Absolute OH densities are obtained in a radio-frequency-driven Ar-H2O atmospheric-pressure plasma jet by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), calibrated by Rayleigh scattering and by UV broadband absorption. The measurements are carried out in ambient air and the effect of air entrainment into the Ar jet is measured by analyzing the time-resolved fluorescence signals. The OH densities are obtained for different water vapor concentrations admixed to the Ar and as a function of the axial distance from the nozzle. A sensitivity analysis to deduce the accuracy of the model-calculated OH density from the LIF measurement is reported. It is found that the UV absorption and the LIF results correspond within experimental accuracy close to the nozzle and deviate in the far effluent. The possible reasons are discussed. The OH densities found in the plasma jet are in the range (0.1-2.5) x 10(21) m(-3) depending on the water concentration and plasma conditions.
This study investigated the effect of cold helium plasma treatment on seed germina- tion, growth and yield of wheat. The effects of different power of cold plasma on the germination of treated wheat seeds were studied. We found that the treatment of 80 W could significantly improve seed germination potential （6.0%） and germination rate （6.7%） compared to the control group. Field experiments were carried out for wheat seeds treated with 80 W cold plasma. Com- pared with the control, plant height （20.3%）, root length （9.0%） and fresh weight （21.8%） were improved significantly at seedling stage. At booting stage, plant height, root length, fresh weight, stem diameter, leaf area and leaf thickness of the treated plant were respectively increased by 21.8%, 11.0%, 7.0%, 9.0%, 13.0% and 25.5%. At the same time, the chlorophyll content （9.8%）, nitrogen （10.0%） and moisture content （10.0%） were higher than those of the control, indicating that cold plasma treatment could promote the growth of wheat. The yield of treated wheat was 7.55 t-ha-1, 5.89% more than that of the control. Therefore, our results show that cold plasma has important application prospects for increasing wheat yield.
Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure the absolute density of atomic oxygen (O) in a coaxial microwave jet in ambient air at atmospheric pressure, operated with a mixture of He and a few per cent of air. The TALIF signal is calibrated using a gas mixture containing Xe. A novel method to perform calibration in situ, at atmospheric pressure, is introduced. The branching ratios of several Xe mixtures are reported, to enable us to perform the Xe calibration without the need for a vacuum vessel. The O densities are measured spatially resolved, and as a function of admixed air to the He, and microwave power. The electron density and temperatures are measured using Thomson scattering, and the N-2 and O-2 densities are measured using Raman scattering. O densities are found to have a maximum of (4-6) x 10(22) m(-3), which indicate that O-2 is close to fully dissociated in the plasma. This is confirmed by the Raman scattering measurements. O is found to recombine mainly into species other than O-2 in the afterglow, which is suggested to consist of O-3 and oxidized components of NO.
A catalytic approach using a synthesized iron and manganese oxide-supported granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) under a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated to enhance the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) in water. The prepared Fe-Mn GAC was characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the results showed that the bimetallic oxides had been successfully spread on the GAC surface. The experimental results showed that the DBD + Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better OTC removal efficiency than the sole DBD and DBD + virgin GAC systems. Increasing the fabricated catalyst and discharge voltage was favorable to the antibiotic elimination and energy yield in the hybrid process. The coupling process could be elucidated by the ozone decomposition after Fe-Mn GAC addition, and highly hydroxyl and superoxide radicals both play significant roles in the decontamination. The main intermediate products were identified by HPLC-MS to study the mechanism in the collaborative system.
In the 2016 EAST experimental campaign,a steady-state long-pulse H-mode discharge with an ITER-like tungsten divertor lasting longer than one minute has been obtained using only RF heating and current drive,through an integrated control of the wall conditioning,plasma configuration,divertor heat flux,particle exhaust,impurity management,and effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources at high injected power.The plasma current（Ip - 0.45 MA） was fully-noninductively driven（Vloop 〈 0.0 V） by a combination of-2.5 MW LHW,-0.4 MW ECH and -0.8 MW ICRF.This result demonstrates the progress of physics and technology studies on EAST,and will benefit the physics basis for steady state operation of ITER and CFETR.
