This paper presents a scheme for quantum secure direct communication with quantum encryption. The two authorized users use repeatedly a sequence of the pure entangled pairs (quantum key) shared for encrypting and decrypting the secret message carried by the travelling photons directly. For checking eavesdropping, the two parties perform the single-photon measurements on some decoy particles before each round. This scheme has the advantage that the pure entangled quantum signal source is feasible at present and any eavesdropper cannot steal the message.
In this paper, we propose a new approach to implementing boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The basic idea is to decompose the distribution function at the boundary node into its equilibrium and non-equilibrium parts, and then to approximate the non-equilibrium part with a first-order extrapolation of the nonequilibrium part of the distribution at the neighbouring fluid node. Schemes for velocity and pressure boundary conditions are constructed based on this method. The resulting schemes are of second-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that the numerical solutions of the LBM together with the present boundary schemes are in excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. Second-order convergence is also verified from the results. It is also found that the numerical stability of the present schemes is much better than that of the original extrapolation schemes proposed by Chen et al.
We report on the formation of a graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface by annealing the Ru(0001) crystal. The samples are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM images show that the Moire pattern is caused by the graphene layer mismatched with the underlying Ru(0001) surface and has an N x N superlattice. It is further found that the graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface is very stable at high temperatures. Our results provide a simple and convenient method to produce a graphene monolayer on the Ru(0001) surface, which is used as a template for fabricating functional nanostructures needed in future nano devices and catalysis.
We present a controlled quantum teleportation protocol. In the protocol, quantum information of an unknown state of a 2-level particle is faithfully transmitted from a sender Alice to a remote receiver Bob via an initially shared triplet of entangled particles under the control of the supervisor Charlie. The distributed entangled particles shared by Alice, Bob and Charlie function as a quantum information channel for faithful transmission. We also propose a controlled and secure direct communication scheme by means of this teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits them to Bob supervised by Charlie using this controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded message directly by the measurement on his qubit. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits Alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if perfect quantum channel is used. The special feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side to co-operate.
This paper introduces a new hyperchaotic system by adding an additional state into the third-order Liu chaotic system. Some of its basic dynamical properties, such as the hyperchaotic attractor, Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimension and the hyperchaotic attractor evolving into chaotic, periodic, quasi-periodic dynamical behaviours by varying parameter d are studied briefly. Various attractors are illustrated not only by computer simulation but also by conducting an electronic circuit experiment.
The yield stress of our newly developed electrorheological (ER) fluids consisting of dielectric nano-particles suspended in silicone oil reaches hundreds of kPa, which is orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ones. We found that the polar molecules adsorbed on the particles play a decisive role in such new ER fluids. To explain this polar molecule dominated ER (PM-ER) effect a model is proposed based on the interaction of polar molecule-charge between the particles, where the local electric field is significantly enhanced and results in the polar molecules aligning in the direction of the electric field. The model can well explain the giant ER effect and a near-linear dependence of the yield stress on the electric field. The main effective factors for achieving high-performance PM-ER fluids are discussed. The PM-ER fluids with the yield stress higher than one MPa can be expected.
The feature of conduction band (CB) of Tensile-Strained Si(TS-Si) on a relaxed Si1-xGex substrate is systematically investigated, including the number of equivalent CB edge energy extrema, CB energy minima, the position of the extremal point, and effective mass. Based on an analysis of symmetry under strain, the number of equivalent CB edge energy extrema is presented; Using the K.P method with the help of perturbation theory, dispersion relation near minima of CB bottom energy, derived from the linear deformation potential theory, is determined, from which the parameters, namely, the position of the extremal point, and the longitudinal and transverse masses (m(l)* and m(t)*) are obtained.
An X-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is designed and investigated numerically and experimentally for the first time. The X-band MILO is optimized in detail with KARAT code. In simulation, the X-band MILO, driven by a 720 kV, 53 kA electron beam, comes to a nonlinear steady state in 4.0 ns. High-power microwaves (HPM) of TEM mode is generated with an average power of 4.1 GW, a frequency of 9.3 GHz, and power conversion efficiency of 10.8% in durations of 0-40 ns. The device is fabricated according to the simulation results. In experiments, when the voltage is 400 kV and the current is 50 kA, the radiated microwave power reaches about 110 MW and the dominating frequency is 9.7 GHz. Because the surfaces of the cathode end and the beam dump are destroyed, the diode voltage cannot increase continuously. However, when the diode voltage is 400kV, the average power output is obtained to be 700 MW in simulation. The impedance of the device is clearly smaller than the simulation prediction. Moreover, the duration of the microwave pulse is obviously shorter than that of the current pulse. The experimental results are greatly different from the simulation predictions. The preliminary analyses show that the generations of the anode plasma, the cathode flare and the anode flare are the essential cause for the remarkable deviation of the experimental results from the simulation predictions.
