Purpose - By surveying current literature, the purposes of this paper are twofold: to identify current situation of mobile learning (m-learning) adoption and specify the challenges and to identify the factors driving m-learning adoption.Design methodology approach - The paper reviews literature related to: m-learning applications and challenging issues and adoption researches on m-learning and related topics. A reflection on the unique nature of m-learning adoption building upon the literature reviewed contributes to a new conceptual model.Findings - Even if m-learning is fast evolving, the review of literature reveals a challenge as to how to promote m-learning adoption. In this light, the paper extends the scope of literature reviewed to the theories and factors relating to different roles m-learning users have into consideration, namely, technology user, consumer and learner, in an attempt to offer a more complete understanding of m-learning adoption. Insights are drawn from the proposed model.Practical implications - A number of m-learning projects have been initiated worldwide while guidelines drawing from m-learning adoption research are in short supply. A research in this regard will contribute to a better understanding of developing acceptable m-learning service.Originality value - Based on a literature review, the paper not only specifies the current situation of m-learning adoption, but also develops factors influencing m-learning adoption to enrich our understanding of m-learning adoption - which help to facilitate and promote future empirical research.
Purpose - This paper seeks to assess the extent to which learning and Web 2.0 technologies are utilised to support learning and teaching in Africa's higher learning institutions, with a specific focus on Tanzania's public universities.Design methodology approach - A combination of content analysis and semi-structured interviews was used to collect data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ICT personnel from six of the eight public universities in Tanzania in 2011.Findings - The study found that the adoption of e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies is still in its infancy in Tanzania's public universities. However, there was much enthusiasm amongst respondents for developing the potential of e-learning and Web 2.0 tools in their universities.Practical implications - The study seeks to promote academic inquiry about the need for innovative Web 2.0 technologies in learning and teaching and the adoption of these emerging technologies in Africa's higher learning institutions.Originality value - The study provides empirical findings on the use of e-learning and Web 2.0 for higher education, specifically in the Tanzanian context. The study provides a basis for further research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in higher education.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that determine the acceptance of the WebCT learning system among students of the faculties of Business and Education Sciences at the University of Huelva, and to verify the direct and indirect effects of these factors.Design methodology approach - A total of 226 students at the University of Huelva completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs which explain the system usage in the context of e-learning: technical support (TS); computer self-efficacy (CSE); perceived ease of use (PEOU); perceived usefulness (PU); attitude (A); and system usage (SU). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed for modelling and data analysis.Findings - The most significant results point to the need to rethink the original structural model in terms of the relations of certain variables, although the authors also establish the importance of the direct effect of technical support on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness among the students. The authors also confirm that WebCT usage and acceptance is directly influenced by perceived usefulness and indirectly by perceived ease of use.Originality value - The findings in this study have implications for the virtual learning systems managers at the University of Huelva, and for other universities that use online tuition systems. This paper reflects a lack of technical support which students need to use WebCT more efficiently and shows that training courses and technical assistance for students must be extended.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions - "use" and "importance" - was used as the instrument for this study.Design methodology approach - The questionnaire was administered to academics of four public universities which fall under the Malaysian Technical University Network.Findings - The results from 191 responses show that the academics of public universities find the KM practices and key strategic enablers to be important but are not used as much.Research limitations implications - This research has overcome the gaps identified through the use of a set of KM practices and key strategic enablers. These variables could be replicated in different settings, across different economies, with the possibility of incorporating more constructs. The small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the study suggest that a larger sample size through a longitudinal study is required in future research.Practical implications - The recommendations proposed will provide strategic directions for the management of public universities to deal more effectively with the KM practices and key strategic enablers.Originality value - This study has extended knowledge in KM, specifically concerning the importance and use of key strategic enablers of KM. Moreover, it is amongst the first empirical works to examine the use and importance of KM practices and key strategic enablers in unison.
