This article presents nearly 10 year's worth of System Usability Scale (SUS) data collected on numerous products in all phases of the development lifecycle. The SUS, developed by Brooke (1996), reflected a strong need in the usability community for a tool that could quickly and easily collect a user's subjective rating of a product's usability. The data in this study indicate that the SUS fulfills that need. Results from the analysis of this large number of SUS scores show that the SUS is a highly robust and versatile tool for usability professionals. The article presents these results and discusses their implications, describes nontraditional uses of the SUS, explains a proposed modification to the SUS to provide an adjective rating that correlates with a given score, and provides details of what constitutes an acceptable SUS score.,This article presents nearly 10 year's worth of System Usability Scale (SUS) data collected on numerous products in all phases of the development lifecycle. The SUS, developed by Brooke (1996) , reflected a strong need in the usability community for a tool that could quickly and easily collect a user's subjective rating of a product's usability. The data in this study indicate that the SUS fulfills that need. Results from the analysis of this large number of SUS scores show that the SUS is a highly robust and versatile tool for usability professionals. The article presents these results and discusses their implications, describes nontraditional uses of the SUS, explains a proposed modification to the SUS to provide an adjective rating that correlates with a given score, and provides details of what constitutes an acceptable SUS score.
The objective of this study is to examine the user's adoption aspects of autonomous vehicle, as well as to investigate what factors drive people to trust an autonomous vehicle. A model explaining the impact of different factors on autonomous vehicles' intention is developed based on the technology acceptance model and trust theory. A survey of 552 drivers was conducted and the results were analyzed using partial least squares. The results demonstrated that perceived usefulness and trust are major important determinants of intention to use autonomous vehicles. The results also show that three constructs-system transparency, technical competence, and situation management-have a positive effect on trust. The study identified that trust has a negative effect on perceived risk. Among the driving-related personality traits, locus of control has significant effects on behavioral intention, whereas sensation seeking did not. This study investigated that the developed model explains the factors that influence the acceptance of autonomous vehicle. The results of this study provide evidence on the importance of trust in the user's acceptance of an autonomous vehicle.
Little research has been conducted on the two most important criteria for the success of social network sites (SNS), that is, content sharing and sociability, and how these affect privacy experiences and usage behavior among SNS users. This article explores these issues by employing in-depth interviews and explorative usability tests, comparing the experiences and usage of younger and older Facebook users. First, the interviews revealed that Facebook users in all age groups reported more contact with several different groups of people, which reflects different types of social capital (i.e., family, friends, and acquaintances), because of Facebook, but not without consequences for privacy. Having too many Facebook "friends" and access to different social capital disrupt the sharing process due to experiences of social surveillance and social control. This social control often forces younger people in particular to use conformity as a strategy when sharing content to maintain their privacy. Further, the interviews revealed different motivations and usage patterns when older and younger users are compared. Second, the usability test found a significant difference between younger and older adults in time completion and task completion related to Facebook settings. Younger users are more skilled in their Facebook usage, whereas adults over the age of 40 have difficulties in understanding the navigation logic and privacy settings. Younger and older adults display completely open public profiles without realizing it. Finally, the design and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has been studied with the fundamental goal of helping disabled people communicate with the outside world using brain signals. In particular, a large body of research has been reported in the electroencephalography (EEG)-based BCI research field during recent years. To provide a thorough summary of recent research trends in EEG-based BCIs, the present study reviewed BCI research articles published from 2007 to 2011 and investigated (a) the number of published BCI articles, (b) BCI paradigms, (c) aims of the articles, (d) target applications, (e) feature types, (f) classification algorithms, (g) BCI system types, and (h) nationalities of the author. The detailed survey results are presented and discussed one by one. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction to view the free supplemental file: Supplementary Tables.pdf.