Fabrication of reusable adsorbents with satisfactory adsorption capacity and using environmentfriendly preparation processes is required for the environment-related applications. In this study, acrylic acid (AA) was grafted onto bentonite (BT) to generate an AA-graft-BT (AA-g-BT) composite using a plasma-induced grafting technique considered to be an environment-friendly method. The as-prepared composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravity analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Barrett-Emmett-Teller analysis, demonstrating the successful grafting of AA onto BT. In addition, the removal of uranium(VI) (U(VI)) from contaminated aqueous solutions was examined using the as-prepared composite. The influencing factors, including contact time, pH value, ionic strength, temperature, and initial concentration, for the removal of U(VI) were investigated by batch experiments. The experimental process fitted best with the pseudo-secondorder kinetic and the Langmuir models. Moreover, thermodynamic investigation revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process. Compared with previous adsorbents, AA-g-BT has potential practical applications in treating U(VI)-contaminated solutions.
In this paper, the Dyakonov-Shur instability of terahertz (THz) plasma waves has been analyzed in gated cylindrical field effect transistor (FET). In the cylindrical FET, the hydrodynamic equations in cylindrical coordinates are used to describe the THz plasma wave in two-dimensional electronic gas. The research results show that the oscillation frequency of the THz plasma wave is increased by increasing the component of wave in the circumferential direction, but instability increment of the THz plasma wave are increased by increasing the radius of channel.
In the electrical discharge plasma process, various chemical and physical processes can participate in the removal of contaminants. In this paper, the chemical and physical processes that occur as a result of the electrical discharge plasma are reviewed, and their possible roles in the degradation of contaminants are discussed. Measurement methods for the quantification of important reactive species and their advantages and shortcomings are presented. Approaches on how to enhance the diffusion of the reactive species in solution are examined. In addition, the formation of typical reactive species in different electrical discharge plasma is compared.
Electric discharge plasma (EDP) can efficiently degrade aqueous pollutants by its in situ generated strong oxidative species (center dot OH, center dot O, H2O2, O-3, etc) and other physiochemical effects (UV irradiation, shockwaves, local high temperature, etc), but a high energy consumptions limit the application of EDP in water treatment. Some adsorbents, catalysts, and oxidants have been employed for enhancing the degradation of pollutants by discharge plasma. These hybrid plasma technologies offer improved water treatment performance compared to discharge plasma alone. This paper reviews the water decontamination performance and mechanisms of these hybrid plasma technologies, and some suggestions on future water treatment technologies based on discharge plasma are also proposed.
The neutral beam injection （NBI） system was developed on the Experimental Ad- vanced Superconducting Tokamak （EAST） for plasma heating and current driving. This paper presents the brief history, design, development, and the main experimental results of the R＆D of neutral beam injector on the test bed and on EAST. In particular, it will describe： （1） how the two beamlines with a total beam power of 8 MW were developed; （2） the design of the EAST-NBI system including the high power ion source, main vacuum chamber, inner components, beam diag- nostic system and sub-system; （3） the experimental results of beamline-1 on the summer campaign of EAST in 2014 and, （4） the status of beamline-2 and the future plan of EAST-NBIs.
Neutral beam injection （NBI） system with two neutral beam injections will be con- structed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak （EAST） in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2-4 MW beam power with 50-80 keV beam energy in 10-100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.
The plasma wave instability in rectangle field effect transistors (FETs) is studied with electron diffusion current density by quantum hydrodynamic model in this paper. General dispersion relation including effects of electrical thermal motion, external friction associated with electron scattering effect, electron exchange-correlation contributions and quantum effects were obtained for rectangle FETs. The electron diffusion current density term is considered for further analysis in this paper. It is found that the quantum effects, the electron diffusion current density and electrical thermal motion enhance the radiation power and frequencies. But the electron exchange-correlation effects and the electron scattering effects reduce the radiation power and frequencies. Results showed that a transistor has advantages for the realization of practical terahertz sources.
