Surface electromyography is an electrophysiological modality assessing the electrical activity of skeletal musculature. The Sella protocol is a structured assessment protocol, including static muscle assessment and dynamic muscle assessment, utilizing standardized electrode placements, conditions, and movements during assessment. This protocol can serve as a basis for designing biofeedback-assisted rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain and other musculoskeletal problems. The protocol can also be applied in forensic evaluations and in optimal performance settings.
The use of facial expression biofeedback as a method for generating emotions is explored. The complexity of facial innervation and its interlinks with the upper vagal complex triggers several feedback loops that correspond with neuroception of either safety or danger. Researcher Paul Ekman's main theoretical argument is that the facial expressions identified among different cultures, gene pools, and ethnicities tend to resemble one another, meaning that they are not necessarily culture-dependent. Using the deep-learning approach, the engineers in Media Lab taught the computer to identify human emotions based on Ekman's catalog of facial expressions. The result of this extensive effort was an application that identifies basic emotions such as disgust, fear, happiness, surprise, anger, and sadness.
This report describes the scientific, technical, and clinical bases for the use of quantitative EEG (QEEG) in the assessment of clients and in treatment monitoring. Specific attention is directed toward the use of normative databases and z-scores as a form of standardized referencing for reporting and training purposes. Normative databases have general value and are of particular value when connectivity metrics are being used. It is shown that the use of z = 0 as an average over time corresponds to a state of optimum flexibility, adaptability, and readiness. The use of the inverse solution (LORETA) methods is also described, as well as use of those methods within the QEEG and normative model. Advantages as well as shortcomings of this approach are described and discussed.
Professionals can monitor respiration using six biofeedback modalities: strain gauges, surface electromyography, capnometers, oximeters, inspirometers, and feedback thermometers. This article emphasizes the importance of the breathing rhythm, describes how to effectively use each modality, and explains how to minimize contamination by artifacts that masquerade as respiratory activity.
Hagedorn (2014) has highlighted the infection risks in biofeedback and neurofeedback practice and identified broad strategies for mitigating infection risk. In the age of Clostridum difficile, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and human immunodeficiency virus, infection risk cannot be ignored in any health discipline that attaches sensors to patients' skin in most treatments. The present article discusses specific guidelines for care and hygiene of biofeedback and neurofeedback instruments, encoders, cables, and sensors. Attention to practice standards can greatly reduce the risk to practitioner and client alike.
This article provides readers with a guide for evaluating physiological readings during biofeedback assessment and treatment, with the goal of facilitating treatment planning and tracking of treatment progress and outcomes. The author reviews expected values for measurements of breathing, heart rate, heart rate variability, peripheral temperature, and skin conductance.
This column focuses on the role of the other in biofeedback and psychophysiological therapy. Our previous paper presented our conviction that an intersubjective point of view that focuses on the interaction between the therapist and the client is very much needed here. In fact, the founders of our field were highly attuned to psychodynamic thinking.
The tapestry of biofeedback history has been woven from many independent threads. Some contributors started with much vigor and nurtured others, and then they faded away. Yet they seeded ideas that the next generation rediscovered as their own. Others blossomed and disappeared, whereas still others have continued to actively nurture the field. Interest in biofeedback has waxed and waned in response to the historical forces of technology, social culture, beliefs, and economics.
The first meeting was held at a modest seaside motel in Santa Monica CA. This oceanic setting was somehow symbolic of our group's mindset and sense of mission. Here they were, a small salient of Western civilization, facing out over the limitless Pacific toward the great and ancient civilizations of the Far EastWest meets East. In another part of the motel, a meeting of the plumbers' local union was in progress. After years of laboring more or less in isolation, people had discovered that there were kindred spirits in the world. Stoyva likes to think their group had more diversity. As just noted, this first meeting was at the Surfrider Inn in Santa Monica. The time was mid-fall, 1969, after the Society for Psychophysiological Research conference in Monterey. Organized through the initiative of Barbara Brown, the meeting's emphasis was heavy on free-form mainly panels where people could become expansive, discursive, even cosmic. The meeting vibrated with a great sense of energy and excitement.