The philosopher of science J. W. Grove (1989) once wrote, "There is, of course, nothing strange or scandalous about divisions of opinion among scientists. This is a condition for scientific progress" (p. 133). Over the past 30 years, usability, both as a practice and as an emerging science, has had its share of controversies. It has inherited some from its early roots in experimental psychology, measurement, and statistics. Others have emerged as the field of usability has matured and extended into user-centered design and user experience. In many ways, a field of inquiry is shaped by its controversies. This article reviews some of the persistent controversies in the field of usability, starting with their history, then assessing their current status from the perspective of a pragmatic practitioner. Put another way: Over the past three decades, what are some of the key lessons we have learned, and what remains to be learned? Some of the key lessons learned are: * When discussing usability, it is important to distinguish between the goals and practices of summative and formative usability. * There is compelling rational and empirical support for the practice of iterative formative usability testing-it appears to be effective in improving both objective and perceived usability. * When conducting usability studies, practitioners should use one of the currently available standardized usability questionnaires. * Because "magic number" rules of thumb for sample size requirements for usability tests are optimal only under very specific conditions, practitioners should use the tools that are available to guide sample size estimation rather than relying on "magic numbers."
The world's population is aging, and developed countries are engaged in developing a new aged-care paradigm to reduce spiraling healthcare costs. Assistive technologies like Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) are being considered as enablers to support the process of care giving or keep elderly at home longer. This article reports a mixed-method systematic review of SAR in elderly care and recognizes its impact on elderly well-being, integrating evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies. It follows the principles explained in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and classifies interventions, measures, and outcomes of field trials of SAR in elderly care. Eighty-six studies in 37 study groups have been included. The findings imply positive effects of SAR on elderly well-being. Ten significant recommendations are made to help avoid the current limitations of existing research and to improve future research and its applicability. This review revealed that SAR can potentially enhance elderly well-being and decrease the workload on caregivers. There is a need for rigorous research methodology, person-centered care, caregiver expectation model, multimodal interaction, multimodal data collection, and modeling of culturally diverse groups to facilitate acceptability of SAR.
This article examined factors associated with the adoption of smart wearable devices. More specifically, this research explored the contributing and inhibiting factors that influence the adoption of wearable devices through in-depth interviews. The laddering approach was used in the interviews to identify not only the factors but also their relationships to underlying values. The wearable devices examined were a Smart Glass (Google Glass) and a Smart Watch (Sony Smart Watch 3). Two user groups, college students and working professionals, participated in the study. After the participants had the opportunity to try out each of the two devices, the factors that were most important in deciding whether to adopt or not to adopt the device were laddered. For the smart glasses, the most frequently mentioned factor was look-and-feel. For the smart watch, the availability of fitness apps was a key factor influencing adoption. In addition, factors which were linked to image, a personal value, were particularly important across both the student and working groups. This research provides support for the usefulness of the laddering approach to data collection and analysis, and provides some insight into key design criteria to better fit users' needs and interests.
In recent years, Facebook has become the most popular of social networking sites (SNSs). Due to its increasing popularity and rising number of its users, the phenomenon of Facebook has aroused academic interest as well. There has been a growing number of studies on this subject. The aim of this article is to present the main trends in Facebook research and to provide an overview of major empirical findings. Among the most intensively explored topics in Facebook research, studies that concentrate on personality and individual differences among users, the role of self-efficacy, and motivation for using that specific SNS were identified. There is also a growing trend in empirical studies that focuses on testing advanced theoretical models of Facebook usage determinants. Technology acceptance model, presented in this article, is one of the most often used among them. This kind of approach may serve as a suggestion for a methodological conceptualization in the future confirmatory research on Facebook.
The number of global smartphone users is rapidly increasing. However, the proportion of elderly persons using smartphones is lower than that of other age groups because they feel it is difficult to use touch screens. There have only been a few studies about usability and elderly smartphone users or designs for them. Based on this background, we studied the pointing action of elderly users, which is a basic skill required to use touch screens on smartphones. We reviewed previous works to determine specific research methods and categorized them into three groups: (a) effect of target size and spacing on touch screen pointing performance, (b) effect of age on pointing performance, and (c) feedback of touch screens. To investigate the touch screen pointing performance of elderly, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, 3 target sizes (5 mm, 8 mm, and 12 mm) and 2 target spacings (1 mm, 3 mm) were evaluated. Adding to that, we analyzed whether touch screen pointing performance is dependent on the location of the target. In the second experiment, 3 types of feedback (auditory, tactile, and audiotactile) were evaluated. The results show that (a) pointing performance of elderly was significantly influenced by size, spacing, and location of target, and (b) the performance was higher in audiotactile feedback condition. We expected that these results can contribute to the design of smartphone applications for elderly users.
