Recent experimental, numerical and theoretical advances in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection are presented. Particular emphasis is given to the physics and structure of the thermal and velocity boundary layers which play a key role for the better understanding of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convection at high and very high Rayleigh numbers. We also discuss important extensions of Rayleigh-Bénard convection such as non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects and convection with phase changes.

There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases a complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is the most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquids to recognize that a liquid generally has the tendency to have a local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many-body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing a low local free-energy configuration, which is a bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to a density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena is also discussed.

There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases a complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is the most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquids to recognize that a liquid generally has the tendency to have a local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many-body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing a low local free-energy configuration, which is a bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to a density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena is also discussed.

The structural dynamics of polymers and simple liquids confined at the nanometer scale has been intensively investigated in the last two decades in order to test the validity of theories on the glass transition predicting a characteristic length scale of a few nanometers. Although this goal has not yet been reached, the anomalous behavior displayed by some systems e.g. thin films of polystyrene exhibit reductions of Tg exceeding 70K and a tremendous increase in the elastic modulus has attracted a broad community of researchers, and provided astonishing advancement of both theoretical and experimental soft matter physics. 1D confinement is achieved in thin films, which are commonly treated as systems at thermodynamic equilibrium where free surfaces and solid interfaces introduce monotonous mobility gradients, extending for several molecular sizes. Limiting the discussion to finite-size and interfacial effects implies that film thickness and surface interactions should be sufficient to univocally determine the deviation from bulk behavior. On the contrary, such an oversimplified picture, although intuitive, cannot explain phenomena like the enhancement of segmental mobility in proximity of an adsorbing interface, or the presence of long-lasting metastable states in the liquid state. Based on our recent work, we propose a new picture on the dynamics of soft matter confined in ultrathin films, focusing on non-equilibrium and on the impact of irreversibly chain adsorption on the structural relaxation. We describe the enhancement of dynamics in terms of the excess in interfacial free volume, originating from packing frustration in the adsorbed layer (Guiselin brush) at t * ≪ 1 , where t* is the ratio between the annealing time and the time scale of adsorption. Prolonged annealing at times exceeding the reptation time (usually t * ≫ 1 induces densification, and thus reduces the deviation from bulk behavior. In this Colloquium, after reviewing the experimental approaches permitting to investigate the structural relaxation of films with one, two or no free surfaces by means of dielectric spectroscopy, we propose several methods to determine gradients of mobility in thin films, and then discuss on the unexploited potential of analyses based on the time, temperature and thickness dependence of the orientational polarization via the dielectric strength.

The behaviour of dense assemblies of dry grains submitted to continuous shear deformation has been the subject of many experiments and discrete particle simulations. This paper is a collective work carried out among the French research group Groupement de Recherche Milieux Divisés (GDR MiDi). It proceeds from the collection of results on steady uniform granular flows obtained by different groups in six different geometries both in experiments and numerical works. The goal is to achieve a coherent presentation of the relevant quantities to be measured i.e. flowing thresholds, kinematic profiles, effective friction, etc. First, a quantitative comparison between data coming from different experiments in the same geometry identifies the robust features in each case. Second, a transverse analysis of the data across the different configurations, allows us to identify the relevant dimensionless parameters, the different flow regimes and to propose simple interpretations. The present work, more than a simple juxtaposition of results, demonstrates the richness of granular flows and underlines the open problem of defining a single rheology.

“Polymersomes” are vesicular structures made from the self-assembly of block copolymers. Such structures present outstanding interest for different applications such as micro- or nano-reactor, drug release or can simply be used as tool for understanding basic biological mechanisms. The use of polymersomes in such applications is strongly related to the way their membrane properties are controlled and tuned either by a precise molecular design of the constituting block or by addition of specific components inside the membrane (formulation approaches). Typical membrane properties of polymersomes obtained from the self-assembly of “coil coil” block copolymer since the end of the nineties will be first briefly reviewed and compared to those of their lipidic analogues, named liposomes. Therefore the different approaches able to modulate their permeability, mechanical properties or ability to release loaded drugs, using macromolecular engineering or formulations, are detailed. To conclude, the most recent advances to modulate the polymersomes’ properties and systems that appear very promising especially for biomedical application or for the development of complex and bio-mimetic structures are presented.

