Today, where the average life span has greatly increased, longevity of dental restorations must be a consideration, and again, gold is the best answer. The second reason is that dental schools have dropped the teaching of gold from their curriculum, because it requires exacting technique. The Academy of Operative Dentistry (AOD) holds an annual meeting with 2 days of high-quality lectures, promoting excellence in all aspects of everyday dentistry. The AOD saw a need for a publication and joined forces with the AAGFO and the ARVTSC in support of operative dentistry, which is highly esteemed and internationally acclaimed. Study club is a direct clinical application where 3-15 clinicians each perform a procedure on a patient, with a mentor supervising in a congenial and supportive atmosphere. Performing an actual procedure, under supervision, provides the best learning experience by far. Take advantage of the opportunities available and join an academy, join a...
Background: At a population level, there are no systematic data to correlate the pattern of prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) with oral disease burden in South Asian countries. The influence of the age, gender, and geographical distribution on these diseases is not reported. We attempt to provide a population level correlation of occurrence using the Global Burden of Disease approach. Materials and Methods: Using the data from the Global Burden of Diseases, 2016, the occurrence of oral diseases (dental caries of permanent teeth, edentulism (including severe tooth loss), and periodontal diseases) and various NCDs, based on geographical region, gender and age groups were collected and subjected to correlation statistics. Statistical Package for Social Services (Version 23) was used to analyze the results. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Geographical location and age had a significant role in the occurrence of dental diseases. There was a considerable difference in rates of dental diseases and NCD prevalence in the various regions of Asia-Pacific. It was observed that for most of the NCDs, there was a linear significant relationship for edentulism as well as periodontal diseases with high statistical significance. Discussion: The factors that contribute to the discrepancies, phenomenon, and relationship between the oral diseases and NCDs are discussed. The current state of the importance of oral health, in maintaining overall health is discussed. Methods by which policymakers could bring about a change by utilizing the principles of “Overton window” for mobilizing the support of people are presented.
Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the bond strength of: (a) Zirconia blocks (tribochemical treatment and zirconia primer) and resin blocks bonded using self-adhesive resin cement (phosphate monomer cement). (b) Zirconia blocks and resin blocks bonded using nonphosphate monomer cement. (c) Micro-tensile bond strength of zirconia and resin blocks, bonded with self-adhesive resin cement and nonphosphate monomer cement after thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Twenty zirconium-dioxide specimens (5 mm × 5.4 mm × 13 mm) were produced using a metal mold. Each zirconium block was duplicated in light-curing resin material specimen (5 mm × 5.4 mm × 13 mm) using a mold made of addition silicon impression material. A total of 40 specimens were made, of which 20 specimens were zirconia blocks and 20 were resin blocks, which would be bonded to each other using phosphate monomer-containing cement (Multilink [10 nos.]) and nonphosphate monomer-containing cement (RELY-X [10 nos.]). The specimens were then divided into two groups of n = 10 each. The surface of zirconium specimen of one group (Group 1) was treated with zirconia primer and bonded with phosphate monomer-containing cement, and the other groups (Group 2) were not treated with any surface conditioning and were bonded with a nonphosphate containing cement. The specimens in each group were further subdivided into two subgroups of n = 5 each as follows: Group 1-1A (subjected to thermocycling), 1B (nonthermocycled) and Group 2-2A (subjected to thermocycling), 2B (nonthermocycled). Then, they were subjected for testing of tensile bond strength under a universal testing machine. Results: Resin cement selection seems to be a more relevant factor in the bonding of zirconia. The phosphate monomer-containing cement has the better bond strength after thermocycling compared to the nonphosphate monomer group. Thermocycling reduced the bond strength of both the groups and a significant difference was seen in the bond strength of nonphosphate monomer cement group subjected to thermocycling compared to the nonthermocycled one. Tensile bond strength values were significantly affected by the luting agent system employed and by thermal aging. Hence, for long-term durability, luting of zirconia with a phosphate monomer-containing cement after the zirconia has been surface treated is preferable as their bond strength did not show much significant difference after being subjected to thermocycling, compared to the nonthermocycled group. Conclusion: Resin cement selection seem to be a more relevent factor in the bonding of zirconia thermocycling does affect adhesion to to zirconium oxide ceramics.
