That brings us to the underlying message of this issue of MiningVoice - the importance of keeping mining jobs in America. The metal, coal and industrial-mineral mining sectors generate approximately $30 billion in gross revenue, according to the most recent statistics available. They provide raw materials for the rest of the private sector, and they offer high-paying, rewarding jobs for hundreds of thousands of Americans. Those all are important things our nation should never let slip away.
Then, in the 1950s, metallurgists learned to extract small, commercial quantities of rhenium from flue gases emitted from the roasting of by-product molybdenite concentrates obtained from certain porphyry copper ores. With more rhenium now available for research, metallurgists found the metal to be heavier even than gold, with a density exceeded only by a few platinum-group metals. Studies also revealed rhenium's high melting point of 5,756degF., second only to that of tungsten.
At the time the mine closed, the state of Arizona - through its Re-Employment and Pre-Layoff Assistance Center (REPAC), which receives funding from the federal Job Training Partnership Act of 1983 - offered employees assistance in writing resumes, job interviewing and brushing up on other skills. The company also provided space at the mine site for some of the classes, and the state supplied computers, phone banks and relocation benefits.
The transfer to Reno wasn't totally new country for the pair because they had gotten their master's degrees from the Mackay School of Mines in Reno a halfdozen years earlier and still had friends living in the area. [Ruth Carraher] had been involved in Girl Scouts in Ely and did the same in Reno, so she settled in easily.
Vestiges of this rich immigrant culture are in the golden domes of the Orthodox churches built by Eastern Europeans in the Appalachian coal mining towns; in the Episcopal churches built by Cornish ironore miners along the Eastern Range of Minnesota; and in the synagogues built by Jewish merchants in the booming mining towns of the Rocky Mountains.
Open-pit or underground mining begins only after hundreds of drill holes, metallurgical tests and environmental studies have confirmed that a new deposit can be mined safely and profitably. Mining engineers design mine plans and processing plants. Drillers and blasters shatter the ore-bearing rock so that it can be removed with giant shovels and trucks. Mine geologists and survey teams using global positioning systems continuously monitor mining progress.
The Clean Air Act required EPA to study the public health effects of air toxic emissions from utilities that bum fossil fuels and to determine whether it is necessary to regulate those emissions. In the winter of 1997-98, EPA published two reports to Congress in response to those requirements: The Mercury Study Report and the Utility Air Toxics Report.
"Mining is much more important to society than most people know," [Rob Vugteveen] says. "All of us in the mining industry understand how important it is, that it makes our world - really our civilization - possible. But we also know that many Americans don't understand any of that. Modern mining processes and the skills and education required to be part of the industry are also well-kept secrets. In fact, the general public knows very little about what miners do, who miners are or how mining affects them."
As part of its strategic plan, NMA is committed to utilizing the most effective tools for communicating information crucial to achieving its mission of creating and maintaining for mining a broad base of political support in Congress, the administration and media. Given the changes that have occurred in recent years, and the current political, legislative and regulatory climate, reassessing, refocusing and concentrating our communications efforts including publications - is an appropriate activity.
Because of its toxicity however, cyanide has been and continues to be used and handled with great care. There have been no human fatalities resulting from gold leaching with cyanide in the United States (although a few have been reported worldwide). With the exception of very severe poisoning cases when no treatment is administered, symptoms of cyanide exposure are usually gone within 24 hours.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially proposed the rule in late July as part of its visibility program. It is intended to provide guidance to states for imposing emission control mandates on facilities under the so-called "best available retrofit technology" guidelines, typically known as "BART."
In 2000, about two-thirds of new steel was really reprocessed old steel. Overall, 88 percent of steel is recovered and reused, according to [Greg Crawford]. He explains that the recycling rate is a percentage of the "living inventory," which includes things like the Golden Gate Bridge or a car that lasts a decade or two and will not be available for recycling for some time. Recycling allows the steel industry to remain green in several ways.
About two weeks after the attack, Pentagon officials took down an enormous American flag that had been draped over the side of the Pentagon by firefighters and other rescue workers. It will be kept in storage and eventually put on display inside the section damaged on September 11. That it will be Indiana limestone that surrounds that flag, and once again protects the people inside, is a source of pride for the companies - many family-owned - that make up the state's limestone industry.
A well-crafted multi-emissions approach can: improve regulatory certainty; increase investment in new generation; increase operational flexibility to reduce compliance costs; and maintain fuel diversity to avoid electricity price spikes and sustain reliable generation.
Enlisting the assistance of the staff of CMC's mine-training program, [Joe Nachtrieb] designed and directed the construction of both exhibits. For the hardrock exhibit, Nachtrieb, together with mine-rescue team leader [FRED ALLEN], built a portal and drove a 40-foot-long tunnel into the side of a hill on the festival grounds, timbering the tunnel in the same manner that the original Oro City miners would have done.
The Bush administration ordered two investigations earlier this year to examine the ramifications of iron and steel trade practices that a labor/industry coalition called Stand Up for Iron Ore (SUFIO) has long claimed are hurting the U.S. economy and workers. Imports of semifinished steel, made with iron ore excavated overseas, have increased by 250 percent since 1992, according to SUFIO.
Participating with the R&D teams are manufacturers, mining companies with a domestic presence, production firms and even academic programs. Both professors and graduate students from universities with mining concentrations are being included. (A side benefit to having academic involvement is that there is renewed interest about mining within academia, where more recently the trend has been for programs to be dropped for lack of funding and interest among students.)
Chinese mining mythology is very rich, and from the ethnocentric perspective of most Westerners, quite bizarre. One very dangerous mine dwelling entity was known as the "Celestial Stag." This creature would approach working miners and promise to lead them to rich veins of gold and silver. The stag was always true to its word, but once the miners were escorted to a mother lode the creature would beg to be taken to the surface.
DOE and the coal and electric utility industries envision a future with coal plants that emit virtually no pollution using gasification technologies. Coal converted into a gaseous form can be a versatile fuel, and gasification power plants can be the cleanest coal-fueled plants in the world, according to DOE.