Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can cause alterations to the developing brain. The resulting neurobehavioral deficits seen following this exposure are wide-ranging and potentially devastating and, therefore, are of significant concern to individuals, families, communities, and society. These effects occur on a continuum, and qualitatively similar neuropsychological and behavioral features are seen across the spectrum of effect. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has been used to emphasize the continuous nature of the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) representing one point on the spectrum. This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the neuropsychological and behavioral effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, including a discussion of the emerging neurobehavioral profile. Supporting studies of lower levels of exposure, brain-behavior associations, and animal model systems will be included when appropriate.
It is well established that healthy aging, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are associated with substantial declines in episodic memory. However, there is still debate as to how two forms of episodic memory – recollection and familiarity – are affected by healthy and pathological aging. To address this issue we conducted a meta-analytic review of the effect sizes reported in studies using remember/know (RK), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) methods to examine recollection and familiarity in healthy aging (25 published reports), aMCI (9 published reports), and AD (5 published reports). The results from the meta-analysis revealed that healthy aging is associated with moderate-to-large recollection impairments. Familiarity was not impaired in studies using ROC or PD methods but was impaired in studies that used the RK procedure. aMCI was associated with large decreases in recollection whereas familiarity only tended to show a decrease in studies with a patient sample comprised of both single-domain and multiple-domain aMCI patients. Lastly, AD was associated with large decreases in both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the hippocampus is critical for recollection whereas familiarity is dependent on the integrity of the surrounding perirhinal cortex. Moreover, the results highlight the relevance of method selection when examining aging, and suggest that familiarity deficits might be a useful behavioral marker for identifying individuals that will develop dementia.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Individuals experience predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, cognitive impairment, depression, and neurobehavioral concerns. Cognitive impairments associated with PD are diverse, including difficulty with attention, processing speed, executive functioning, memory recall, visuospatial functions, word-retrieval, and naming. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) is FDA approved and has been shown to be effective in reducing motor symptoms of PD. Studies have found that stimulating STN and GPi are equally effective at improving motor symptoms and dyskinesias; however, there has been discrepancy as to whether the cognitive, behavioral, and mood symptoms are affected differently between the two targets. The present study used random-effects meta-analytic models along with a novel p-curve analytic procedure to compare the potential cognitive and emotional impairments associated with STN-DBS in the current literature to those associated with GPi-DBS. Forty-one articles were reviewed with an aggregated sample size of 1622 patients. Following STN-DBS, small declines were found in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, executive functions, and overall cognition; and moderate declines were found in both semantic and phonemic fluency. However, GPi-DBS resulted in fewer neurocognitive declines than STN-DBS (small declines in attention and small-moderate declines in verbal fluency). With regards to its effect on depression symptomatology, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS resulted in lower levels of depressive symptoms post-surgery. From a neurocognitive standpoint, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS produce subtle cognitive declines but appears to be relatively well tolerated.
Executive function develops at an unprecedented rate during the preschool period, yet few clinicians attempt to assess executive processes in young children. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that executive function can be assessed in preschoolers, and to highlight the importance of detecting executive dysfunction as early as possible. Following a description of executive function and the underlying neural systems, this article outlines some of the challenges in assessing executive function in young children. The various assessment paradigms used for assessing executive function in preschoolers are presented, and based on studies that have applied these measurement tools normal development of executive domains is described. Finally, the benefits and opportunities for executive function intervention in the preschool period are considered.
The development of brain structure and function shows large inter-individual variation. The extent to which this variation is due to genetic or environmental influences has been investigated in twin studies using structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The current review presents an overview of twin studies using MRI in children, adults and elderly, and focuses on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. The majority of the investigated brain measures are heritable to a large extent (60–80 %), although spatial differences in heritability are observed as well. Cross-sectional studies suggest that heritability estimates slightly increase from childhood to adulthood. Long-term longitudinal studies are better suited to study developmental changes in heritability, but these studies are limited. Results so far suggest that the heritability of change over time is relatively low or absent, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings. Compared to brain structure, twin studies of brain function are scarce, and show much lower heritability estimates (~40 %). The insights from heritability studies aid our understanding of individual differences in brain structure and function. With the recent start of large genetic MRI consortia, the chance of finding genes that explain the heritability of brain morphology increases. Gene identification may provide insight in biological mechanisms involved in brain processes, which in turn will learn us more about healthy and disturbed brain functioning.