Purpose – The use of web-enhanced teaching of the English as a foreign language in higher education in Greece is addressed in this case study which examines the student's perceptions of online instruction using Moodle as a learning management system (LMS), with and without the use of Facebook (FB) as an adjunctive learning platform. The merging of this collaborative and interactive social platform with a LMS is explored, examining the attitudes of higher education foreign language learners toward Moodle as a LMS, and FB as an adjunctive informal learning environment. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Results are drawn from a pre-FB questionnaire after a term using Moodle only, and a post-FB questionnaire following a term using Moodle and FB. Findings – Results suggest that the use of web-based tools and social media changed the way students viewed the role of internet technology in the development of their English language learning. Most students (76 percent) agreed that the addition of FB to the course helped build a sense of community within a learning environment, while 69 percent suggested it enhanced the learning process. Originality/value – Results suggest FB may reinforce communication skills and engagement in the learning process and may support participation and collaborative learning in the formal learning environment provided by Moodle.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understanding early childhood student teachers' self-reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework.Design methodology approach - A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science-related papers from Bachelor of Early Childhood Education completed the questionnaire, measuring their responses to performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling was used as the main technique for data analysis.Findings - The results of this study showed that performance expectancy and effort expectancy were found to have a direct and statistically significant positive effect on behavioural intention. Of the four variables in the UTAUT model, the model accounted for 41 per cent of the variance in behavioural intention to use IWB among student teachers. The findings obtained in this study fail to verify the predictions about IWBs experiences having moderating effects towards the relationships.Originality value - This is the first paper that investigated the acceptance and use of IWB among early childhood science student teachers based on the UTAUT model. The findings have uncovered the important distinction of performance expectancy and effort expectancy in IWB acceptance and use. Hence, it provides several prominent implications for the research and practice.
Purpose - This study aims to examine the suitability of information systems (IS) success model in the adoption of library 2.0 technologies among undergraduate students in the African context, and focused at the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) of Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach - Based on the IS success model, the study re-specified and validated the IS model to examine adoption of library 2.0 technologies via a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The study examined the role of quality (service quality, information quality and system quality) in influencing user perceived net benefits, satisfaction and intention to reuse library 2.0 application. A case study research design was used in this study. Self-administered questionnaire were distributed to all first year undergraduate students (n=408) at MUHAS, with a rate of return of 71.8%. Findings - The study findings confirm the validity of using the proposed IS model for library 2.0 adoption assessment. The users' intention to reuse is quite important, and accurately predicts the usage behaviour of library 2.0 services. The perceived net benefits had the strongest effect on users' intention to reuse library 2.0 systems than any other determinants within the model. Among the three quality-related constructs, service quality had the strongest total effect on perceived net benefits and intention to reuse. Compared to system quality, information quality had the largest effect on user satisfaction. It is thus important for librarians to consider all these factors for effective adoption of library 2.0 projects in research and academic institutions. Originality - This is the first comprehensive study focusing on the health sciences library patron's usage behaviour of library 2.0 applications in Tanzania, and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing library 2.0 initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions.
