Periodontal disease (PD) is an infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues and the destruction of the associated alveolar bone. The immune response of the host to periodontal pathogens infection determines the course and progress of the disease. The effects of secreting cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) of T helper 1 cells (Th1) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) on the development of periodontitis has attracted much attention. IFN-γ is a potential immune-modulatory cytokine and can mediate cellular immune responses by activating various immune cells of the host such as macrophages. As one of the most potential bone physiological regulation mediators, IL-17 is closely related with alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. This review elaborated the relationship between IFN-γ and IL-17 in the progress of periodontitis, providing new explanations into the development of periodontitis and alveolar bone destruction caused by th
Oral aesthetics is a branch of stomatology. It is based on oral medicine and guided by medical esthetics, and includes maintainance, restoration and construction of the beauty of teeth, oral cavity and maxillofacial region. The development of oral esthetics in China has a long history. The late 1980s and early 1990s are the important historical periods of the development of oral esthetics in China. In recent years, with the development of social economy and culture, China's oral esthetics has developed rapidly. In September 2016, Chinese Society of Esthetic Dentistry, Chinese Stomatological Association was established in Shanghai. With the goal of esthetics, multidisciplinary integration has become the future development trend of oral esthetics.
To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological changes of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and the relationship between them, so as to provide reference for the diagnosis of SDC. In this retrospective analysis 40 cases of SDC diagnosed from January 2012 to August 2018 in the Department of Pathology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were enrolled and the clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed, 29 were male and 11 were female, the ratio of male to female was 2.64∶1, the median age was 59.0 years, the average course of disease was 3.5 years. The reported cases of SDC were reviewed and compared with patients of this study. Among the 40 patients, 24 cases occurred in parotid gland, 9 cases in submandibular gland and 7 cases in small salivary glands; 24 cases had cancer cell infiltration and invasion of adjacent tissues, 11 cases had lymph node metastasis and 9 cases had distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Pathological results showed that 27 cases belonged
To screen the risk factors of patients with frequent acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by detecting the clinical indicators of periodontitis and the level of bacterial and inflammatory markers in saliva. Thirty-eight COPD patients in their stable period were recruited and detected from Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,Capital Medical University during December 2016 to May 2017. The periodontal index were recorded. The levels of inflammatory factors in saliva samples were examined by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The bacteria composition in the saliva samples were identified by using 16SrRNA gene pyrosequencing. All patients were followed up and monitored for acute exacerbation of COPD for 12 months. The patients were divided into frequent acute exacerbation group (≥2 times/year, 10) and non frequent acute exacerbation group (<2 times/year, 28). In univariate analysis, the patients' average age of frequent acute exacerbation group (69.0±7.3) was significantly older
There are significant benefits for dentists, technicians and patients through data collection and case accumulation in esthetic dentistry. In order to give a brief answer to dentists' puzzles in daily clinical practice, this essay focused on introducing the methods to choose the correct esthetic case, the details to collect the data and the ways to do case accumulation. The esthetic diagnosis and treatment can be greatly improved and the innovation may be achieved through such data collection and case accumulation.
How to achieve the esthetic results with the restoration in anterior teeth is key aims which both of dentists and patients concern about now. Previously, the shape, color and texture of the teeth, i.e. "white esthetics" , were main objectives that prosthodontists want to achieve. The development of dental materials has played a key role in this field. More and more, the prosthodontist has realized that the healthy soft tissue is also very important for the final esthetic results. The healthy periodontal tissue is not only the basis for the longevity of restoration, but also the basis of esthetic results. The shape, color and texture of soft tissue, the mesial and distal gingival papilla, the margin and symmetry of the gingival, i.e. "pink esthetics" , have ultimate relationship with final esthetic results. The objective of the article is to introduce the common pink esthetic defects for the restorations in anterior teeth, the treatment protocol and methods to improve pink esthetic results.
There were great individual differences in eruption time of the teeth. Generally speaking, the deciduous teeth begin to erupt at 6 months after birth, but some babies are born with erupted teeth, which are called natal teeth; in addition, teeth erupted within 30 days after the baby is born are called neonatal teeth. Natal teeth and neonatal teeth may cause ulceration, aspiration, and nipple pain or trauma in the mother's breast during the time of breastfeeding. Extraction of the teeth may cause complications such as neonatal osteomyelitis. To avoid the complications caused by these diseases, and to alleviate the suffering of patients and their families, this article will introduce the clinical manifestations, etiology and related complications of natal teeth and neonatal teeth, and then give some treatment methods and nursing methods, especially to help clinical work.
The zygoma is located in the medial and lateral parts of the face, supporting the midfacial contour. The forward projection of the zygoma and the zygomatic arch expose them to frequent injury. Fractures of the zygoma can lead to displacement of the zygoma and the zygomatic arch, causing facial collapse deformity. For delayed zygomatic fractures, the loss of normal anatomical landmarks, caused by the malunion of the fracture lines and remodeling of the bony contour, makes it difficult to determine the correct positions of the zygomatic bones. In such cases, using traditional surgical methods, ideal and steady outcomes with satisfactory midface symmetry have been difficult to obtain. Nowadays, the application of digital surgical software and surgical navigation help surgeons to perform accurate preoperative simulations to obtain ideal 3-dimensional (3D) virtual surgical plans, and achieve accurate reduction by intraoperative navigation systems, which increase the accuracy and predictability of fracture reductio
It is important to explore the clinical protocols for implant restoration in the oral esthetic zone. At present, the principle that the implant cases in each esthetic area should be carefully assessed and treated has been taken to heart, and treatment design after evaluation is the first and foremost rule. There are special principles for timing of implant placement in esthetic area. The requirement of implant position precision in esthetic area are more strict than that in non-esthetic areas, and the management of soft and hard tissue is the foundation of esthetic implantation. Therefore, implant placement in esthetic areas should follow the unique principles and procedures of the region. And the rational use of various strategies and technical means under the guidance of esthetic objectives, is an effective way to achieve favorable esthetic effects.
Deformities of the maxillofacial region following trauma and ablative surgery are devastating and not uncommon. Reconstruction of such defects is a surgically challenging procedure. Conventionally, reconstruction of the jaw defects lacks pre-operative customized planning and relies heavily on surgeons' experiences to ensure optimum surgical outcomes. The restoration of jaw shape and function has taken precedence after an extensive tumor resection surgery, especially in the current age of technological advancement. Thus, personalized and accurate reconstruction of jaw defects has become a new goal. Computer-assisted surgery especially navigation-assisted surgery has gained popularity of late, in reconstructing deformities and restoring facial symmetry, appearance and function in the maxillofacial region. This technology provides a clearer three-dimensional visualization of the area of interest and its relationship with the adjacent vital structures. With pre-operative virtual surgical planning, it allows more
To explore the clinical classification of microcystic lymphatic malformations of tongue and observe the treatment of microcystic lymphatic malformations of tongue by retrospective analysis, in order to provide reference for clinical practice. From October 2005 to October 2015, the complete data of 220 cases of microcystic lymphatic malformations of tongue (115 males and 105 females) received and treated in Provincial Special Department of Vascular Anomalies, Linyi Tumor Hospital was analyzed retrospectively. The age ranged from 8 months to 52 years old, with a median age of 16 years old. All patients were followed up for 3 years, and according to their clinical manifestations, they were divided into three types: localized type of 23 cases, diffuse type of 161 cases, and megaloglossia type of 36 cases. Injection with pingyangmycin merely was performed on 58 cases, whereas merely surgery on 20 cases, injection with pingyangmycin combined with high frequency electrocoagulation on 55 cases, and surgery combined w