This study aimed to determine the extent to which cognitive measures can predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s type dementia (AD), assess the predictive accuracy of different cognitive domain categories, and determine whether accuracy varies as a function of age and length of follow-up. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed data from longitudinal studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values for neuropsychological tests to identify individuals with MCI who will develop AD. We searched articles in Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Methodological quality was assessed using the STARDem and QUADAS standards. Twenty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria (2365 participants) and reported predictive values from 61 neuropsychological tests with a 31-month mean follow-up. Values were pooled to provide combined accuracy for 14 cognitive domains. Many domains showed very good predictive accuracy with high sensitivity and specificity values (≥ 0.7). Verbal memory measures and many language tests yielded very high predictive accuracy. Other domains (e.g., executive functions, visual memory) showed better specificity than sensitivity. Predictive accuracy was highest when combining memory measures with a small set of other domains or when relying on broad cognitive batteries. Cognitive tests are excellent at predicting MCI individuals who will progress to dementia and should be a critical component of any toolkit intended to identify AD at the pre-dementia stage. Some tasks are remarkable as early indicators, whereas others might be used to suggest imminent progression.
Cognitive interventions may improve cognition, delay age-related cognitive declines, and improve quality of life for older adults. The current meta-analysis was conducted to update and expand previous work on the efficacy of cognitive interventions for older adults and to examine the impact of key demographic and methodological variables. EBSCOhost and Embase online databases and reference lists were searched to identify relevant randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy or mildly impaired (MCI) older adults (60+ years). Interventions trained a single cognitive domain (e.g., memory) or were multi-domain training, and outcomes were assessed immediately post-intervention using standard neuropsychological tests. In total, 279 effects from 97 studies were pooled based on a random-effects model and expressed as Hedges’ g (unbiased). Overall, results indicated that cognitive interventions produce a small, but significant, improvement in the cognitive functioning of older adults, relative to active and passive control groups (g = 0.298, p < .001, 95% CI = 0.248–0.347). These results were confirmed using multi-level analyses adjusting for nesting of effect sizes within studies (g = 0.362, p < .001, 95% CI = 0.275, 0.449). Age, education, and cognitive status (healthy vs. MCI) were not significant moderators. Working memory interventions proved most effective (g = 0.479), though memory, processing speed, and multi-domain interventions also significantly improved cognition. Effects were larger for directly trained outcomes but were also significant for non-trained outcomes (i.e., “transfer effects”). Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. This project was pre-registered with PROSPERO (#42016038386).
With an increasing focus on biomarkers in dementia research, illustrating the role of neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) is important. This systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards, summarizes the sensitivity and specificity of memory measures in individuals with MCI and AD. Both meta-analytic and qualitative examination of AD versus healthy control (HC) studies (n = 47) revealed generally high sensitivity and specificity (≥ 80% for AD comparisons) for measures of immediate (sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 88%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 89%), especially those involving word-list recall. Examination of MCI versus HC studies (n = 38) revealed generally lower diagnostic accuracy for both immediate (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 81%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 81%). Measures that differentiated AD from other conditions (n = 10 studies) yielded mixed results, with generally high sensitivity in the context of low or variable specificity. Results confirm that memory measures have high diagnostic accuracy for identification of AD, are promising but require further refinement for identification of MCI, and provide support for ongoing investigation of neuropsychological assessment as a cognitive biomarker of preclinical AD. Emphasizing diagnostic test accuracy statistics over null hypothesis testing in future studies will promote the ongoing use of neuropsychological tests as Alzheimer’s disease research and clinical criteria increasingly rely upon cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers.
