We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7–2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100‐km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near‐Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky‐induced drift and interaction with giant‐planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1‐in‐2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS‐REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.
We explore the hypothesis that, due to small van der Waals forces between constituent grains, small rubble pile asteroids have a small but nonzero cohesive strength. The nature of this model predicts that the cohesive strength should be constant independent of asteroid size, which creates a scale dependence with relative strength increasing as size decreases. This model counters classical theory that rubble pile asteroids should behave as scale‐independent cohesionless collections of rocks. We explore a simple model for asteroid strength that is based on these weak forces, validate it through granular mechanics simulations and comparisons with properties of lunar regolith, and then explore its implications and ability to explain and predict observed properties of small asteroids in the NEA and Main Belt populations, and in particular of asteroid 2008 TC 3 . One conclusion is that the population of rapidly rotating asteroids could consist of both distributions of smaller grains (i.e., rubble piles) and of monolithic boulders.
We reevaluate the systematics and geologic setting of terrestrial, lunar, Martian, and asteroidal “impactites” resulting from single or multiple impacts. For impactites derived from silicate rocks and sediments, we propose a unified and updated system of progressive shock metamorphism. “Shock‐metamorphosed rocks” occur as lithic clasts or melt particles in proximal impactites at impact craters, and rarely in distal impactites. They represent a wide range of metamorphism, typically ranging from unshocked to shock melted. As the degree of shock metamorphism, at a given shock pressure, depends primarily on the mineralogical composition and the porosity of a rock or sediment sample, different shock classification systems are required for different types of planetary rocks and sediments. We define shock classification systems for eight rock and sediment classes which are assigned to three major groups of rocks and sediments (1) crystalline rocks with classes F, M, A, and U; (2) chondritic rocks (class C); and (3) sedimentary rocks and sediments with classes SR , SE , and RE . The abbreviations stand for felsic (F), mafic (M), anorthositic (A), ultramafic (U), sedimentary rocks ( SR ), unconsolidated sediments ( SE ), and regoliths ( RE ). In each class, the progressive stages of shock metamorphism are denominated S1 to Sx. These progressive shock stages are introduced as: S1–S7 for F , S1–S7 for M, S1–S6 for A , S1–S7 for U , S1–S7 for C , S1–S7 for SR , S1–S5 for SE , and S1–S6 for RE . S1 stands for “unshocked” and Sx (variable between S5 and S7) stands for “whole rock melting.” We propose a sequence of symbols characterizing the degree of shock metamorphism of a sample, i.e., F‐S1 to F‐S7 with the option to add the tabulated pressure ranges (in GP a) in parentheses.
The Dawn mission has provided new evidence strengthening the identification of asteroid Vesta as the parent body of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. The evidence includes Vesta's petrologic complexity, detailed spectroscopic characteristics, unique space weathering, diagnostic geochemical abundances and neutron absorption characteristics, chronology of surface units and impact history, occurrence of exogenous carbonaceous chondritic materials in the regolith, and dimensions of the core, all of which are consistent with HED observations and constraints. Global mapping of the distributions of HED lithologies by Dawn cameras and spectrometers provides the missing geologic context for these meteorites, thereby allowing tests of petrogenetic models and increasing their scientific value.
We conducted a petrologic study of apatite within 12 Martian meteorites, including 11 shergottites and one basaltic regolith breccia. These data were combined with previously published data to gain a better understanding of the abundance and distribution of volatiles in the Martian interior. Apatites in individual Martian meteorites span a wide range of compositions, indicating they did not form by equilibrium crystallization. In fact, the intrasample variation in apatite is best described by either fractional crystallization or crustal contamination with a Cl‐rich crustal component. We determined that most Martian meteorites investigated here have been affected by crustal contamination and hence cannot be used to estimate volatile abundances of the Martian mantle. Using the subset of samples that did not exhibit crustal contamination, we determined that the enriched shergottite source has 36–73 ppm H 2 O and the depleted source has 14–23 ppm H 2 O. This result is consistent with other observed geochemical differences between enriched and depleted shergottites and supports the idea that there are at least two geochemically distinct reservoirs in the Martian mantle. We also estimated the H 2 O, Cl, and F content of the Martian crust using known crust‐mantle distributions for incompatible lithophile elements. We determined that the bulk Martian crust has ~1410 ppm H 2 O, 450 ppm Cl, and 106 ppm F, and Cl and H 2 O are preferentially distributed toward the Martian surface. The estimate of crustal H 2 O results in a global equivalent surface layer ( GEL ) of ~229 m, which can account for at least some of the surface features on Mars attributed to flowing water and may be sufficient to support the past presence of a shallow sea on Mars' surface.