Purpose - Cloud Computing (CC) technology is getting implemented rapidly in the educational sector to improve learning, research and other administrative process. As evident from the literature review, most of these implementations are happening in the western countries such as USA, UK, while the level of implementation of CC in developing countries such as India is rare. Moreover, implementing CC technology in the educational sector require various decisions to be made by the managers of the Information Technology (IT) department such as selecting suitable deployment model, vendor providing cloud service, etc. in their respective university or institute. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to address one such decision. Since, different types of CC deployment are available; selecting a suitable one plays a key role, as it might have an impact on the requirements of various stakeholders such as students, teachers, administrative staff (especially the staff members in the IT department), etc. apart from affecting the overall performance of the facilities such as a laboratory. Naturally, a proper decision by analysing multiple perspectives has to be made while carrying out such strategic initiatives by any educational institute. Design/methodology/approach - A case study methodology has been chosen as the research methodology to discuss and demonstrate the above decision problem that was faced in real time by one of the educational institutes in India, offering high-quality management education. The IT managers of this institute were planning to switch over to CC technology for the computer laboratory and they have to make a decision of choosing suitable alternative CC deployment models such as private cloud (PRC), public cloud (PUC), community cloud (COC), hybrid cloud (HYC), etc. by analysing and comparing them based on various factors and perspectives such as elasticity, availability, scalability, etc. Since, multiple factors are involved in making such a strategic decision, the most commonly used Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model - namely, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used as a decision support during the decision making process. Findings - The team of decision makers, who were planning to implement CC in the case institute, found that PRC is best as they believed that it would provide adequate cost savings, apart from providing necessary security to maintain confidential information such as student's detail, grades, etc. Research limitations/implications - The results obtained are based on a single case study. Hence, they cannot be generalized for institutions across educational sector. However, the decision making situation and understanding its impact on the stakeholders of the educational institute can be common across various educational institute. Practical implications - Using a real-life case study of an educational institute, this paper presented a strategic decision making situation, which needs to be considered by the IT managers of the educational institutes when they decide to switch over to CC technology. Various criteria to be considered during the decision making process was identified from the literature review were identified and enumerated. These factors would useful for the IT managers of the different educational institute and they can suitably add or delete these decision criteria as per their requirements and situation at hand. Moreover, the algorithm of AHP, which was used as a decision support, was presented in a step-by-step manner, which should be beneficial for the practitioners to apply the same for similar decision making situations. Originality/value - It is believed that this paper would be the first to report on a strategic decision of choosing the deployment model for CC technology especially in the educational sector. Similarly, this paper would also contribute to the field of CC, as it lists out the decision criteria that are to be considered for making the above decision, which has not got adequate importance. Lastly, this paper is also unique in the realm of AHP because application for a decision problem in the field of CC especially in the educational sector is least reported.
Purpose – A substantial number of researchers have investigated the global economic dynamics of this time to disprove unconditional convergence and refute its very idea, stating the phenomenon of conditional convergence instead. However, most respective papers limit their investigation period with the early or mid-2000s. In the authors’ opinion, some of the global trends which revealed themselves particularly clearly in the second half of the 2000s call for a revision of the convergence issue. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Several methodologies for measuring the global convergence/divergence trends exist in the economic literature. This paper seeks to contribute to the existing literature on unconditional β-convergence of the per capita incomes at the global level. Findings – In the recent years, the gap between high-income and middle-income countries is decreasing especially rapidly. The gap between high-income and low-income countries, meanwhile, is decreasing at a much slower pace. At the same time, the gap between middle-income and low-income countries is actually widening. Indeed, in the early 1980s GDP per capita in the low-income countries was on average three times lower than in the middle-income countries, and this gap was totally overshadowed by the more than ten-time abyss between the middle-income and the high-income countries. Now, however, the GDP per capita in low-income countries lags behind the middle-income ones by more than five times, which is largely the same as the gap (rapidly contracting in the recent years) between the high-income and the middle-income countries. This clearly suggests that the configuration of the world system has experienced a very significant transformation in the recent 30 years. Research limitations/implications – The research concentrates upon the dynamics of the gap in per capita income between the high-income, the middle-income, and the low-income countries. Originality/value – This paper's originality/value lies in drawing attention to the specific changes in the structure of global convergence/divergence patterns and their implications for the low-income countries.