A microwave-excited atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (uAPPJ) exhibited a synergistic sterilization effect when combined with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), distilled water (DW) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis. The sterilization efficacy of H2O2-uAPPJ increased as the H2O2 concentration increased. The addition of TiO2 also remarkably increased the sterilization efficacy. To find the main factor for the sterilization effect, optical emission spectra and the degradation rate of a methylene blue solution were measured. Numerical analysis, a newly developed global modeling, was also conducted to discover the mechanisms. Both experimental measurements and global modeling results suggested that combinations of H2O2, DW and TiO2 increased the generation of hydroxyl radicals (center dot OH), which are known to be strong bactericidal agents. It was revealed that charged species, especially electrons, have a dominant role in the increase of center dot OH.
The nonlinear phenomenon is very popular in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas. There are at least three kinds of spatial and temporal nonlinear phenomena appearing synchronously or asynchronously in DBDs, i.e. self-organized patterns, striations and chaos. This paper describes the recent research and progress in understanding the nature of these nonlinear phenomena. Patterns are macroscopic structures with certain spatial and/or temporal periodicities generated through self-organization of microscopic parameters. The physics of patterns in DBDs is mainly associated with lateral dynamic behaviors or the lateral non-local effect of charged particles resulting in the lateral development or non-uniformity of discharge. Striations are ionization waves with unique properties determined by transport phenomena, ionization processes and electron kinetics in current-carrying plasmas. The physics of striations in DBDs is mainly associated with the advances in non-local electron kinetics in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas. Chaos is a kind of random and non-periodic phenomenon occurring in a determined dynamic system, following a series of certain rules while exhibiting random locomotion, and is regarded as an intrinsic and ubiquitous phenomenon in a nonlinear dynamic system. An evolution trajectory including period-doubling bifurcation to chaos was observed in DBDs or DBD-derived plasmas. In a common sense, it is believed that the formation of all the three nonlinear phenomena in a DBD system should be related to the non-local transversal and/or longitudinal dynamics of space charges (i.e. non-local effect) or the localized electric field interaction. Future work is still needed on the underlying physics and should be directed to pursuing the unification of these nonlinear phenomena in DBD.
Non-thermal plasma surface modification for epoxy resin（EP）to improve the insulation properties has wide application prospects in gas insulated switchgear and gas insulatedtransmission line.In this paper,a pulsed Ar dual dielectrics atmospheric-pressure plasma jet（APPJ）was used for Si CxHyOzthin film deposition on EP samples.The film deposition was optimized by varying the treatment time while other parameters were kept at constants（treatment distance：10 mm,precursor flow rate：0.6 l min-（-1）,maximum instantaneous power：3.08 k W and single pulse energy：0.18 m J）.It was found that the maximum value of flashover voltages for negative and positive voltage were improved by 18%and 13%when the deposition time was3 min,respectively.The flashover voltage reduced as treatment time increased.Moreover,all the surface conductivity,surface charge dissipation rate and surface trap level distribution reached an optimal value when thin film deposition time was 3 min.Other measurements,such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope for EP surface morphology,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for EP surface compositions,optical emission spectra for APPJ deposition process were carried out to better understand the deposition processes and mechanisms.The results indicated that the original organic groups（C–H,C–C,C=O,C=C）were gradually replaced by the Si containing inorganic groups（Si–O–Si and Si–OH）.The reduction of C=O in ester group and C=C in p-substituted benzene of the EP samples might be responsible for shallowing the trap level and then enhancing the flashover voltage.However,when the plasma treatment time was longer than 3 min,the significant increase of the surface roughness might increase the trap level depth and then deteriorate the flashover performance.
A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents similar to 40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O-3*, plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O-3* is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O-2(a (1) Delta(g)) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata （A. paniculata） seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the perme- ability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased （which means greater counteraction with environmental stress）. After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedUng emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.
The limiter target electrostatic measurement system including limiter grounding current sensors and Langmuir probes have been newly developed for the measurement of the limiter target area on the Joint-Texas Experimental tokamak (J-TEXT). Current sensors fixed between graphite limiters and the vacuum vessel walls are used to measure the currents between limiters and vessel wall. Simultaneously, a rectangular poloidal array containing 54 Langmuir probes is embedded in the graphite tiles of limiters for a more localized measurement. Based on this system, the effect of both the plasma's inherent behavior, including plasma motion and the 2/1 tearing mode, and the electrode biasing on probe and sensor signals have been observed and analyzed in the experiments.