The development of methods for in vivo detection of cerebral beta amyloid retention and tau accumulation have been increasingly useful in characterizing preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While the association between these biomarkers and eventual AD has been demonstrated among cognitively intact older adults, the link between biomarkers and neurocognitive ability remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that cognitively intact older adults would show statistically discernable differences in neuropsychological performance by amyloid status (amyloid negative = A-, amyloid positive = A+). We secondarily hypothesized a third group characterized by either CSF tau pathology or neurodegeneration, in addition to amyloidosis (A+/N+ or Stage 2), would show lower neuropsychology scores than the amyloid positive group (A+/N- or Stage 1) when compared to the amyloid negative group. Pubmed, PsychINFO, and other sources were searched for relevant articles, yielding 775 total sources. After review for inclusion/exclusion criteria, duplicates, and risk of bias, 61 studies were utilized in the final meta-analysis. Results showed A+ was associated with poorer performance in the domains of global cognitive function, memory, language, visuospatial ability, processing speed, and attention/working memory/executive functions when compared to A-. A+/N+ showed lower performances on memory measures when compared to A+/N- in secondary analyses based on a smaller subset of studies. Results support the notion that neuropsychological measures are sensitive to different stages of preclinical AD among cognitively intact older adults. Further research is needed to determine what constitutes meaningful differences in neuropsychological performance among cognitively intact older adults.
Cardiovascular disease is associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unclear whether this risk varies across disease states or occurs in the absence of symptomatic stroke. To examine the evidence of increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia following non-stroke cardiovascular disease we conducted two independent meta-analyses in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The first review examined cardiovascular diagnoses (atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, periphery artery disease and myocardial infarction) while the second review assessed the impact of atherosclerotic burden (as indicated by degree of stenosis, calcification score, plaque morphology or number of plaques). Studies eligible for review longitudinally assessed risk for clinically significant cognitive decline and/or dementia and excluded stroke and cognitive impairment at baseline. Summary statistics were computed via the inverse variance weighted method, utilising Cox Proportional Hazards data (Hazard Ratios, HR). Both atrial fibrillation (n = 5, HR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.12, 1.43]) and severe atherosclerosis (n = 4, HR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.12, 2.26]) emerged as significant risk factors for cognitive decline and/or dementia. A small set of studies reviewed, insufficient for meta-analysis, examining congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction suggested that these conditions may also be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline/dementia. In the absence of stroke, patients with atrial fibrillation or generalised atherosclerosis are at heightened risk for cognitive deterioration. Nonetheless, this paper highlights the need for methodologically rigorous and prospective investigation of the relationship between CVD and dementia.
Cognitive training in MCI may stimulate pre-existing neural reserves or recruit neural circuitry as “compensatory scaffolding” prompting neuroplastic reorganization to meet task demands (Reuter-Lorenz & Park, 2014). However, existing systematic reviews and meta-analytic studies exploring the benefits of cognitive interventions in MCI have been mixed. An updated examination regarding the efficacy of cognitive intervention in MCI is needed given improvements in adherence to MCI diagnostic criteria in subject selection, better defined interventions and strategies applied, increased use of neuropsychological measures pre- and post-intervention, as well as identification of moderator variables which may influence treatment. As such, this meta-analytic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of cognitive intervention in individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus MCI controls based on performance of neuropsychological outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCT studies published from January 1995 to June 2017 were obtained through source databases of MEDLINE-R, PubMed, Healthstar, Global Health, PSYCH-INFO, and Health and Psychological Instruments using search parameters for MCI diagnostic category (mild cognitive impairment, MCI, pre-Alzheimer’s disease, early cognitive decline, early onset Alzheimer’s disease, and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease) and the intervention or training conducted (intervention, training, stimulation, rehabilitation, or treatment). Other inclusion and exclusion criteria included subject selection based on established MCI criteria, RCT design in an outpatient setting, MCI controls (active or passive), and outcomes based on objective neuropsychological measures. From the 1199 abstracts identified, 26 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analyses completed across eleven (11) countries; 92.31% of which have been published within the past 7 years. A series of meta-analyses were performed to examine the effects of cognitive intervention by cognitive domain, type of training, and intervention content (cognitive domain targeted). We found significant, moderate effects for multicomponent training (Hedges’ g observed = 