Twelve samples belonging to the chassignite and nakhlite subgroups of Martian meteorites were investigated using a variety of micro-beam analytical techniques to gain insight into the petrogenesis of these two meteorite classes. There are a striking number of geochemical similarities between the chassignites and nakhlites, including mineralogy and petrology, crystallization age, cosmic-ray exposure age, and radiogenic isotopic compositions. However, there are also geochemical differences, namely in trace element systematics of pyroxenes, that have led some authors to conclude that the nakhlites are comagmatic with each other, but not comagmatic with the chassignites. On the basis of data presented here, we propose a model in which these differences can be reconciled by the addition of an exogenous Cl-rich fluid to the chassignite-nakhlite magma body shortly after the formation of the cumulate horizon that was sampled by the Chassigny meteorite. This model is supported by the textural and chemical associations of the volatile-bearing minerals apatite, amphibole, and biotite, which record a history starting with the addition of a Cl- and LREE-enriched fluid to the magma body. As the magma continued to crystallize, it eventually reached chloride saturation and degassed a Cl-rich fluid phase. Depending on the provenance of the Cl-rich fluid, this model could explain how the chassignites and nakhlites originated from an LREE-depleted source, yet all exhibit LREE-enriched bulk-rock patterns. Additionally, the model explains the range in oxygen fugacity that is recorded by the chassignites and nakhlites because eventual exsolution and loss of Cl-rich fluid phases near the end of crystallization of the nakhlite sequence leads to auto-oxidation of the magma body due to the preferential partitioning of Fe2+ into the fluid phase.
We report results of an interdisciplinary project devoted to the 26 km‐diameter Ries crater and to the genesis of suevite. Recent laboratory analyses of “crater suevite” occurring within the central crater basin and of “outer suevite” on top of the continuous ejecta blanket, as well as data accumulated during the past 50 years, are interpreted within the boundary conditions imposed by a comprehensive new effort to model the crater formation and its ejecta deposits by computer code calculations (Artemieva et al. 2013). The properties of suevite are considered on all scales from megascopic to submicroscopic in the context of its geological setting. In a new approach, we reconstruct the minimum/maximum volumes of all allochthonous impact formations (108/116 km 3 ), of suevite (14/22 km 3 ), and the total volume of impact melt (4.9/8.0 km 3 ) produced by the Ries impact event prior to erosion. These volumes are reasonably compatible with corresponding values obtained by numerical modeling. Taking all data on modal composition, texture, chemistry, and shock metamorphism of suevite, and the results of modeling into account, we arrive at a new empirical model implying five main consecutive phases of crater formation and ejecta emplacement. Numerical modeling indicates that only a very small fraction of suevite can be derived from the “primary ejecta plume,” which is possibly represented by the fine‐grained basal layer of outer suevite. The main mass of suevite was deposited from a “secondary plume” induced by an explosive reaction (“fuel‐coolant interaction”) of impact melt with water and volatile‐rich sedimentary rocks within a clast‐laden temporary melt pool. Both melt pool and plume appear to be heterogeneous in space and time. Outer suevite appears to be derived from an early formed, melt‐rich and clast‐poor plume region rich in strongly shocked components (melt ≫ clasts) and originating from an upper, more marginal zone of the melt pool. Crater suevite is obviously deposited from later formed, clast‐rich and melt‐poor plumes dominated by unshocked and weakly shocked clasts and derived from a deeper, central zone of the melt pool. Genetically, we distinguish between “primary suevite” which includes dike suevite, the lower sublayer of crater suevite, and possibly a basal layer of outer suevite, and “secondary suevite” represented by the massive upper sublayer of crater suevite and the main mass of outer suevite.
