Recent studies of Roman economy and on the economic history of Greco-Roman Egypt focus on new approaches and new sources for some traditional topics like textile industry, taxes and custom duties, money and credit business, agriculture or professions like craftsmen and traders. Of great importance for current research interests are some studies that use the approach of the transaction cost- theory to explain ancient economic behavior. Furthermore, the combination of nautical methods and classical analysis of ancient evidence improves the knowledge of sea trade in Roman times. More and more traditional research based on source criticism and the inclusion of new ancient evidence is combined with theoretical approaches and comparative methods.
Introduction Religious practices and preferences changed markedly throughout Roman history, yet at the same time, the ancient Roman world was dominated by tradition. A well-known characteristic of Roman morality was that people ought to behave according to mos maiorum. Innovation was suspect. Any literary, architectural and religious innovations were argued away by claims that they were in fact a return to ancestral customs. There is, however,
The tendency to compare is one of the fundamental characteristics shared by human beings across cultures in daily life. In particular when confronted with the unfamiliar, unexpected or new, one can observe the attempt to fit those stimuli in the given and learned framework by comparing them with other experiences, thoughts and ideas （cf. Goffman 1974）. The ＂other＂ can then either be ＂framed＂ by an individual or group, e.g. by modifying one＇s own framework, or can be regarded as too strange, and thus out of one＇s own sphere, to be included.
Introduction Sometime in the early fourth century CE an unusual and somewhat puzzling series of bronze coins was minted in the three cities of Antioch, Nicomedia and Alexandria. It is noteworthy that portraits of Emperors and Caesars are missing from these coins. Instead, they mostly depict city gods and goddesses, or in some cases the city tyche （see ill. 1）.2 They then appear to be civic coins （coins minted by a city for its own use）. The last known civic coinage was minted in Asia sometime between 260 and early 270.3 Our coins, however, appear to be from a much later period. There have been different proposals for dating.
Ancient Economy is an intellectual battlefield in modern ancient studies par excellence. Since the famous Bflcher-Meyer-controversy,~ which was continued in a specific way by Moses I. Finley2 and Michael I. Rostovtzeff3 and ended up in an inflexible orthodoxy mainly on the primitivists＇ side,4 backed-up by premodern models like Marcel Mauss＇ ＂gift-giving＇＇5 and Karl Polanyi＇s ＂embedded economy,＇＇6 a lot of things have changed in the field of Ancient Economy which seemed to be divided forever between substantivists/primitivists and formalists/ modernists while other positions, e.g. that of Fritz Moritz Heichelheim, were on the verge of disappearing] On the one hand, there has been a shift away from the sole study of literary sources which were often regarded as representative of economic behavior and thoughts by the primitivists,
State of research： characteristics, function, and dating of Roman brass tokens Tokens （tesserae） formed part of everyday material culture of both Greeks and Romans.1 Made of wood, bone, clay, or metal, they facilitated, for example, entry into the theatre, identification of soldiers, participation in political meetings, or the receipt of a special amount of grain.2
In describing the geography of the Argive region, Strabo pauses for a moment to discuss the development of the terms ＂Hellas,＂ ＂Hellenes,＂ and ＂Panhellenes＂ in ancient times and whether there is a Greek-barbarian antithesis in Homer in terms of distinctive names.
Aba-saga was a figure attested in thousands of administrative documents from Puzris-Dagan （modem Drehem, Iraq） during the Ur III Dynasty （2112-2004 BC）. The overwhelming majority of administrative documents （ca. 3000） issued by Aba-saga from Puzris-Dagan date to the reign of Amar-Suen （2046-2038 BC）, the son and successor of Sulgi.1 Although extremely few （ca. 20）, the Drehem texts documenting Aba-saga during the reign of Sulgi play an important role in the understanding of the ＂central bureau＂2 officialdom of the Puzris-Dagan organization which is transferred from Nasa to his son and successor Aba-saga, as well as its administrative significance during the reigns of Sulgi and Amar- Suen.