We show that non-entangled polymers display an elastic-like behaviour at a macroscopic scale (probed at some 0.100 mm thickness) up to at least hundred degrees above the glass transition temperature. This observation, found under non-slippage conditions, both for side-chain liquid crystalline polymers and ordinary polymers, is in contradiction with the typically found flow behaviour of polymer melt. Our measurements were carried out with a conventional rheometer at thicknesses of several tenths millimetres. Thus, we were probing bulk properties. The observed elasticity supposedly implies that even in the melt the chains experience a cohesive effect of macroscopic distances, involving collective motions over time scales longer than the individual relaxation time of an individual polymer chain. The detection of such a solid-like property of molten non-entangled polymers is of considerable importance for a better understanding of the polymer dynamics.

The aim of this article is to discuss the concepts of non-local rheology and fluidity, recently introduced to describe dense granular flows. We review and compare various approaches based on different constitutive relations and choices for the fluidity parameter, focusing on the kinetic elasto-plastic model introduced by Bocquet et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 103, 036001 (2009)) for soft matter, and adapted for granular matter by Kamrin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178301 (2012)), and the gradient expansion of the local rheology mu(I) that we have proposed (Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 238301 (2013)). We emphasise that, to discriminate between these approaches, one has to go beyond the predictions derived from linearisation around a uniform stress profile, such as that obtained in a simple shear cell. We argue that future tests can be based on the nature of the chosen fluidity parameter, and the related boundary conditions, as well as the hypothesis made to derive the models and the dynamical mechanisms underlying their dynamics.

Many developmental processes of multicellular organisms involve the patterning and growth of two-dimensional tissues, so called epithelia. We have quantified the growth of the wing imaginal disk, which is the precursor of the adult wing, of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that growth follows a simple rule with exponentially decreasing area growth rate. Anisotropies of growth can be precisely determined by comparing experimental results to a continuum theory. Growth anisotropies are to good approximation constant in space and time. They are weak in wild-type wing disks but threefold increased in GFP-Dpp disks in which the morphogen Dpp is overexpressed. Our findings indicate that morphogens such as Dpp control tissue shape via oriented cell divisions that generate anisotropic growth.

With the aim of providing reliable benchmark values, we have measured the Soret, thermodiffusion and molecular diffusion coefficients for the ternary mixture formed by 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene and n-dodecane for a mass fraction of 0.8-0.1-0.1 and at a temperature of 25°C. The experimental techniques used by the six participating laboratories are Optical Digital Interferometry, Taylor Dispersion technique, Open Ended Capillary, Optical Beam Deflection, Thermogravitational technique and Sliding Symmetric Tubes technique in ground conditions and Selectable Optical Diagnostic Instrument (SODI) in microgravity conditions. The measurements obtained in the SODI installation have been analyzed independently by four laboratories. Benchmark values are proposed for the thermodiffusion and Soret coefficients and for the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix in ground conditions, and for Soret coefficients in microgravity conditions.