This research investigates different visual features for augmented reality (AR)-based assembly instructions. Since the beginning of AR research, one of its most popular application areas has been manual assembly assistance. A typical AR assembly application indicates the necessary manual assembly operations by generating visual representations of parts that are spatially registered with, and superimposed on, a video representation of the physical product to be assembled. Research in this area indicates the advantages of this type of assembly instruction presentation. This research investigates different types of visual features for different assembly operations. The hypothesis is that in order to gain an advantage from AR, the visual features used to explain a particular assembly operation must correspond to its relative difficulty level. The final goal is to associate different types of visual features to different levels of task complexity. A user study has been conducted in order to compare different visual features at different operation complexity levels. The results support the hypothesis.
Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media before, during, or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called crisis informatics. In this article, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from a human-computer interaction perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.
Gamification is the use of video-game mechanics and elements in nongame contexts to enhance user engagement and performance. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review to have an in-depth investigation into the existing gamification solutions targeted at solving user engagement problems in different categories of software. We carried out this systematic review by proposing a framework of gamifying process, which is the basis for comparison of existing gamification solutions. In order to report the review, the primary studies are categorized according to the following: a) gamified software and their platforms; b) elements of the gamifying process; c) gamification solutions in each software type; d) gamification solutions for software user engagement problems; e) gamification solutions in general; and f) effects of gamification on software user engagement and performance. Based on the search procedure and criteria, a total of 78 primary studies were extracted. Most of the studies focused on educational and social software, which were developed for web or mobile platforms. We concluded that the number of studies on motivating users to use software content, solving problems in learning software, and using real identity is very limited. Furthermore, few studies have been carried out on gamifying the following software categories: productivity software, cloud storage, utility software, entertainment software, search engine software, tool software, fitness software, software engineering, information worker software, and health-care software. In addition, a large number of gamification solutions are relatively simple and require improvement. Thus, for future studies, researchers can work on the items discovered in this review; they can improve the quality of the current gamified systems by using a wide variety of game mechanics and interface elements, utilizing a combination of contextual types of rewards and giving users the ability to use received rewards "in-game" and "out-game."
Data are presented from observations of Magical Mirrors, a set of four large public displays with gesture-based interaction installed in downtown Berlin, Germany. The displays show a mirror image of the environment in front of them and react with optical effects to the gestures of the audience. Observations of audience behavior revealed recurring behavioral patterns, like glancing at a first display while passing it, moving the arms to cause some effects, then directly approaching one of the following displays and positioning oneself in the center of the display. This was often followed by positioning oneself in the center of the other displays to explore the possibilities of the different effects, and sometimes by taking photographs or videos. From these observations a framework of interaction with gesture-based public display systems was deduced. It describes the phases of passing by a display, viewing & reacting, subtle interaction, direct interaction, multiple interactions, and follow-up actions. Quantitative data of these behavioral phases was collected by observing 660 passers-by on 2 weekend evenings. This article shows how many passers-by pass the thresholds between these phases. This "Audience Funnel" should provide a framework to encourage systematic investigation of public display systems and enable comparability between different studies.
Rare studies have focused on how and why people use social networking sites (SNSs) utilizing individual-level variables such as self-construals and social/nonsocial motivations. This study proposes that the self-construal construct provides a good instrument for measuring the relationship between people's understanding of self as a predictor of social computing (Facebook use) and satisfaction. A survey was conducted with students from a large western U.S. university. Results indicate that interdependent self-construal is associated with social-motivations to use SNS, and such motivations lead to satisfaction with SNS use. In contrast, independent self-construal failed to predict SNS use. This finding supports the need to examine the influence of "cultural self" and "social motivations" when interpreting social media use behavior. Suggestions for future research are addressed.
With their heavy traffic and technological capabilities, social networking sites (SNS) introduced a new means of building and maintaining perceived social capital. This study aims to identify underlying factors and causal relationships that affect behavioral intention to use SNS. For this purpose, this research developed an extended technology acceptance model, incorporating subjective norm and perceived social capital for predicting SNS acceptance and usage. Exploratory correlation and path analyses were conducted to identify the relationships between five constructs: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, perceived social capital, and intention to use. The results showed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had robust effects on the user's intention to use SNS. The research findings also demonstrated that subjective norm and perceived social capital were significant predictors of both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and therefore should be considered as potential variables for extending the technology acceptance model.