Purpose - This paper aims to examine pre-service teachers' self-reported intention to use technology by employing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 157 student teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs in the TPB. These were administered at the beginning of the course in which technology was taught and used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used as the technique for data analysis. Findings - The results of this study showed that attitude toward usage and subjective norms were significant predictors of behavioral intention to use technology while perceived behavioral control was not. Overall, this study found that the three explanatory variables in the TPB explained about 40 percent of the variance in behavioral intention to use technology. Originality/value - This study contributes to the growing interests among researchers in using models to explain users' intention to use technology. While prior research have use the theory of planned in explaining variables of interest in psychology, this study attempts to test the explanatory ability of the TPB on the intention to use technology in an educational setting. By doing so, the paper hopes to obtain greater insights into the applicability of TPB to explain issues of educational interests. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to encourage discussions regarding the existing approaches to globalization measurement (taking mainly the form of indices and rankings) and their shortcomings in terms of applicability to developing Global Studies curricula. Another aim is to propose an outline for the globalization measurement methodology that would take a systemic approach to revealing the global flows (both their direction and content) and networks, which will allow the multidimensionality in globalization measurement crucial for proposing and verifying formal explanations and hypotheses, as well as for developing globalization forecasts. Design/methodology/approach - Several methodologies for globalization measurements are compared in the paper, among the most important are variations of the index compilation methodology, and methods of network analysis. Findings - For Global Studies curricula, globalization measurement tools much more complex than indices are needed. A possible solution could lie in the analysis of country-to-country flows (and networks which these flows form), which appears much more data- and effort-consuming than the methodologies behind the index compilation, will allow the elaboration of a systemic vision of globalization and the interactions between its various aspects, which should necessarily underlie the Global Studies curricula. Research limitations/implications - The research concentrates upon the most widespread approaches to globalization measurements, such as the most widely recognized globalization indices, and the few attempts at country-to-country flows and networks measurement. Originality/value - The paper's originality/value lies in proposing an outline for a new multidimensional approach to measuring globalization based upon country-to-country flows and networks.
Purpose - The study aims to examine structural relationships of product features, brand name, product price and social influence with demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students'. Design/methodology/approach - Data collected from 320 valid pre-screened university students studying at the pubic higher learning institution in Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia who have experience in using and owning Smartphones, using a structured questionnaire, with closed-ended questions, employing a convenient sampling technique, were tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach via AMOS 20.0 computer program. Findings - Empirical results via SEM divulged that brand name and social influence have an effect on the increasing demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students. The first is confirmed as the most influential factor, followed by the latter. This is according to standardised path coefficients and their statistical signicance. Research limitations/implications - This study contributes significantly to a more thorough understanding of the determinants of demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students' by emphasizing the dimensions of product features, brand name, product price and social influence. Students' demand for Smartphones is highly influenced by aspects of the brand name of the Smartphone itself and social influence from friends and family members. Practical Implications - Smartphone providers, manufacturers, application developers and programmers should improve the current ability and performance of Smartphones by upgrading hardware and software driven services for better user interaction and engagement in order to be marketable and sustainable in meeting consumer unlimited needs and wants. They should also emphasize their brand name in advertising to be well positioned in consumers' minds when making the decision to purchase and own a Smartphone. Positive viral marketing spread via social networking sites could help Smartphone providers to strengthen the competitive advantage of their product brands. The attractiveness of the message content of the advertisement on the social networking sites could improve marketing strategies of the Smartphone brand. Originality/value - This study provides valuable insight into consumer behavior regarding Smartphones demand by examining the factors that influence students' demand for using and owning Smartphones, which is not much covered in the literature in Malaysia context. The lessons can also be replicated in other countries for marketing Smartphones.
Purpose - The use of mobile wireless data services continues to increase worldwide. New fourth-generation (4G) wireless networks can deliver data rates exceeding 2 Mbps. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of 4G mobile applications that utilize such high data rates and run on small form-factor devices.Design methodology approach - The author reviews existing literature of mobile applications development and proposes using network-related characteristics to create a conceptual framework of these applications.Findings - Combining traffic symmetry and latency yields a 2×3 framework with six categories that characterize current and emerging 4G mobile applications, such as augmented reality, mobile social networking and m-health.Research limitations implications - With the advent of high-speed 4G networks, completely new mobile applications can be developed to leverage such high data rates, and a framework of such development efforts is highly desirable.Originality value - The framework is developed based on a perspective of technical characteristics because these characteristics intrinsically constrain the kinds of broadband mobile applications that can be developed. The framework should be useful in exploring opportunities of mobile application development and guiding future research in this area.