Background: Pain is an inevitable outcome of any periodontal surgery. Controlling postoperative pain is of utmost importance so as to increase patient compliance. The present study aims to compare the degree of postoperative analgesia with the use of oral diclofenac sodium and transdermal diclofenac patch following periodontal flap surgery in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients requiring full mouth flap surgery were selected for this study. Flap surgery was performed quadrant-wise and transdermal diclofenac patch was applied on the right arm following surgery of one of the quadrants and 100 mg oral diclofenac sodium twice daily was prescribed following surgery of the subsequent quadrant. The postoperative pain was recorded on visual analog scale and pain intensity scale 24 h after the surgery. Results: Both the statistical and clinical observation showed that diclofenac sodium administered transdermally has equal efficacy as compared to drug administered orally. Conclusion: The study concludes that the diclofenac administered transdermally has equal potency in relieving postoperative pain as compared to orally administered diclofenac sodium following modified flap surgery. Transdermal patch has an added advantage of better patient compliance as it does not cause gastric disturbance.
Background: Mandible is one of the most prominent bones of the facial skeleton leading to high prevalence of fracture during facial trauma. The management of mandibular fractures has evolved from intermaxillary fixation (IMF) to a combination of IMF and wire osteosynthesis, lag screw, and plate fixation. Despite the evolution in techniques, no technique including open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) has proven to be completely devoid of complications. However, ORIF has many advantages and has resulted in better outcome when compared with the closed reduction methods. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to assess the incidence of postoperative complications in 98 patients treated with ORIF for mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 98 patients with mandibular fractures reporting to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, from January 2014 to November 2016, treated by ORIF was included in the study and was split into three groups. The patient's records were analyzed for deriving the number and type of complications that occurred during the postoperative period of ORIF. Results: Patients with fractures in the condyle region reported with the highest number of complications when compared to the angle and parasymphysis regions. The most common complications that the patients reported were infection that led to plate removal and paresthesia. Others were wound dehiscence, occlusal disturbances, and facial nerve paralysis which were less common. Conclusion: The most common postoperative complication of the procedure in this retrospective study was found to be infection of the plates that are preventable with better aseptic techniques.
Context: Autism prevalence is increasing, with current estimates at 1/68–1/50 individuals diagnosed with autism. Diagnosis is based on behavioral assessments. Early diagnosis and intervention are known to greatly improve functional outcomes in people with autism. Diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis of autistic children's symptoms could be facilitated with biomarkers to complement behavioral assessments. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate salivary zinc concentration in saliva samples of autistic and healthy children in mixed dentition age group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional comparative study carried out in dental college and special child school. Unstimulated whole saliva collected for finding a biomarker. Subjects and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva sample was collected from 10 autistic and 10 healthy children in mixed dentition age group. Diluted saliva sample was then subjected to inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy for the estimation of salivary zinc concentration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: In children with autism salivary zinc concentration showed a linear equation when compared to healthy children. Conclusions: The low salivary zinc concentration in autistic children can reveal the pathogenesis of autism.
Cemental tear represents a rare form of root surface fracture which makes teeth prone to periodontal breakdown. The diagnosis of cemental tear becomes a challenge as it is usually neglected or misdiagnosed and is also underreported in the literature. Correct diagnosis and early treatment of cemental tear can prevent further periodontal breakdown and may preserve the affected tooth for a longer duration. This case presents the diagnosis, treatment, and an analysis of a right maxillary lateral incisor with an improper endodontic treatment coupled with a cemental tear. Despite surgical removal, the cemental tear led to the development of an endodontic periodontal lesion. This article intends to help recognize early signs and symptoms of cemental tear and establish timely diagnosis. It determines that if the periodontal destruction caused by cemental tears is diagnosed and treated early, it may be possible to prevent further periodontal breakdown and preserve the tooth for a longer period.