We present global lithological maps of the Vestan surface based on Dawn mission's Visible InfraRed (VIR) Spectrometer acquisitions with a spatial sampling of 200 m. The maps confirm the results obtained with the data set acquired by VIR with a spatial sampling of 700 m, that the reflectance spectra of Vesta's surface are dominated by pyroxene absorptions that can be interpreted within the context of the distribution of howardites, eucrites, and diogenites (HEDs). The maps also partially agree with the ground and Hubble Space Telescope observations: they confirm the background surface being an assemblage of howardite or polymict eucrite, as well as the location of a diogenitic‐rich spot; however, there is no evidence of extended olivine‐rich regions in the equatorial latitudes. Diogenite is revealed on the Rheasilvia basin floor, indicating that material of the lower crust/mantle was exposed. VIR also detected diogenites along the scarp of Matronalia Rupes, and the rims of Severina and a nearby, unnamed crater, and as ejecta of Antonia crater. The diogenite distribution is fully consistent with petrological constraints; although the mapped distribution does not provide unambiguous constraints, it favors the hypothesis of a magma ocean.
Abstract– To investigate the effect of parent body processes on the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites, the water extracts from nine different powdered CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed for amino acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography‐fluorescence detection and time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (UPLC‐FD/ToF‐MS). Four aqueously altered type 1 carbonaceous chondrites including Orgueil (CI1), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070 (CM1), Scott Glacier (SCO) 06043 (CM1), and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 (CR1) were analyzed using this technique for the first time. Analyses of these meteorites revealed low levels of two‐ to five‐carbon acyclic amino alkanoic acids with concentrations ranging from approximately 1 to 2,700 parts‐per‐billion (ppb). The type 1 carbonaceous chondrites have a distinct distribution of the five‐carbon (C 5 ) amino acids with much higher relative abundances of the γ‐ and δ‐amino acids compared to the type 2 and type 3 carbonaceous chondrites, which are dominated by α‐amino acids. Much higher amino acid abundances were found in the CM2 chondrites Murchison, Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94102, and Lewis Cliffs (LEW) 90500, the CR2 Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and the CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. For example, α‐aminoisobutyric acid (α‐AIB) and isovaline were approximately 100 to 1000 times more abundant in the type 2 and 3 chondrites compared to the more aqueously altered type 1 chondrites. Most of the chiral amino acids identified in these meteorites were racemic, indicating an extraterrestrial abiotic origin. However, nonracemic isovaline was observed in the aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites Murchison, Orgueil, SCO 06043, and GRO 95577 with l ‐isovaline excesses ranging from approximately 11 to 19%, whereas the most pristine, unaltered carbonaceous chondrites analyzed in this study had no detectable l ‐isovaline excesses. These results are consistent with the theory that aqueous alteration played an important role in amplification of small initial left handed isovaline excesses on the parent bodies.
Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high‐pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high‐pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock‐induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite–eucrite–diogenite ( HED ), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid‐state high‐pressure transformation of the host‐rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to ~25 GP a. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high‐pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high‐pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.
The asteroid 4 Vesta is one of the very few heavenly bodies to have been linked to samples on Earth: the howardite‐eucrite‐diogenite ( HED ) meteorite suite. This large and diverse suite of meteorites provides a detailed picture of Vesta's igneous and postigneous history. We have used the range of igneous rock types and compositions in the HED suite to test a series of chemical models for solidification processes following peak melting (magma ocean) conditions on Vesta. Fractional crystallization cannot have been a dominant early process in the magma ocean because it leads to excessive Fe‐enrichment in the melt. Models that are dominated by equilibrium crystallization cannot produce orthopyroxene cumulates (diogenites). Our best models invoke 60–70% equilibrium crystallization of a magma ocean followed by continuous extraction of the residual melt into shallow magma chambers. Fractional crystallization in these magma chambers combined with continuous or periodic addition of more melt from the slowly compacting crystal mush (magmatic recharge) can produce all of the igneous HED lithologies (noncumulate and cumulate eucrites, diogenites, dunites, harzburgites, and olivine diogenites). Magmatic recharge can also explain the narrow range in eucrite compositions and the variability of incompatible trace element concentrations in diogenites. We predict an internal structure for Vesta that permits excavation of the HED s during the formation of the Rheasilvia basin, while remaining consistent with observations from the Dawn mission and most impact models.
