US alone, respectively. The cost of waste water treatment for reactive azo dyes was in the range of $65 per 1000 gallon for US + UV + H O to $14,203 per 1000 gallon for US alone. This study should help in quantifying the economics of waste water treatment using ultrasound on industrial scale. We strongly believe that this study will immensely help the researchers working in the area of applications of ultrasound for waste water treatment in terms of where the technology stands today as compared to other available commercial AOP technologies. This will also help them think for different ways to improve the efficiency of using ultrasound or search for other ways of generating cavitation which may be more efficient and help reduce the cost of treatment in future.
► Sonication-induced changes to whey proteins were examined. ► The denaturation enthalpy changed with sonication time. ► Sonication did not alter the thiol content. ► Minor changes to the secondary structure and hydrophobicity were noted. ► Overall, the sonication process had little effect on whey protein structure. The sonication-induced changes in the structural and thermal properties of proteins in reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV–vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the thermal properties of proteins, measure thiol groups and monitor changes to protein hydrophobicity and secondary structure, respectively. The enthalpy of denaturation decreased when WPC solutions were sonicated for up to 5 min. Prolonged sonication increased the enthalpy of denaturation due to protein aggregation. Sonication did not alter the thiol content but resulted in minor changes to the secondary structure and hydrophobicity of the protein. Overall, the sonication process had little effect on the structure of proteins in WPC solutions which is critical to preserving functional properties during the ultrasonic processing of whey protein based dairy products.
Surface cleaning using cavitation bubble dynamics is investigated numerically through modeling of bubble dynamics, dirt particle motion, and fluid material interaction. Three fluid dynamics models; a potential flow model, a viscous model, and a compressible model, are used to describe the flow field generated by the bubble all showing the strong effects bubble explosive growth and collapse have on a dirt particle and on a layer of material to remove. Bubble deformation and reentrant jet formation are seen to be responsible for generating concentrated pressures, shear, and lift forces on the dirt particle and high impulsive loads on a layer of material to remove. Bubble explosive growth is also an important mechanism for removal of dirt particles, since strong suction forces in addition to shear are generated around the explosively growing bubble and can exert strong forces lifting the particles from the surface to clean and sucking them toward the bubble. To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid–structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters. High impulsive pressures are generated during bubble collapse due to the impact of the bubble reentrant jet on the material surface and the subsequent collapse of the resulting toroidal bubble. Pits and material removal develop on the material surface when the impulsive pressure is large enough to result in high equivalent stresses exceeding the material yield stress or its ultimate strain. Cleaning depends on parameters such as the relative size between the bubble at its maximum volume and the particle size, the bubble standoff distance from the particle and from the material wall, and the excitation pressure field driving the bubble dynamics. These effects are discussed in this contribution.
Magnetite (Fe O nanoparticles (NPs)) HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) composite as a support was used for surface imprinting of gallic acid imprinted polymer (HKUST-1-MOF-Fe O -GA-MIP) using vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMOS) as the cross-linker. Subsequently, HKUST-1-MOF-Fe O -NPs-GA-MIP characterized by FT-IR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis and applied for fast and selective and sensitive ultrasound assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase microextraction of gallic acid (GA) by UV–Vis (UA-DMSPME-UV-Vis) detection method. Plackett–Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) according to desirability function (DF) indicate the significant variables among the extraction factors vortex (mixing) time (min), sonication time (min), temperature (°C), eluent volume (L), pH and HKUST-1-MOF-Fe O -NPs-GA-MIP mass (mg) and their contribution on the response. Optimum conditions and values correspond to pH, HKUST-1-MOF-Fe O -NPs-GA-MIP mass, sonication time and the eluent volume were set as follow 3.0, 1.6 mg, 4.0 min and 180 μL, respectively. The average recovery (ER%) of GA was 98.13% with desirability of 0.997, while the present method has best operational performance like wide linear range 8–6000 ng mL with a Limit of detection (LOD) of 1.377 ng mL , limit of quantification (LOQ) 4.591 ng mL and precision (<3.50% RSD). The recovery of GA in urine, human plasma and water samples within the range of 92.3–100.6% that strongly support high applicability of present method for real samples analysis, which candidate this method as promise for further application.
Chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO: Cr-NPs) was synthesized by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. Subsequently, this composite ultrasonically assisted was deposited on activated carbon (ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC) and used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of three toxic organic dye namely of malachite green (MG), eosin yellow (EY) and Auramine O (AO). Dyes spectra overlap in mixture (major problem for simultaneous investigation) of this systems was extensively resolved by derivative spectrophotometric method. The magnitude of variables like initial dyes concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time influence on dyes removal was optimized using small central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) approach, while pH was studied by one-a-time approach. The maximized removal percentages at desirability of 0.9740 was set as follow: pH 6.0, 0.019 g ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC, 3.9 min sonication at 4.5, 4.8 and 4.7 mg L of MG, EY and AO, respectively. Above optimized points lead to achievement of removal percentage of 98.36%, 97.24%, and 99.26% correspond to MG, EY and AO, respectively. ANOVA for each dyes based -value less than (<0.0001) suggest highly efficiency of CCD model for prediction of data concern to simultaneous removal of these dyes within 95% confidence interval, while their -value for MG, EY and AO is 935, 800.2, and 551.3, respectively, that confirm low participation of this them in signal. The value of multiple correlation coefficient , adjusted and predicted for simultaneous removal of MG is 0.9982, 0.9972 and 0.9940, EY is 0.9979, 0.9967 and 0.9930 and for AO is 0.9970, 0.9952 and 0.9939. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order and Langmuir model via high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity of 214.0, 189.7 and 211.6 mg g for MG, EY and AO, respectively.
The present study the ultrasound assisted adsorption of dyes in single system onto Fe O magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Fe O -MNPs-AC) was described following characterization and identification of this adsorbent by conventional techniques likes field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, particle-size distribution, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A central composite design in conjunction with a response surface methodology according to f-test and -test for recognition and judgment about significant term led to construction of quadratic model which represent relation among responses and effective terms. This model has unique ability to predict adsorption data behavior over a large space around central and optimum point. Accordingly Optimum conditions for well and quantitative removal of present dyes was obtained best operation and conditions: initial SY, MB and EB dyes concentration of 15, 15 and 25 mg L , 4.0, 6.0 and 5.0 of pH, 360, 360 and 240 s sonication time and 0.04, 0.03 and 0.032 g of Fe O -MNPs-AC. Replication of similar experiment (N = 5) guide that average removal percentage of SY, MB and EB were found to be 96.63 ± 2.86%, 98.12 ± 1.67% and 99.65 ± 1.21% respectively. Good agreement and closeness of Predicted and experimental result and high adsorption capacity of dyes in short time strongly confirm high suitability of present method for waste water treatment, while easy separation of present nanoparticle and its good regeneration all support good applicability of Fe O -MNPs-AC for waste water treatment. The kinetic study can be represented by combination of pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities correspond to Langmuir as best model for representation of experimental data correspond to dyes adsorption onto Fe O -MNPs-AC were 76.37, 78.76 and 102.00 mg g for SY, MB and EB, respectively. In addition, the performance comparison of ultrasound-assisted, magnetic stirrer assisted and vortex assisted adsorption methods demonstrates that ultrasound is an effective and good choice for facilitation of adsorption process via. Compromise of simple and facile diffusion.
► Basil oil nanoemulsion with high stability and antibacterial activity. ► Nanoemulsion formulation by ultrasonic emulsification. ► Reduction of droplet diameter w.r.t. viscosity and emulsification time. ► Mean droplet diameter 29.6 nm. ► Food-grade nanoemulsion. Basil oil ( ) nanoemulsion was formulated using non-ionic surfactant Tween80 and water by ultrasonic emulsification method. Process of nanoemulsion development was optimized for parameters such as surfactant concentration and emulsification time to achieve minimum droplet diameter with high physical stability. Surfactant concentration was found to have a negative correlation with droplet diameter, whereas emulsification time had a positive correlation with droplet diameter and also with intrinsic stability of the emulsion. Stable basil oil nanoemulsion with droplet diameter 29.3 nm was formulated by ultrasonic emulsification for 15 min. Formulated nanoemulsion was evaluated for antibacterial activity against by kinetics of killing experiment. Fluorescence microscopy and FT-IR results showed that nanoemulsion treatment resulted alteration in permeability and surface features of bacterial cell membrane.