Context: The use of antioxidants immediately after bleaching showed increased bond strength. Aims: This study aimed to compare the effects of natural antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted upper incisors were decoronated by sectioning the roots 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction, and then, crowns were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin block (3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm) with the labial surface exposed. They were randomly divided into five groups, depending on the type of antioxidant used (n = 10): (i) Group 1: control (no bleaching), (ii) Group 2: bleaching only, (iii) Group 3: bleaching + 10% sodium ascorbate (antioxidant), (iv) Group 4: bleaching + green tea, and (v) Group 5: bleaching + white tea. Labial surfaces of 40 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min following manufacturer's instructions. After that, the experimental groups (Groups 3, 4, and 5) were treated with respective antioxidant solutions before composite restorations were done using a cylindrical plastic mold (3 mm × 5 mm). Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: There were statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of control groups (Groups 1 and 2) and experimental groups (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in bond strength was observed among the antioxidants used. Conclusion: Application of antioxidants immediately after bleaching showed increased bond strength. Green tea and white tea extract can be used as alternative antioxidants in improving the bond strength of enamel.
Counting citations have been the usual norm to determine the impact of any research and/or scholar. However, with majority of the scholarly activities happening on the World Wide Web, traditional counting of citations is now being termed “slower.” The recent explosion of online data storage for many articles may serve as a pool which uses social media sites to navigate. Altmetrics has been proposed as the new entity which aims to change the focus of the scholarly reward system to value and encourage web-native scholarship. This paper makes an attempt to understand altmetrics.
Aim: Periodontitis and diabetes mellitus share a bidirectional relationship. Resistin is an adipocytokine shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hence, the present study aims to estimate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on GCF resistin levels in healthy individuals with gingivitis and well controlled diabetics with periodontitis, and correlate the same with HbA1c levels of the diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: The present study was a comparative interventional trial set in Department of Periodontics, the Oxford Dental College, Bangalore. Forty subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups; group I (healthy individuals with gingivitis) and group II (diabetic individuals with mild to moderate periodontitis). Periodontal parameters were assessed and GCF was collected and analysed for resistin before and 3 months after NSPT. Statistical Analysis: All the analysis was done using SPSS version 18. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A significant difference was observed in GCF resistin concentrations between the two groups at baseline, wherein group II had significantly higher values. Following NSPT, there was a significant reduction in GCF resistin concentrations in both the groups, however intergroup comparison showed no difference in the amount of reduction. When all samples were analysed together, no significant correlation could be found between resistin and the parameters assessed. Conclusion: Resistin levels are increased in diabetes related periodontitis. However, post treatment a similar response can be seen between healthy and well controlled diabetics. Hence, resistin can be used as an inflammatory biomarker for diabetes related periodontal disease.
Introduction: Iatrogenic damage to the adjacent tooth during crown preparation is a frequent disastrous effect. The aim of the study was, therefore, to determine the frequency of different types, degree and location of iatrogenic damage to the adjacent tooth during crown and bridge preparations in a tertiary care setting that lead towards the morbidity of tooth. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in Aga Khan University dental laboratory in two months period in which a total of 150 dental casts fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analyzed using non-probability convenient sampling technique. The casts were examined using 3.5x magnifying loupes for the location, degree and type of damage to the proximal surface adjacent to the prepared tooth using Moonpar and Faulkner criteria. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Chi square test was used to assess the association between the experience of practitioner and degree of damage to adjacent tooth. It was also used to determine the association between location of tooth and degree of damage to adjacent tooth. Inter-examiner reliability was assessed by using kappa statistics. Results: A high prevalence of damage to the proximal surface of adjacent teeth (78% on mesial tooth and 60.6% on distal tooth) was observed, with the majority (32.6%) belonging to the mild categories. There were statistically significant associations between the experience of practitioner and the damage to the surface mesial to the preparation. However, more severe damages occurred in mandibular teeth preparations as compared to maxillary teeth preparations. Conclusions: A high frequency of iatrogenic damage to the adjacent teeth had been found during crown and bridge work with the middle of the tooth as the most susceptible site. However, the majority of damages were of milder type including only abrasions.