Abstract– We review the 26 Al ages of chondrules in various type 3.0 chondrites. The 26 Al ages of chondrules are 1–3 Myr after calcium‐aluminum‐rich inclusion (CAI) for LL3.0, CO3.0, and Acfer 094 (Ungrouped C 3.0). Available data for chondrules in CR chondrites indicate that many chondrules are relatively younger (≥3 Myr), although data from chondrules in CR3.0 are not yet available to confirm their younger ages. The total ranges for the 26 Al ages of chondrules in a single chondrite group are more than 0.5–1 Myr. However, most chondrules show relatively narrow range of ages in a single chondrite group (0.2–0.4 Myr, 1 SD), which might be short enough to preserve the group‐specific chemical and isotope signatures against radial diffusion of solid in the disk. Distinct oxygen isotope reservoirs might exist in the protoplanetary disk simultaneously, which could be spatially separated.
High‐precision bulk aluminum‐magnesium isotope measurements of calcium‐aluminum‐rich inclusions ( CAI s) from CV carbonaceous chondrites in several laboratories define a bulk 26 Al‐ 26 Mg isochron with an inferred initial 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of approximately 5.25 × 10 −5 , named the canonical ratio. Nonigneous CV CAI s yield well‐defined internal 26 Al‐ 26 Mg isochrons consistent with the canonical value. These observations indicate that the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio records initial Al/Mg fractionation by evaporation and condensation in the CV CAI ‐forming region. The internal isochrons of igneous CV CAI s show a range of inferred initial 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios, (4.2–5.2) × 10 −5 , indicating that CAI melting continued for at least 0.2 Ma after formation of their precursors. A similar range of initial 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios is also obtained from the internal isochrons of many CAI s (igneous and nonigneous) in other groups of carbonaceous chondrites. Some CAI s and refractory grains (corundum and hibonite) from unmetamorphosed or weakly metamorphosed chondrites, including CV s, are significantly depleted in 26 Al. At least some of these refractory objects may have formed prior to injection of 26 Al into the protosolar molecular cloud and its subsequent homogenization in the protoplanetary disk. Bulk aluminum and magnesium‐isotope measurements of various types of chondrites plot along the bulk CV CAI isochron, suggesting homogeneous distribution of 26 Al and magnesium isotopes in the protoplanetary disk after an epoch of CAI formation. The inferred initial 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios of chondrules indicate that most chondrules formed 1–3 Ma after CAI s with the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio.
The Northwest Africa ( NWA ) 7475 meteorite is one of the several stones of paired regolith breccias from Mars based on petrography, oxygen isotope, mineral compositions, and bulk rock compositions. Its inventory of lithic clasts is dominated by vitrophyre impact melts that were emplaced while they were still molten. Other clast types include crystallized impact melt rocks, evolved plutonic rocks, possible basalts, contact metamorphosed rocks, and siltstones. Impact spherules and vitrophyre shards record airborne transport, and accreted dust rims were sintered on most clasts, presumably during residence in an ejecta plume. The clast assemblage records at least three impact events, one that formed an impact melt sheet on Mars ≤4.4 Ga ago, a second that assembled NWA 7475 from impactites associated with the impact melt sheet at 1.7–1.4 Ga, and a third that launched NWA 7475 from Mars ~5 Ma ago. Mildly shocked pyroxene and plagioclase constrain shock metamorphic conditions during launch to >5 and <15 GPa. The mild postshock‐heating that resulted from these shock pressures would have been insufficient to sterilize this water‐bearing lithology during launch. Magnetite, maghemite, and pyrite are likely products of secondary alteration on Mars. Textural relationships suggest that calcium‐carbonate and goethite are probably of terrestrial origin, yet trace element chemistry indicates relatively low terrestrial alteration. Comparison of Mars Odyssey gamma‐ray spectrometer data with the Fe and Th abundances of NWA 7475 points to a provenance in the ancient southern highlands of Mars. Gratteri crater, with an age of ~5 Ma and an apparent diameter of 6.9 km, marks one possible launch site of NWA 7475.