We carried out pointwise local velocity measurements on 40mM cetylpyridinium chloride-sodium salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) wormlike micellar solution using high-frequency ultrasound velocimetry in a Couette shear cell. The studied wormlike solution exhibits Newtonian, shear-thinning and shear-thickening rheological behavior in a stress-controlled environment. Previous rheology, flow visualization and small-angle light/neutron scattering experiments in the shear-thickening regime of this system showed the presence of stress-driven alternating transparent and turbid rings or vorticity bands along the axis of the Couette geometry. Through local velocity measurements we observe a homogeneous flow inside the 1mm gap of the Couette cell in the shear-thinning (stress-plateau) region. Only when the solution is sheared beyond the critical shear stress (shear-thickening regime) in a stress-controlled experiment, we observe inhomogeneous flow characterized by radial or velocity gradient shear bands with a highly sheared band near the rotor and a weakly sheared band near the stator of the Couette geometry. Furthermore, fast measurements performed in the shear-thickening regime to capture the temporal evolution of local velocities indicate coexistence of both radial and vorticity shear bands. However the same measurements carried out in shear rate controlled mode of the rheometer do not show such rheological complexity.

The aim of this article is to discuss the concepts of non-local rheology and fluidity, recently introduced to describe dense granular flows. We review and compare various approaches based on different constitutive relations and choices for the fluidity parameter, focusing on the kinetic elasto-plastic model introduced by Bocquet et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 103, 036001 (2009)) for soft matter, and adapted for granular matter by Kamrin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178301 (2012)), and the gradient expansion of the local rheology $\mu$ (I) that we have proposed (Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 238301 (2013)). We emphasise that, to discriminate between these approaches, one has to go beyond the predictions derived from linearisation around a uniform stress profile, such as that obtained in a simple shear cell. We argue that future tests can be based on the nature of the chosen fluidity parameter, and the related boundary conditions, as well as the hypothesis made to derive the models and the dynamical mechanisms underlying their dynamics.

We employ the inverse Boltzmann method to coarse-grain three commonly used three-site water models (TIP3P, SPC and SPC/E) where one molecule is replaced with one coarse-grained particle with isotropic two-body interactions only. The shape of the coarse-grained potentials is dominated by the ratio of two lengths, which can be rationalized by the geometric constraints of the water clusters. It is shown that for simple two-body potentials either the radial distribution function or the geometrical packing can be optimized. In a similar way, as needed for multiscale methods, either the pressure or the compressibility can be fitted to the all atom liquid. In total, a speed-up by a factor of about 50 in computational time can be reached by this coarse-graining procedure.

We use the dynamic length and time scale separation in suspensions to formulate a general description of colloidal thermophoresis. Our approach allows an unambiguous definition of separate contributions to the colloidal flux and clarifies the physical mechanisms behind non-equilibrium motion of colloids. In particular, we derive an expression for the interfacial force density that drives single-particle thermophoresis in non-ideal fluids. The issuing relations for the transport coefficients explicitly show that interfacial thermophoresis has a hydrodynamic character that cannot be explained by a purely thermodynamic consideration. Our treatment generalises the results from other existing approaches, giving them a clear interpretation within the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

A systematically designed study has been conducted to understand and demarcate the degree of contribution by the constituting elements to the surface tension of nanocolloids. The effects of elements such as surfactants, particles and the combined effects of these on the surface tension of these complex fluids are studied employing the pendant drop shape analysis method by fitting the Young-Laplace equation. Only the particle has shown an increase in the surface tension with particle concentration in a polar medium like DI water, whereas only a marginal effect of particles on surface tension in weakly polar mediums like glycerol and ethylene glycol has been demonstrated. Such behaviour has been attributed to the enhanced desorption of particles to the interface and a theory has been presented to quantify this. The combined particle and surfactant effect on the surface tension of a complex nanofluid system showed a decreasing behaviour with respect to the particle and surfactant concentration with a considerably feeble effect of particle concentration. This combined colloidal system recorded a surface tension value below the surface tension of an aqueous surfactant system at the same concentration, which is a counterintuitive observation as only the particle results in an increase in the surface tension and only the surfactant results in a decrease in the surface tension. The possible physical mechanism behind such an anomaly happening at the complex fluid air interface has been explained. Detailed analyses based on thermodynamic, mechanical and chemical equilibrium of the constituents and their adsorption-desorption characteristics as extracted from the Gibbs adsorption analysis have been provided. The present paper conclusively explains several physical phenomena observed, yet hitherto unexplained, in the case of the surface tension of such complex fluids by segregating the individual contributions of each component of the colloidal system.

