Context.-The histopathologic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were revised in the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/Japan Respiratory Society/Latin American Thoracic Association guidelines in 2011. However, the evidence of diagnosis based on the guidelines needs further investigation. Objective.-To examine whether the revised histopathologic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis improved interobserver agreement among pathologists and the predicted prognosis in patients with interstitial pneumonia. Design.-Twenty, consecutive, surgical lung-biopsy specimens from cases of interstitial pneumonia were examined for histologic patterns by 11 pathologists without knowledge of clinical and radiologic data. Diagnosis was based on American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines of 2002 and 2011. Pathologists were grouped by cluster analysis, and interobserver agreement and associa-tion to the patient prognosis were compared with the diagnoses for each cluster. Results.-The generalized j coefficient of diagnosis for all pathologists was 0.23. If the diagnoses were divided into 2 groups: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/probable UIP (the UIP group) or possible/not UIP (the non-UIP group), according to the 2011 guidelines, the j improved to 0.37. The pathologists were subdivided into 2 clusters in which 1 showed an association between UIP group diagnosis and patient prognosis (P < .05). Conclusions.-Agreement about pathologic diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia is low; however, results after division into UIP and non-UIP groups provided favorable agreement. The cluster analysis revealed 1 of the 2 clusters providing high interobserver agreement and prediction of patient prognosis.
Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. During the last decades, there have been great advances in research on Chinese Lynch syndrome. This review mainly focuses on the genetic basis, clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, intervention, chemoprevention, and surveillance of Lynch syndrome in China. In addition to frequently altered MMR genes, such asMLH1,MSH2,MSH6, andMLH3, other MMR-associated genes, such as those encoding human exonuclease 1, transforming growth factor β receptor 2, and alanine aminopeptidase, metastasis-associated protein 2, adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1, and hepatic and glial cell adhesion molecule have also been implicated in Chinese Lynch syndrome. Most Chinese researchers focused on the clinicopathologic features of Lynch syndrome, and it is noticeable that the most frequent extracolonic tumor in northeast China is lung cancer, which is different from other areas in China. The Chinese diagnostic criteria for Lynch syndrome have been established to identify gene mutation or methylation. With regard to chemoprevention, celecoxib may be effective to prevent polyps relapse in Lynch syndrome carriers. Additionally, a colonoscopy-based surveillance strategy for the prevention and early detection of neoplasms in Lynch-syndrome carriers has been proposed.
A pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC) is typically a complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis, trauma or pancreatic duct obstruction. The diagnosis of PPC can be made if an acute fluid collection persists for 4 to 6 wk and is enveloped by a distinct wall. Most PPCs regress spontaneously and require no treatment, whereas some may persist and progress until complications occur. The decision whether to treat a patient who has a PPC, as well as when and with what treatment modalities, is a difficult one. PPCs can be treated with a variety of methods: percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), endoscopic transpapillary or transmural drainage, laparoscopic surgery, or open pseudocystoenterostomy. The recent trend in the management of symptomatic PPC has moved toward less invasive approaches such as endoscopic- and image-guided PCD. The endoscopic approach is suitable because most PPCs lie adjacent to the stomach. The major advantage of the endoscopic approach is that it creates a permanent pseudocysto-gastric track with no spillage of pancreatic enzymes. However, given the drainage problems, the monitoring, catheter manipulation and the analysis of cystic content are very difficult or impossible to perform endoscopically, unlike in the PCD approach. Several conditions must be met to achieve the complete obliteration of the cyst cavity.
Gastroparesis has traditionally been a largely medically managed disease with refractory symptoms typically falling under the umbrella of the surgical domain. Surgical options include, but are not limited to, gastrostomy, jejunostomy, pyloromyotomy, or pyloroplasty, and the Food and Drug Administration approved gastric electrical stimulation implantation. Endoscopic management of gastroparesis most commonly involves intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection; however, there exists a variety of endoscopic approaches on the horizon that have the potential to radically shift standard of care. Endoscopic management of gastroparesis seeks to treat delayed gastric emptying with a less invasive approach compared to the surgical approach. This review will serve to highlight such innovative and potentially transformative, endoscopic interventions available to gastroenterologists in the management of gastroparesis.
Diabetogenic traits in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are exacerbated intraoperatively by exogenous causes, such as surgical stress, steroids, blood transfusions, and catecholamines, which lead to intraoperative hyperglycemia. In contrast to the strict glucose control performed in the intensive care unit, no systematic protocol has been developed for glucose management during LT. Intraoperative blood glucose concentrations typically exceed 200 mg/dL in LT, and extreme hyperglycemia (> 300 mg/dL) is common during the neohepatic phase. Only a few retrospective studies have examined the relationship between intraoperative hyperglycemia and post-transplant complications, with reports of infectious complications or mortality. However, no prospective studies have been conducted regarding the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia in LT on post-transplant outcome. In addition to absolute blood glucose values, the temporal patterns in blood glucose levels during LT may serve as prognostic features. Persistent neohepatic hyperglycemia (without a decline) throughout LT is a useful indicator of early graft dysfunction. Moreover, intraoperative variability in glucose levels may predict the need for reoperation for hemorrhage after LT. Thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for glucose control in these patients, as well as prospective studies on the impact of glucose control on various post-transplant complications. This report highlights some of the recent studies related to perioperative blood glucose management focused on LT and liver disease.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, simple steatosis has a benign clinical course without excess mortality. In contrast, the advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis increases mortality by approximately 70%, due to an increase in CVD mortality by approximately 300%. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be caused by NAFLD/NASH and it substantially increases CVD risk, especially in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, CKD may trigger NAFLD/NASH deterioration in a vicious cycle. NAFLD/NASH is also related to increased arterial stiffness (AS), an independent CVD risk factor that further raises CVD risk. Diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (mainly by simple non-invasive tests), CKD, and increased AS should be made early in the course of NAFLD and treated appropriately. Lifestyle measures and statin treatment may help resolve NAFLD/NASH and beneficially affect the CVD risk factors mentioned above.
Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induceClostridium difficileinfection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation,etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked.
Exclusive enteral nutrition involves the use of a complete liquid diet, with the exclusion of normal dietary components for a defined period of time, as a therapeutic measure to induce remission in active Crohn’s disease (CD). This very efficacious approach leads to high rates of remission, especially in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with CD. This intervention also results in mucosal healing, nutritional improvements and enhanced bone health. Whilst several recent studies have provided further elaboration of the roles of exclusive enteral nutrition in the management of CD, other reports have provided new understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention acts.
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and perfusion computed tomography (CT) are technical improvements of morphologic imaging that can evaluate functional properties of hepato-bilio-pancreatic tumors during conventional MRI or CT examinations. Nevertheless, the term “functional imaging” is commonly used to describe molecular imaging techniques, as positron emission tomography (PET) CT/MRI, which still represent the most widely used methods for the evaluation of functional properties of solid neoplasms; unlike PET or single photon emission computed tomography, functional imaging techniques applied to conventional MRI/CT examinations do not require the administration of radiolabeled drugs or specific equipments. Moreover, DWI and DCE-MRI can be performed during the same session, thus providing a comprehensive “one-step” morphological and functional evaluation of hepato-bilio-pancreatic tumors. Literature data reveal that functional imaging techniques could be proposed for the evaluation of these tumors before treatment, given that they may improve staging and predict prognosis or clinical outcome. Microscopic changes within neoplastic tissues induced by treatments can be detected and quantified with functional imaging, therefore these techniques could be used also for post-treatment assessment, even at an early stage. The aim of this editorial is to describe possible applications of new functional imaging techniques apart from molecular imaging to hepatic and pancreatic tumors through a review of up-to-date literature data, with a particular emphasis on pathological correlations, prognostic stratification and post-treatment monitoring.
Gastric carcinoids (GCs) are classified as: type?I, related to hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), type II, associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and type III, which is normogastrinemic. The management of type-I?gastric carcinoids (GC1s) is still debated, because of their relatively benign course. According to the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society guidelines endoscopic resection is indicated whenever possible; however, it is not often feasible because of the presence of a multifocal disease, large lesions, submucosal invasion or, rarely, lymph node involvement. Therefore, somatostatin analogs (SSAs) have been proposed as treatment for GC1s in view of their antisecretive, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects. However, in view of the high cost of this therapy, its possible side effects and the relatively benign course of the disease, SSAs should be reserved to specific subsets of “high risk patients”,i.e., those patients with multifocal or recurrent GCs. Indeed, it is reasonable that, after the development of a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm in patients with a chronic predisposing condition (such as CAG), other enterochromaffin-like cells can undergo neoplastic proliferation, being chronically stimulated by hypergastrinemia. Therefore, definite indications to SSAs treatment should be established in order to avoid the undertreatment or overtreatment of GCs.
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is encountered in liver cirrhosis, particularly in advanced disease. It has been a feared complication of cirrhosis, attributed to significant worsening of liver disease, poorer clinical outcomes and potential inoperability at liver transplantation; also catastrophic events such as acute intestinal ischaemia. Optimal management of PVT has not yet been addressed in any consensus publication. We review current literature on PVT in cirrhosis; its prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, impact on the natural history of cirrhosis and liver transplantation, and management. Studies were identified by a search strategy using MEDLINE and Google Scholar. The incidence of PVT increases with increasing severity of liver disease: less than 1% in well-compensated cirrhosis, 7.4%-16% in advanced cirrhosis. Prevalence in patients undergoing liver transplantation is 5%-16%. PVT frequently regresses instead of uniform thrombus progression. PVT is not associated with increased risk of mortality. Optimal management has not been addressed in any consensus publication. We propose areas for future research to address unresolved clinical questions.
AIM: To explore expressions of PIK3CA in the progression of gastric cancer from primary to metastasis and its effects on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. METHODS: mRNA and protein levels of PIK3CA were assessed, respectively, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in specimens of normal gastric mucosa, primary foci and lymph node and distant metastasis of gastric cancer. Akt and phosphorylated Akt protein were also examined by Western blotting in these tissues, in order to analyze the effect of PIK3CA expression level changes on the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. RESULTS: PIK3CA mRNA in lymph node metastasis were approximately 5 and 2 folds higher, respectively, than that in the corresponding normal gastric mucosa and primary gastric cancer tissues (P < 0.05), while no statistical significance was found compared with distant metastasis. Immunohistochemically, PIK3CA protein expression was discovered in 7 (35%) specimens of 20 primary foci vs 10 (67%) of 15 of lymph node metastasis or 11(61%) of 18 of distant metastasis (35% vs 67%, P = 0.015; 35% vs 61%, P = 0.044). With the increased level of PIK3CA expression, the total Akt protein expression remained almost unchanged, but p-Akt protein was upregulated markedly. CONCLUSION: Increased expression of PIK3CA is expected to be a promising indicator of metastasis in gastric cancer. Up-regulation of PIK3CA may promote the metastasis of gastric cancer through aberrant activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.