Purpose – Various economic growth theories propose a view of globalisation resulting in economic convergence. However, others suggest economic divergence (i.e. a widening gap between global rich and poor) and others still, different patterns of development. Hence it is necessary to validate such globalisation hypotheses with sound quantitative data. Design/methodology/approach – The paper proposes the “Global Change Data Base” (GCDB) that includes an analytical tool (AT) providing correlations between primary and secondary data (by country by year) from the fields of population, agriculture, economy, energy and human development. Findings – The AT is able to first test the hypotheses on global development and globalisation and second to suggest new hypotheses on the mechanisms of globalisation. Results can be used in curricula of Global Studies worldwide. Research limitations/implications – These data analysis has still to be complemented by sociological, political and economic theories providing insights into global restructuration processes and structural transitions through globalisation. Practical implications – “Forward-looking” as an emerging scientific discipline is supported by the proposed detailed analytical methods, namely by providing quantitative, in-depth techno-socio-economic megatrends. Social implications – The perception of globalisation might be rendered more inter-subjectively traceable by the GCDB. Originality/value – Up-to-date means of forward-looking are less detailed regarding economic sectors and energy sources compared to the proposed GCDB.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how personalisation of learning resources and services can be achieved for students with and without disabilities, particularly responding to the needs of those with multiple disabilities in e-learning systems. The paper aims to introduce ONTODAPS, the Ontology-Driven Disability-Aware Personalised E-Learning System, which has the mechanism for such personalisation.Design methodology approach - This paper reviews current e-learning systems that provide personalisation for students, including their strengths and weaknesses. The paper presents personalisation and its techniques and then presents ONTODAPS, which personalises learning resources and services to students. In total, three case studies are considered to show how personalisation is achieved using ONTODAPS.Findings - This paper shows that it is possible to use automated ontology-based agents intercommunicating to provide an effective personalisation for disabled students. The results reveal that ONTODAPS is flexible enough to provide enough control and freedom to drive their learning. The results also suggest that ONTODAPS has the ability to provide appropriate levels of learner control by allowing them to self-direct learning through personalising learning resources and then allowing them to choose which resources they wish to access. This thus gives them a sense of ownership and control.Research limitations implications - This research reveals that it is possible for e-learning systems to personalise learning for users with multiple disabilities. Thus, by considering the needs of such users and consulting them in the design and development process, developers of e-learning systems can produce systems that are both accessible and usable by students with disabilities.Practical implications - The inclusion of multiple formats of learning resources and personalisation of their presentation to students means students will have increased access to such resources, with the potential of consuming and assimilating the information. This also has the potential of improving understanding and hence and improvement in results.Social implications - This research shows that ONTODAPS is a medium where disabled students can have equivalent learning experience with their non-disabled peers. This could potentially increase access to learning for disabled students and possibly help improve their results due to an increase in accessibility of learning resources and usability of the system. This system thus complies with contemporary legislation which requires "reasonable adjustments" or "reasonable accommodations" to be made to meet the needs of disabled people.Originality value - Although personalisation has been applied in e-commerce systems, making them very successful, such personalisation is still a wish for e-learning systems which struggle to catch up. This research proposes a solution in the e-learning domain and its novelty is in its application to disabled students, including those with multiple disabilities.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand how emerging technologies and Web 2.0 services are transforming the structure of the web and their potential impact on managed learning environments (MLS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).Design methodology approach - Innovative Web 2.0 applications are reviewed in the paper to explore how they incorporate a new paradigm, reshaping the web as an electronic platform for social networks, where users share, edit and collaborate on the publication of content.Findings - The paper finds that, in this rapidly changing environment, educators need to consider the implications of these developments for the current design of the LCMS. An emerging generation of users influenced by social networking experiences and empowered to create, publish, appropriate and redistribute content may find the structures of the LCMS traditional and inflexible in contrast with the user-centered approach of Web 2.0 services. This fundamental shift in the experience of the digital environment in the social world will require innovative solutions, including broad institution-wide dialogues on the role of organizations in a Web 2.0 environment, innovative approaches to faculty training, a new emphasis on the role of faculty as learners in a rapidly changing environment, and rethinking the underlying architecture of the LCMS model.Research limitations implications - The recent emergence of these new developments and the essentially fluid nature of these innovations on the web suggest that the conclusions here remain essentially speculative in nature.Originality value - This paper identifies a critical challenge in the integration of technology into the teaching-learning environment and the re-evaluation of the role of a vendor-specific enterprise LCMS in the design of e-learning facilities.