In the study of developmental biology, the physical properties and constraints of the developing tissues are of great importance. In spite of this, not much is known about the elastic properties of biologically relevant tissues that are studied in biology labs. Here, we characterize properties of the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila, which is a precursor organ intensely studied in the framework of growth control and cell polarity. In order to determine the possibility of measuring mechanical stresses inside the tissue during development, we quantify the photo-elastic properties of the tissue by direct mechanical manipulation. We obtain a photo-elastic constant of $\ensuremath 2\times10^{-10}{\,\mbox{Pa}}^{-1}$ .

With the aim of providing reliable benchmark values, we have measured the Soret, thermodiffusion and molecular diffusion coefficients for the ternary mixture formed by 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene and n-dodecane for a mass fraction of 0.8-0.1-0.1 and at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The experimental techniques used by the six participating laboratories are Optical Digital Interferometry, Taylor Dispersion technique, Open Ended Capillary, Optical Beam Deflection, Thermogravitational technique and Sliding Symmetric Tubes technique in ground conditions and Selectable Optical Diagnostic Instrument (SODI) in microgravity conditions. The measurements obtained in the SODI installation have been analyzed independently by four laboratories. Benchmark values are proposed for the thermodiffusion and Soret coefficients and for the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix in ground conditions, and for Soret coefficients in microgravity conditions.

Biological microswimmers often inhabit a porous or crowded environment such as soil. In order to understand how such a complex environment influences their spreading, we numerically study non-interacting active Brownian particles (ABPs) in a two-dimensional random Lorentz gas. Close to the percolation transition in the Lorentz gas, they perform the same subdiffusive motion as ballistic and diffusive particles. However, due to their persistent motion they reach their long-time dynamics faster than passive particles and also show superdiffusive motion at intermediate times. While above the critical obstacle density $\eta_{c}$ η c the ABPs are trapped, their long-time diffusion below $\eta_{c}$ η c is strongly influenced by the propulsion speed v0. With increasing v0, ABPs are stuck at the obstacles for longer times. Thus, for large propulsion speed, the long-time diffusion constant decreases more strongly in a denser obstacle environment than for passive particles. This agrees with the behavior of an effective swimming velocity and persistence time, which we extract from the velocity autocorrelation function.

Among the few methods which have been proposed to create small-scale swimmers, those relying on self-phoretic mechanisms present an interesting design challenge in that chemical gradients are required to generate net propulsion. Building on recent work, we propose that asymmetries in geometry are sufficient to induce chemical gradients and swimming. We illustrate this idea using two different calculations. We first calculate exactly the self-propulsion speed of a system composed of two spheres of unequal sizes but identically chemically homogeneous. We then consider arbitrary, small-amplitude, shape deformations of a chemically homogeneous sphere, and calculate asymptotically the self-propulsion velocity induced by the shape asymmetries. Our results demonstrate how geometric asymmetries can be tuned to induce large locomotion speeds without the need of chemical patterning.

The current paper contains the simultaneous analysis of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian nanofluid models. The fluid flow is achieved by considering the no-slip condition subject to a stretched cylindrical surface. The flow regime manifests with pertinent physical effects, namely temperature stratification, concentration stratification, thermal radiation, heat generation, magnetic field, dual convection and chemical reaction. The strength of fluid temperature and nanoparticles concentration adjacent to an inclined cylindrical surface is assumed to be higher than the ambient flow field. A mathematical model is developed in terms of differential equations. A self-constructed numerical algorithm is executed to report the numerical solution. The resultant annotations are illustrated through both tables and graphs. It is noticed that the Casson fluid shows significant variations with respect to the involved physical parameters as compared to the Newtonian fluid model. Moreover, the analysis is certified through comparison with the existing values in a limiting sense.