Here, Wodtke presents part 1 of a two-part article about low energy neurofeedback system. Neurofeedback seems like magic, the results have been so profound to her. Her neurofeedback journey seems likely to take a year. She says that because the bio-identical hormones she has been taking can be stored in cells for three to six months.
On December 2 the board of the Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (FABBS) met in Washington. FABBS is an organization representing the behavioral science community in Washington. It is made up of representatives of various societies whose members do research in the brain and behavioral sciences. AAPB is a member organization, and has sent Lehrer's to the meeting as their delegate. FABBS is the eyes and ears of their community in Washington, and helps provide ways that they can communicate their concerns to policy makers. Researchers at AAPB pay a small fee to support their affiliation with FABBS. Here, Lehrer presents a summary of the meeting. However, he will lead with the conclusions he drew from the meeting, to emphasize the importance of what he has learned.
Experiments with feedback stimulation triggered from the subject's electroencephalogram result in changing the sequential time series of intervals of occipital alpha and intervals of little or no alpha EEG activity. The rate of recurrence of alpha and no-alpha EEG can be changed by regulating the external feedback stimuli or by asking the subject to change his internal state. Four different paradigms were investigated and the results interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that oculomotor functions regulate the occurrence and nonoccurrence of alpha.
Slouching posture may be observed when people interact with digital devices such as sitting at a computer screen or looking downwards at a smartphone while sitting or walking. The study investigated two procedures: the effect of head position on perceived head rotation and the effect of neck scrunching on symptom development. In the first study, 87 students sat in either a head-erect or head-forward position and rotated their heads from side to side. Ninety-two percent of the participants reported that they significantly increased their head rotation range during the head-erect position as comparted to the head-forward position, and that it was much easier to rotate their head in the erect position (M = 8.5; SD = 2.4) than in the slouched position (M = 4.3; SD = 1.9), F(l, 171) = 152, p < 0.001. In the second study, 125 students were asked to scrunch their neck for 30 seconds. After neck scrunching, 98.4% of participants reported experiencing an average pain rating of 5.3 on a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (severe), which consisted of pressure in the head (M = 6.7), stiff neck (M = 5.9), eye tension (M = 4) and headaches (M = 3.8). For a subset of 12 students, the effects of head-forward position and neck scrunching (compression) on cervical and trapezius muscles was monitored with electromyography. The average cervical surface electromyography (sEMG) was higher during head-forward position and neck scrunching than during pre- and post-baseline, and the average trapezius sEMG was higher during the neck scrunching than during pre- and post-baseline. For most participants, the effect of their head/neck position on rotation and neck scrunching on symptom development was a total surprise. Experiential practices can provide somatic feedback as an education tool to teach awareness and thus motivate participants to change their body posture so that they reduce slouching and neck scrunching.
Traditional biofeedback generally focuses on individual therapy that serves one of two purposes: (a) treating a functional health disorder that stems from an organic source or a mental disorder caused by high levels of stress or (b) improving performance. The author describes a therapy model that was developed based on biofeedback to treat interpersonal challenges such as parent-child relationships and spousal relationships. The author begins by describing the principles of the interpersonal biofeedback model and continues with practical examples.
Biofeedback treatment is never done in solitude. There is always the presence of the "other". By the side of the patient sits the practitioner. He or she is there, guiding, monitoring, reassuring, and reinforcing success. This is where the practitioner's influence over the client is obvious. Here, Rolnick and Ehrenreich focus on the therapist and various others, such as spouse, child, and parent. The term other yields a handful of meanings and connotations in the field of psychodynamic psychotherapy. The other bears meaning for the patient. Therefore, the patient's acknowledgement of the other presence and thereafter its meaning and influence on the patient is the driving mechanism of the therapeutic relationship. The term self, as in self-control and later in self-regulation, has been central to the biofeedback literature since its inception.
Colectomy is psychologically very stressful, but little information is available to help patients manage stress. The client presented with anxiety, high heart rate, and apparent arrhythmias 9 months after colectomy. After 7 weeks of daily practice of controlled breathing and positive visualization, she showed no apparent arrhythmias and felt less anxious. She then suffered a stroke and underwent ileostomy surgery, but she was soon feeling less anxious, and her blood pressure and heart rate variability resumed normal values. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of autoregulatory practices for controlling stress after colectomy.