Treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) is moving away from traditional chemotherapy toward personalized medicine. The reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) erlotinib and gefitinib were developed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr). Afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, was developed to blockegfr(ErbB1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2), and ErbB4 signalling, and transphosphorylation of ErbB3. All of the foregoing agents are efficacious in treatingnsclc, and their adverse event profile is different from that of chemotherapy. Two of the most common adverse events withegfr tkis are rash and diarrhea. Here, we focus on diarrhea. The key to successful management of diarrhea is to treat early and aggressively using patient education, diet, and antidiarrheal medications such as loperamide. We also present strategies for the effective assessment and management ofegfr tki–induced diarrhea.
Molecular strategies to improve outcomes for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (nets) have focused on targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and mtor(the mammalian target of rapamycin). This approach has led to the regulatory approval of two molecularly targeted agents for advanced pancreaticnets: sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and everolimus, an mtorinhibitor.
We used decision analysis techniques with Markov cohort modeling to examine the role of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in follow-up surveillance strategies among patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Utilities were derived from a societal perspective.
Anemia is a common finding in cancer patients, most often as a result of chemotherapy. Management of anemia requires a comprehensive approach of appropriate diagnosis, exclusion of reversible causes, use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (esas), and iron supplementation. Recently, consensus guidelines on the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia were published in Europe and the United States. The present review is intended to be a practical guide for Canadian physicians, based on published guidelines, but specifically tailored to the Canadian environment.
Cancer patients often experience multiple symptoms, and those symptoms can independently predict changes in patient function, treatment failures, and post-therapeutic outcomes. Symptom clusters are defined as two or more concurrent symptoms that are related and may or may not have a common cause. The purpose of the present study was to review, in cancer patients, common symptom clusters and their predictors.