0.398; CI [0.164, 0.631]; Z = 3.337; p = 0.001; Q = 55.511; df = 15; p = 0.000; I 2 = 72.978%; τ 2 = 0.146) as well as multidomain-focused strategies (Hedges’ g = 0.230; 95% CI [0.108, 0.352]; Z = 3.692; p < 0.001; Q = 12.713; df = 12; p = 0.390; I 2 = 5.612; τ 2 = 0.003). The effects for other interventions explored by cognitive domain, training type, or intervention content were indeterminate due to concerns for heterogeneity, bias, and small cell sizes. In addition, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted with the moderators of MCI category, mode of intervention, training type, intervention content, program duration (total hours), type of control group (active or passive), post-intervention follow-up assessment period, and control for repeat administration. We found significant overall effects for intervention content with memory focused interventions appearing to be more effective than multidomain approaches. There was no evidence of an influence on outcomes for the other covariates examined. Overall, these findings suggest individuals with MCI who received multicomponent training or interventions targeting multiple domains (including lifestyle changes) were apt to display an improvement on outcome measures of cognition post-intervention. As such, multicomponent and multidomain forms of intervention may prompt recruitment of alternate neural processes as well as support primary networks to meet task demands simultaneously. In addition, interventions with memory and multidomain forms of content appear to be particularly helpful, with memory-based approaches possibly being more effective than multidomain methods. Other factors, such as program duration, appear to have less of an influence on intervention outcomes. Given this, although the creation of new primary network paths appears strained in MCI, interventions with memory-based or multidomain forms of content may facilitate partial activation of compensatory scaffolding and neuroplastic reorganization. The positive benefit of memory-based strategies may also reflect transfer effects indicative of compensatory network activation and the multiple-pathways involved in memory processes. Limitations of this review are similar to other meta-analysis in MCI, including a modest number studies, small sample sizes, multiple forms of interventions and types of training applied (some overlapping), and, while greatly improved in our view, a large diversity of instruments used to measure outcome. This is apt to have contributed to the presence of heterogeneity and publication bias precluding a more definitive determination of the outcomes observed.
This study aims to systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test for diagnosing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and to outline the quality and quantity of research evidence available about the accuracy of MoCA in populations infected with HIV. We conducted a systematic literature review, searching five databases from inception until January 2019. We extracted dichotomized positive and negative test results at various thresholds and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA. Quality assessment was performed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) criteria. Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Overall, 1014 patients were included but most studies recruited small samples. Recruitment period ranged from 2009 to 2015. We assessed most studies as being applicable to the review question though we had concerns about the selection of participants in three studies. The accuracy of MoCA for diagnosing HAND was reported at six cut-off points (scores 22-27). The MoCA test provides information about general cognitive functioning disturbances that contribute to a diagnosis of HAND. A lower threshold than the original cut-off of 26 is probably more useful for optimal screening of HAND, as it lowers false positive rates and improves diagnostic accuracy. Nonetheless, the choice of cut-off always comes with a sensitivity-specificity trade-off, the preferred cut point depending on whether sensitivity or specificity is more valuable in a given context.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder primarily affecting the frontal and/or temporal lobes. Three main subtypes have been recognized: behavioural-variant FTD (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), each of which has a distinct clinical and cognitive profile. Although the role of the cerebellum in cognition is increasingly accepted, knowledge of cerebellar changes across neuroimaging modalities and their contribution to behavioural and cognitive changes in FTD syndromes is currently scant. We conducted an anatomical/activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis in 53 neuroimaging studies (structural MRI: 42; positron emission tomography: 6; functional MRI: 4; single-photon emission computed tomography: 1) to identify the patterns of cerebellar changes and their relations to profiles of behavioural and cognitive deficits in FTD syndromes. Overall, widespread bilateral cerebellar changes were found in FTD and notably the patterns were subtype specific. In bvFTD, ALE peaks were identified in the bilateral Crus, left lobule VI, right lobules VIIb and VIIIb. In SD, focal cerebellar changes were located in the left Crus I and lobule VI. A separate ALE meta-analysis on PNFA studies was not performed due to the limited number of studies available. In addition, the ALE analysis indicated that bilateral Crus I and Crus II were associated with behavioural disruption and cognitive dysfunction. This ALE meta-analysis provides the quantification of the location and extent of cerebellar changes across the main FTD syndromes, which in turn provides evidence of cerebellar contributions to behavioural and cognitive changes in FTD. These results bring new insights into the mechanisms mediating FTD symptomatology.