Introduction： The Great Family of Ramesses II 2Among his many achievements that have marked Ramesses II as one of Egypt＇s greatest pharaohs, his multiple wives and his stupendous progeny of approximately 100 children stands as one of the most remarkable.3 By comparison with all other pharaohs, he appears unique, from the surviving evidence at least. In fact, we know of more royal sons of Ramesses II than of all the kings of Egypt＇s Eighteenth Dynasty.4 Indeed, the numbers of royal children that appear in the unprecedented monumental processional lists of his sons and daughters on several of his Egyptian and Nubian temples prompted Marjorie Fisher in her recent study of his sons to suggest that many of these princes may have been his grandchildren instead.5
I. The problem of the relationship of li andfa in ancient Chinese law Because of differences in culture, an independent law system, the Chinese Law System, came into being with its differences from other law systems of the world, which are represented by the Continental Law System （also known as the Code Law System） and Anglo-American Law System （also known as the Common Law System）. Chinese and overseas scholars always think that the most prominent feature of the Chinese Law System lies in its strong Confucianism. For instance, Jean Escarra says that ＂the Confucian conception came to dominateall ancient Chinese legislation.＂2
De Ordine Palatii in 882 by Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims （845-882）, is one of the key documents for understanding Carolingian politics.l Carolingian authors left a number of treatises on the theory of the ideal royal ruler and royal governance.2 But De Ordine （as it will be called for convenience in this paper） is the only extant example that systematically shows us how an ideal court- centered royal government should operate in practice. Beginning with the great 20th century Belgian historian Frangois-Louis Ganshof and despite the great shift of academic trends in the study of Carolingian politics （a shift that would be properly described as one from institutional structure to political culture）.
Making sense of Mark Antony＇s political and military dealings in the Eastern Mediterranean in the period from the Battle of Philippi （in 42 BC）2 until the Battle of Actium （in 31） is not a straightforward matter. With Antony having been brought into disrepute under the hand of OctaviardAugustus, modern observers are constantly faced with the difficulty of establishing to what extent the literary sources on which our knowledge of these eastern affairs largely depends.
The Silk Roads of antiquity were used by many people. A certain Maes （or Maes Titianus） is one of the few travellers known by name. Modern research has treated him several times,l however the evidence has been mixed up with a number of hypotheses, and some obsolete ideas are still alive. Thus, a revision may be helpful. The only source of evidence for this traveller is Claudius Ptolemy＇s Geography. In the first book, Ptolemy reports that, among others, his precursor, Marinus of Tyre, had overestimated the eastern extent of the oikumene-not at least because he made mistakes when assessing and correcting travel reports. In this context, Ptolemy writes as follows concerning the road to the Serians （to China）：2
Introduction As one Jewish historian who follows classical tradition in his historical com- position, Josephus＇ life was colorful and legendary,l Born as a Jewish priest2 and later appointed as a senior general during the Jewish revolt in 68 AD, Josephus surrendered to Rome in Galilee after an unsuccessful resistance and destined defeat, after which he was set free by Vespasian, went to settle down in Rome and composed his Jewish War, Jewish Antiquities, Life and Against Apion in Greek there, by which he became one of the few historians in the classical world of whom more than one extant work is available.
I. Transcontinental Connectivity Centuries of continuous warfare and successful expansion turned the Roman Empire into the single dominant power in the Mediterranean basin. Yet, although Roman warfare never fully came to an end, the countryside and the two to three thousand cities of the Empire in Italy and the provinces experienced many uninterrupted decades of peaceful prosperity from the beginning of the imperial era onwards.
Marta PALLAVIDINI （DAAD P.R.I.M.E Fellow, Freie Universitat Berlin / KU Leuven） KURI/EWANA-, KUI/ERWANA-： A NEW ASSESSMENT （pp. 1-11） The meaning of the Hittite word kuriwana-/kuierwana- has not been yet established with certainty. Some scholars translate it with ＂independent＂ while others favor the exactly opposite meaning ＂dependent.＂ Since the word is attested in a limited number of documents, it is possible to re-examine all the occurrences and the related contexts, and to propose a new assessment of the meaning of the word. In particular, I will suggest the meaning ＂juridically equal.＂
The JOURNAL OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS （JAC） is published annually in two fascicles by the Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations （IHAC, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People＇s Republic of China）. The aim of JAC is to provide a forum for the discussion of various aspects of the cultural and historical processes in the Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean world, encompassing studies of individual civilizations as well as common elements, contacts and interactions among them （e.g. in such traditional fields as Assyriology, Hittitology, Egyptology, Classics, and Sinology among others）. Hence, we publish the work of international scholars while also providing a showcase for the finest Chinese scholarship, and so welcome articles dealing with history, philology, art, archaeology and linguistics which are intended to illuminate the material culture and society of the ancient Near East,
There were many kinds of funerary workers and undertakers in Pharaonic and Greco-Roman Egypt.Separate functionaries were involved in the mummifi cation,interment,funeral rites,and care of the dead after entombment,1and among these were some who commonly are referred to by the Greek titleχοαχ?ται(hereafter:choachytes).2This term has been interpreted as deriving from the Greek terms