We collected over a thousand technology-mediated positive experiences with media and obtained measures describing aspects of the experience itself (affect, psychological need fulfillment) and of the product (i.e., content and technology) integral to the experience (pragmatic quality, hedonic quality). We found a strong relation between intensity of need fulfillment and positive affect. Furthermore, different activities had different need profiles. Watching was foremost a relatedness experience, listening a stimulation and meaning experience, and playing a competence experience. Need fulfillment and positive affect was related to perceptions of hedonic quality, however moderated through attribution, that is, the belief that the product played a role in creating the experience. Pragmatic quality was not linked to experiential measures. The present study (a) demonstrates the merits of distinguishing between an experience-oriented and a product-oriented evaluation, (b) suggests a set of possible measurement instruments for experience-oriented and a product-oriented evaluation, and (c) details the process of how positive experience is transformed into positive product perceptions and judgments of appeal.
Cross-platform services provide unified entertainment experiences across multiple devices between which users can toggle when watching content using televisions, tablets, personal computers, and smartphones. The software automatically adapts the programming to fit the diverse formats. This study analyzed user experiences (UX) of cross-platform services with a mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) approach. It used a multi-state analytical approach, in which the user model was tested in a statistical model and accompanying experiment. A variety of methods were used to best understand the complexities of UX. Heuristic results revealed the ways that UX of cross-platform services are formed, moderated, and improved, and the ways that users' intentions are determined through the relationships among factors. The results revealed that the key elements of cross-platform UX include access, mobility, and coherence, which imply the importance of seamless UX of cross-platform services. Based on those key factors, the study proposed the idea of inter-usability for designing user-centered systems.
Websites are often the first or only interaction a consumer has with a firm in modern commerce. Because consumers tend to make decisions within the first few seconds of online interaction, the first impression given to users can greatly determine a website's success. Leveraging source credibility theory, a strategy is presented for building credibility derived from a user's initial impressions of a website, in online environments. The study demonstrates that logos designed to communicate traits of credibility (i.e., expertise and trustworthiness) can trigger positive credibility judgments about the firm's website and that this increase in perceived credibility results in greater trust and willingness to transact with the firm. In addition, the study demonstrates distinct effects on consumers' distrusting beliefs. The positive trust effects are magnified when the design of a website extends and complements the credibility-based logo design. This practice-supporting model further indicates how website designers can methodically design logos and websites that nonverbally communicate credibility information within the first few moments of a website interaction. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction to view the free supplemental file: Online Appendix A.
This article characterizes the usability of 14 common, everyday products using the System Usability Scale (SUS). More than 1,000 users were queried about the usability of these products using an online survey methodology. The study employed two novel applications of the SUS. First, participants were not asked to perform specific tasks on these products before rating their usability but were rather asked to assess usability based on their overall integrated experience with a given product. Second, some of the evaluated products were assessed as a class of products (e.g., "microwaves") rather than a specific make and model, as is typically done. The results show clear distinctions among different products and will provide practitioners and researchers with important known benchmarks as they seek to characterize and describe results from their own usability studies.
Citizen science broadly describes citizen involvement in science. Citizen science has gained significant momentum in recent years, brought about by widespread availability of smartphones and other Internet and communications technologies (ICT) used for collecting and sharing data. Not only are more projects being launched and more members of the public participating, but more human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers are focusing on the design, development, and use of these tools. Together, citizen science and HCI researchers can leverage each other's skills to speed up science, accelerate learning, and amplify society's well-being globally as well as locally. The focus of this article is on HCI and biodiversity citizen science as seen primarily through the lens of research in the author's laboratory. The article is framed around five topics: community, data, technology, design, and a call to save all species, including ourselves. The article ends with a research agenda that focuses on these areas and identifies productive ways for HCI specialists, science researchers, and citizens to collaborate. In a nutshell, while species are disappearing at an alarming rate, citizen scientists who document species' distributions help to support conservation and educate the public. HCI researchers can empower citizen scientists to dramatically increase what they do and how they do it.