We report the bulk C abundances, and C and O isotopic compositions of carbonates in 64 CM chondrites, 14 CR chondrites, 2 CI chondrites, LEW 85332 (C2), Kaba ( CV 3), and Semarkona ( LL 3.0). For the unheated CM s, the total ranges of carbonate isotopic compositions are δ 13 C ≈ 25–75‰ and δ 18 O ≈ 15–35‰, and bulk carbonate C contents range from 0.03 to 0.60 wt%. There is no simple correlation between carbonate abundance and isotopic composition, or between either of these parameters and the extent of alteration. Unless accretion was very heterogeneous, the uncorrelated variations in extent of alteration and carbonate abundance suggests that there was a period of open system behavior in the CM parent body, probably prior to or at the start of aqueous alteration. Most of the ranges in CM carbonate isotopic compositions can be explained by their formation at different temperatures (0–130 °C) from a single fluid in which the carbonate O isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with water (δ 18 O ≈ 5‰) and the C isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with CO and/or CH 4 (δ 13 C ≈ −33‰ or −20‰ for CO ‐ or CH 4 ‐dominated systems, respectively). However, carbonate formation would have to have been inefficient, otherwise carbonate compositions would have resembled those of the starting fluid. A quite similar fluid composition (δ 18 O ≈ −5.5‰, and δ 13 C ≈ −31‰ or −17‰ for CO ‐ or CH 4 ‐dominated systems, respectively) can explain the carbonate compositions of the CI s, although the formation temperatures would have been lower (~10–40 °C) and the relative abundances of calcite and dolomite may play a more important role in determining bulk carbonate compositions than in the CM s. The CR carbonates exhibit a similar range of O isotopes, but an almost bimodal distribution of C isotopes between more (δ 13 C ≈ 65–80‰) and less altered samples (δ 13 C ≈ 30–40‰). This bimodality can still be explained by precipitation from fluids with the same isotopic composition (δ 18 O ≈ −9.25‰, and δ 13 C ≈ −21‰ or −8‰ for CO ‐ or CH 4 ‐dominated systems, respectively) if the less altered CR s had higher mole fractions of CO 2 in their fluids. Semarkona and Kaba carbonates have some of the lightest C isotopic compositions of the meteorites studied here, probably because they formed at higher temperatures and/or from more CO 2 ‐rich fluids. The fluids responsible for the alteration of chondrites and from which the carbonates formed were almost certainly accreted as ices. By analogy with cometary ices, CO 2 and/or CO would have dominated the trapped volatile species in the ices. The chondrites studied are too oxidized for CO ‐dominated fluids to have formed in their parent bodies. If CH 4 was the dominant C species in the fluids during carbonate formation, it would have to have been generated in the parent bodies from CO and/or CO 2 when oxidation of metal by water created high partial pressures of H 2 . The fact that the chondrite carbonate C/H 2 O mole ratios are of the order predicted for CO / CO 2 ‐H 2 O ices that experienced temperatures of >50–100 K suggests that the chondrites formed at radial distances of <4–15 AU.
The mineralogy and geochemistry of Ceres, as constrained by Dawn's instruments, are broadly consistent with a carbonaceous chondrite (CM/CI) bulk composition. Differences explainable by Ceres’s more advanced alteration include the formation of Mg‐rich serpentine and ammoniated clay; a greater proportion of carbonate and lesser organic matter; amounts of magnetite, sulfide, and carbon that could act as spectral darkening agents; and partial fractionation of water ice and silicates in the interior and regolith. Ceres is not spectrally unique, but is similar to a few other C‐class asteroids, which may also have suffered extensive alteration. All these bodies are among the largest carbonaceous chondrite asteroids, and they orbit in the same part of the Main Belt. Thus, the degree of alteration is apparently related to the size of the body. Although the ammonia now incorporated into clay likely condensed in the outer nebula, we cannot presently determine whether Ceres itself formed in the outer solar system and migrated inward or was assembled within the Main Belt, along with other carbonaceous chondrite bodies.