In this paper a quantum dialogue scheme is proposed by using N batches of single photons. The same secret message is encoded on each batch of single photons by the sender with two different unitary operations, and then the N batches of single photons are sent to the receiver. After eavesdropping check, the message is encoded on the one remaining batch by the receiver. It is shown that the intercept-and-resend attack and coupling auxiliary modes attack can be resisted more efficiently, because the photons are sent only once in our quantum dialogue scheme.
The form invariance of Appell equations of holonomic mechanical systems under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is studied. The definition and the criterion of the form invariance of Appell equations are given. This form invariance can lead to a conserved quantity under certain conditions.
In this paper, chaotic behaviours in the fractional- order Liu system are studied. Based on the approximation theory of fractional-order operator, circuits are designed to simulate the fractional- order Liu system with q = 0.1- 0.9 in a step of 0.1, and an experiment has demonstrated the 2.7- order Liu system. The simulation results prove that the chaos exists indeed in the fractional- order Liu system with an order as low as 0.3. The experimental results prove that the fractional- order chaotic system can be realized by using hardware devices, which lays the foundation for its practical applications.
In this paper, two microwave irradiation methods: (i) liquid-phase microwave irradiation (MWI) reduction of graphite oxide suspension dissolved in de-ionized water and N, N-dimethylformamide, respectively, and (ii) solid-phase MWI reduction of graphite oxide powder have been successfully carried out to reduce graphite oxide. The reduced graphene oxide products are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectral analysis, and four-point probe conductivity measurements. The results show that both methods can efficiently remove the oxygen-containing functional groups attached to the graphite layers, though the solid-phase MWI reduction method can obtain far more efficiently a higher quality-reduced graphene oxide with fewer defects. The I( D)/ I( G) ratio of the solid-phase MWI sample is as low as 0.46, which is only half of that of the liquid-phase MWI samples. The electrical conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide by the solid method reaches 747.9 S/m, which is about 25 times higher than that made by the liquid-phase method.
The electronic structures of coupled quantum dots grown on (11N)-oriented substrates are studied in the framework of effective-mass envelope-function theory. The results show that the all-hole subbands have the smallest widths and the optical properties are best for the (113), (114), and (115) growth directions. Our theoretical results agree with the available experimental data. Our calculated results are useful for the application of coupled quantum dots in photoelectric devices.
In this paper, an intermittent local electric shock scheme is proposed to suppress stable spiral waves in the Barkley model by a weak electric shock ( about 0.4 to 0.7) imposed on a random selected n x n grids ( n = 1-5, compared with the original 256 x 256 lattice) and monitored synchronically the evolutions of the activator on the grids as the sampled signal of the activator steps out a given threshold ( i.e., the electric shock works on the n x n grids if the activator u = 0.8). The numerical simulations show that a breakup of spiral is observed in the media state evolution to finally obtain homogeneous states if the electric shock with appropriate intensity is imposed.
This paper presents chaos synchronization between two different chaotic systems by using a nonlinear controller, in which the nonlinear functions of the system are used as a nonlinear feedback term. The feedback controller is designed on the basis of stability theory, and the area of feedback gain is determined. The artificial simulation results show that this control method is commendably effective and feasible.
In this paper a high-dimension multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed by using Einstein-Podolsky Rosen pairs and local unitary operators. This scheme has the advantage of not only having higher capacity, but also saving storage space. The security analysis is also given.
By taking the energy conservation and angular momentum conservation into account, the characteristics of the quantum-tunnelling radiation of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole are studied and the result shows that the tunnelling rate of such a black hole is relevant to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and that the obtained radiation spectrum is not pure thermal.
In this paper, polarization properties and propagation characteristics of polymer photonic crystal fibres with elliptical core and non-hexagonal symmetry structure are investigated by using the full vectorial plane wave method. The results how that the birefringence of the fibreis induced by asymmetries of both the cladding and the core. Moreover, by adjusting the non-symmetrical ratio factor of cladding eta from 0.4 to 1 in step 0.1, we find the optimized design parameters f the fibre with high birefringence and limited polarization mode dispersion, operating in a single mode regime at an appropriate wavelength range. The range of wavelength approaches the visible and near-infrared which is consistent with the communication windows of polymer optical fibres.
This paper reports a new four-dimensional hyperchaotic system obtained by adding a controller to a three-dimensional autonomous chaotic system. The new system has two parameters, and each equation of the system has one quadratic cross-product term. Some basic proper-ties of the new system are analysed. The different dynamic behaviours of the new system are studied when the system parameter a or b is varied. The system is hyperchaotic in several different regions of the parameter b. Especially, the two positive Lyapunov exponents are both larger, and the hyperchaotic region is also larger when this system is hyperchaotic in the case of varying a. The hyperchaotic system is analysed by Lyapunov-exponents spectrum, bifurcation diagrams and Poincare sections.
This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) ina wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable;the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the geneticalgorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation.Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.