Wernicke's Encephalopathy is an acute neuro-psychiatric condition caused by an insufficient supply of thiamine (Vitamin B1) to the brain. If undiagnosed or inadequately treated, it is likely to proceed to Korsakoff's Syndrome. Wernicke's Encephalopathy can result from dietary deficiency alone and this form is usually successfully treated, with little chance of Korsakoff's Syndrome supervening. On the other hand, thiamine deficiency associated with alcohol misuse/dependence may require up to 1 gram of thiamine IV in the first 24 hours to be treated successfully. The reasons for this difference in treatment will be discussed. Thiamine diphosphate acts as a co-factor for a number of thiamine-dependent enzymes. Thiamine deficiency leads to a reduction in the activity of these enzymes, and this leads to alterations in mitochondrial activity, impairment of oxidative metabolism, decreased energy status and eventually selective neuronal death. The damage caused by the combination of thiamine deficiency and alcohol metabolism probably interferes with adequate thiamine transport at a number of sites in the body, including the blood-brain barrier, as well as causing damage to the apoenzymes which then require higher concentrations of thiamine to work normally. The accumulated damage is likely to render the use of oral thiamine therapeutically inadequate since the body is unable to produce high enough concentrations of thiamine in the blood to traverse the blood-brain barrier. Some individuals are probably genetically predisposed to develop Wernicke's. Long before individuals with alcohol misuse or dependence develop Wernicke's Encephalopathy the neurons and other cells of the body are functioning sub-optimally because of the inadequate supply of thiamine and the neurotoxic effect of alcohol. This relative deficiency initiates a series of pathological changes which accumulate and further interfere with the supply of thiamine and its utilisation at a time when the requirements are increased. The best treatment for Korsakoff's Syndrome is timely recognition of Wernicke's Encephalopathy and appropriate intervention and prevention.
With an increasing focus on biomarkers in dementia research, illustrating the role of neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is important. This systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards, summarizes the sensitivity and specificity of memory measures in individuals with MCI and AD. Both meta-analytic and qualitative examination of AD versus healthy control (HC) studies (n = 47) revealed generally high sensitivity and specificity (>= 80% for AD comparisons) for measures of immediate (sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 88%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 89%), especially those involving word-list recall. Examination of MCI versus HC studies (n = 38) revealed generally lower diagnostic accuracy for both immediate (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 81%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 81%). Measures that differentiated AD from other conditions (n = 10 studies) yielded mixed results, with generally high sensitivity in the context of low or variable specificity. Results confirm that memory measures have high diagnostic accuracy for identification of AD, are promising but require further refinement for identification of MCI, and provide support for ongoing investigation of neuropsychological assessment as a cognitive biomarker of preclinical AD. Emphasizing diagnostic test accuracy statistics over null hypothesis testing in future studies will promote the ongoing use of neuropsychological tests as Alzheimer's disease research and clinical criteria increasingly rely upon cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers.