The Dawn spacecraft mission has provided extensive new and detailed data on Vesta that confirm and strengthen the Vesta–howardite–eucrite–diogenite ( HED ) meteorite link and the concept that Vesta is differentiated, as derived from earlier telescopic observations. Here, we present results derived by newly calibrated spectra of Vesta. The comparison between data from the Dawn imaging spectrometer— VIR —and the different class of HED meteorites shows that average spectrum of Vesta resembles howardite spectra. Nevertheless, the Vesta spectra at high spatial resolution reveal variations in the distribution of HED ‐like mineralogies on the asteroid. The data have been used to derive HED distribution on Vesta, reported in Ammannito et al. (2013), and to compute the average Vestan spectra of the different HED lithologies, reported here. The spectra indicate that, not only are all the different HED lithologies present on Vesta, but also carbonaceous chondritic material, which constitutes the most abundant inclusion type found in howardites, is widespread. However, the hydration feature used to identify carbonaceous chondrite material varies significantly on Vesta, revealing different band shapes. The characteristic of these hydration features cannot be explained solely by infalling of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and other possible origins must be considered. The relative proportion of HED s on Vesta's surface is computed, and results show that most of the vestan surface is compatible with eucrite‐rich howardites and/or cumulate or polymict eucrites. A very small percentage of surface is covered by diogenite, and basaltic eucrite terrains are relatively few compared with the abundance of basaltic eucrites in the HED suite. The largest abundance of diogenitic material is found in the Rheasilvia region, a deep basin, where it clearly occurs below a basaltic upper crust. However, diogenite is also found elsewhere; although the depth to diogenite is consistent with one magma ocean model, its lateral extent is not well constrained.
On the basis of observations using Cs‐corrected STEM , we identified three types of surface modification probably formed by space weathering on the surfaces of Itokawa particles. They are (1) redeposition rims (2–3 nm), (2) composite rims (30–60 nm), and (3) composite vesicular rims (60–80 nm). These rims are characterized by a combination of three zones. Zone I occupies the outermost part of the surface modification, which contains elements that are not included in the unchanged substrate minerals, suggesting that this zone is composed of sputter deposits and/or impact vapor deposits originating from the surrounding minerals. Redeposition rims are composed only of Zone I and directly attaches to the unchanged minerals (Zone III). Zone I of composite and composite vesicular rims often contains nanophase (Fe,Mg)S. The composite rims and the composite vesicular rims have a two‐layered structure: a combination of Zone I and Zone II, below which Zone III exists. Zone II is the partially amorphized zone. Zone II of ferromagnesian silicates contains abundant nanophase Fe. Radiation‐induced segregation and in situ reduction are the most plausible mechanisms to form nanophase Fe in Zone II. Their lattice fringes indicate that they contain metallic iron, which probably causes the reddening of the reflectance spectra of Itokawa. Zone II of the composite vesicular rims contains vesicles. The vesicles in Zone II were probably formed by segregation of solar wind He implanted in this zone. The textures strongly suggest that solar wind irradiation damage and implantation are the major causes of surface modification and space weathering on Itokawa.
The notion of a dry Moon has recently been challenged by the discovery of high water contents in lunar apatites and in melt inclusions within olivine crystals from two pyroclastic glasses. The highest and most compelling water contents were found in pyroclastic glasses that are not very common on the lunar surface. To obtain more representative constraints on the volatile content of the lunar interior, we measured the Zn content, a moderately volatile element, of mineral and rock fragments in lunar soils collected during Apollo missions. We here confirm that the Moon is significantly more depleted in Zn than the Earth. Combining Zn with existing K and Rb data on similar rocks allows us to anchor a new volatility scale based on the bond energy of nonsiderophile elements in their condensed phases. Extrapolating the volatility curve to H shows that the bulk of the lunar interior must be dry (≤1 ppm). This contrasts with the water content of the mantle sources of pyroclastic glasses, inferred to contain up to approximately 40 ppm water based on H 2 O/Ce ratios. These observations are best reconciled if the pyroclastic glasses derive from localized water‐rich heterogeneities in a dominantly dry lunar interior. We argue that, although late addition of 0.015% of a chondritic veneer to the Moon seems required to explain the abundance of platinum group elements (Day et al. 2007), the volatile content of the added material was clearly heterogeneous.