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to encourage a discourse aiming to better understand the "psycho-social situation" of many people - from a global perspective. The following "first hypotheses" are formulated; pointing to crucial "hidden agendas" which shall be "named" in order to focus attention towards these phenomena ("taming"). Design/methodology/approach - Following the news and the "official" comments in Europe and America allow - almost demand - the formulation of "suspicions" with regard to "silent" (unconscious) shifts in the "loud" societies. Findings - The present economic regime is broadening the division between rich and poor worldwide, as is known. However, there are also other, more hidden divisions emerging, especially between "official" (e.g. administration-announced) and "common" opinions and attitudes, despite a growing globalisation of information (access-wise and content-wise, not necessarily reaching out to all milieus). Research limitations/implications - Formulating hypotheses can bring important issues to the forefront of attention within social science (e.g. starting a precautionary process also with regard to information). Practical implications - This paper aims to deepen the understanding of the social structure of the (now almost) worldwide interconnected social communication network (including "scars"). Social implications - Multicultural connectivity (understanding and exchange) is needed in order to solve (first perceive) the worldwide problems ahead of us. Originality/value - Naming agendas of global dimensions that are perhaps largely hidden and not yet perceived ("named").
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to include the following items: to show the absolute necessity of managing the international community, to explore the fundamental possibility of managing the global world, to prove or disprove such a possibility, to determine the real background of global governance in modern conditions and to show the methods of transition toward global governance. Design/methodology/approach – The main methodological principles used in writing the paper are: the principle of the integrity of the world; the understanding of globalization as an objective historical process; the principle of historical sequence of the considered event; the principle of priority of the general over the particular, as well as of the global over the regional and the local. Findings – As a result of the proposed research, it is shown that the global world needs to be managed. Prerequisites for the management of the global world are identified, among which the most important are morality and rights. It is shown that for management of the global world there should not only be global government, but also other branches of government, such as a World Parliament and a judicial system based on global law. Research limitations/implications – A clear distinction between the management and regulation of social relations is made. The need to further explore the concepts of international law and global right is stated. Practical implications – National sovereignty increasingly must give place to global governance structures. Social implications – The need to build a global civil society is evident. Originality/value – The absolute necessity and possibility of regulating the world community are shown. New approaches to solving this problem are proposed. They are based on existing assumptions in the field of executive and legislative power and also involve the creation of new structures, primarily in the area of the judiciary.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to create a synchronous online learning community through the use of Blackboard Collaborate! to promote and enhance transactional engagement outside the classroom. Design/methodology/approach – This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data were sourced from a third year finance unit across one semester using a survey instrument. SPSS v20 was used to perform basic descriptive analysis. Findings – The study revealed that by providing an online learning community through the use of Blackboard Collaborate! significantly enhances transactional engagement beyond the classroom. In particular the use of Blackboard Collaborate! allowed the teacher to be more accessible, supportive, expect and support high standards and provide challenging activities that generated rich and meaningful interactions and promoted higher order thinking skills. Research limitations/implications – The positive results emanating from this study may encourage other educators and their institutions to adopt a synchronous online learning community to enhance student's engagement levels and increase the quality of student learning and their university experience. This study was conducted at only one university so it may not be feasible to form generalisations resulting from the findings. Originality/value – This study adds new insights towards the scarce amount of literature on engagement in a blended learning environment. In particular the study adds a student perspective to the student engagement literature and to what constitutes quality in higher education and/or improved student experience.