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1. A systematic literature search conducted in MedLine (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and PubMed electronic databases yielded 35 papers that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Out of these papers, 22 papers provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Findings from this review and meta-analysis provide evidence that children and adults with NF1 exhibit significantly higher prevalence and severity of social dysfunction and ASD symptomatology. To date, very few studies have examined social cognition in NF1 but results indicate the presence of both perceptual and higher-level impairments in this population. The results of this review also provide support for age, gender, and comorbid ADHD as moderating factors for social outcomes in NF1. Suggestions for future research are offered to further our understanding of the social phenotype in NF1 and to facilitate the development of targeted interventions.
Functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to assess the neural correlates of anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A systematic review of this literature was performed, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, on PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-five articles met all inclusion criteria. Specifically, four brain connectivity and 21 brain perfusion, metabolism, and activation articles. Anosognosia is associated in MCI with frontal lobe and cortical midline regional dysfunction (reduced perfusion and activation), and with reduced parietotemporal metabolism. Reduced within and between network connectivity is observed in the default mode network regions of AD patients with anosognosia compared to AD patients without anosognosia and controls. During initial stages of cognitive decline in anosognosia, reduced indirect neural activity (i.e. perfusion, metabolism, and activation) is associated with the cortical midline regions, followed by the parietotemporal structures in later stages and culminating in frontotemporal dysfunction. Although the current evidence suggests differences in activation between AD or MCI patients with anosognosia and healthy controls, more evidence is needed exploring the differences between MCI and AD patients with and without anosognosia using resting state and task related paradigms.
Conducted in a multidisciplinary and multimodal setting, the main objectives of neuropsychological treatment are to improve cognition, alleviate affective disorders, and to promote activities and participation. This article reviews the evidence on therapeutic or educative interventions based on psychological principles for patients with Parkinson's disease. The electronic bibliographic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, and CINAHL were systematically searched for meta-analyses on psychological interventions for patients with Parkinson's disease, published from January 2000 to June 2018. We extracted psychological interventions, non-motor outcomes, effect sizes, confidence intervals, and I-2 heterogeneity statistics. In addition, we rated the level of evidence on an intervention's effectiveness regarding a specific outcome. We identified 15 meta-analyses out of 1084 search results and identified a broad variety of psychological interventions for non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. In total, 48 outcome-intervention-pairs were extracted. Psychotherapy, mind and body interventions, and cognitive training are promising treatment approaches when addressing cognition, depression, and QoL in patients with Parkinson's disease. The available evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in the treatment of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease is very heterogeneous. Still, our review reveals that some interventions are appropriate and effective for a variety of symptoms. Primary studies are not considered in this review, resulting in the omission of potentially relevant findings. Further high-quality research is needed to confirm the existing evidence and to explore the potential of psychological interventions for patients with Parkinson's disease.
Background: Depression is among the most common mental health problems for young people. In adults, depression is associated with neurocognitive deficits that reduce the effectiveness of treatment and impair educational and vocational functioning. Compared to adults, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of young people with depression, and existing research has reported inconsistent findings. Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the literature on neurocognitive functioning in currently depressed youth aged 12–25 years in comparison to healthy controls. Results: Following a systematic review of the literature, 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Poorer performance in the domains of attention (SMD: .50, 95% CI: .18–.83, p = .002), verbal memory (SMD: .78, 95% CI: .50–1.0, p < .001), visual memory (SMD: .65, 95% CI: .30–.99, p < .001), verbal reasoning/knowledge (SMD: .46; 95% CI: .14–.79; p < 0.001) and IQ (SMD: .32; 95% CI: .08–.56; p = 0.01) were identified in depressed youth. Relative weaknesses in processing speed/reaction time and verbal learning were also evident, however, these findings disappeared when the quality of studies was controlled for. Moderator analysis showed a tendency for poorer set-shifting ability in younger depressed participants relative to controls (although non-significant; p = .05). Moderator analysis of medication status showed taking medication was associated with poorer attentional functioning compared to those not taking medication. Conclusion: The findings suggest that currently depressed young people display a range of neurocognitive weaknesses which may impact treatment engagement and outcome. The findings support the need to consider neurocognitive functioning when treating youth with depression.