World Health Organization, in 2018, announced the Declaration of Astana stating that “Primary Health Care is a cornerstone of sustainable health system for universal health coverage (UHC) and health-related Sustainable Development Goals.” In order to mainstream oral health in this vision of Ayushman Bharat, we will have to overcome the multifarious challenges that dentistry faces today, namely, serious shortages in diversity of trained personnel, irregular outreach to the poorest and underserved populations, high treatment costs, barriers such as transport and lack of appropriate technologies, isolation of oral health services from the broader health system, and limited adoption of prevention and oral health promotion strategies. Achievement of universal coverage for oral health in India requires the following: systems of oral health-care delivery that can absorb and integrate many now-fragmented services and provide accessible treatment and prevention universally to those in need, health financing schemes that cover the costs of oral health care without putting health consumers, governments, or providers at risk of bankruptcy or severe economic hardship, and a health-care workforce that displays a deeper range of skill mix and skills and that features greater attention to health management and community-based caregivers.
An 18-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Conservative and Endodontics with the chief complaint of fractured tooth with respect to 21 and increased pain and mobility tooth with respect to 22. Intraoral periapical radiograph of 21 revealed coronal loss of tooth structure involving enamel, dentin, and pulp, suggestive of split tooth with respect to 21. Intraoral examination revealed a fracture of coronal structure of 22 and increased mobility in the coronal aspect, suggestive of horizontal crown–root fracture. For management of 21, after endodontic phase, placement of fiberpost, and coronal buildup, intentional reimplantation was done to expose and reattach the vertically fractured root fragment. For management of 22, after endodontic phase, crown lengthening was done, and the fractured fragment was reattached by making it a Natural Richmond's Crown. Radiographs revealed a complete sealing of the fractured fragment and proper positioning of the tooth.
Background: Nanoparticle coated implants have revolutionized the field of implantology. Peri-implantitis is one of the main for implant failure. Most implant failures are due to Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Actinomyces concomitant. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of titanium, zirconium, aluminum nanoparticles against S. aureus and P. gingivalis at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Materials and Methods: According to ISO/TR 11175:1993, the samples were prepared in disc shape with 20-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness in Grade IV titanium. The samples were decontaminated by sonicating in acetone and subsequently in water three times for 15 min. A total of eighty samples were made, then coated with nanoparticles, and divided into Group-A (control), Group-B (Ti nanoparticles coating), Group-C (Zi nanoparticles coating), and Group-D (Al nanoparticles coating). The discs were sterilized under ultraviolet radiation and placed in Mueller-Hinton agar medium for S. aureus and blood agar for P. gingivalis. The colonies were counted at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: The values were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Results: The P < 0.001 showed that statistically significant difference in colony forming unit had been found in titanium nanoparticles coated samples at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Conclusion: TiO2nanoparticle coated titanium discs showed significant antibacterial effect.
Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of sugar-free chewing gums (xylitol and sorbitol) on plaque and gingivitis among 14–15-year-old school children. Materials and Methods: A single center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on 14–15-year-old children. Sample size was determined to be 48. Participants were randomly allocated to test group (xylitol [n = 12], sorbitol [n = 12]) and control group (no gum, n = 24). Duration of the study was 14 days. Baseline assessment of plaque, gingival, and bleeding score, followed by oral prophylaxis. Selected children received daily two chewing gum (1.1 g each) to chew for 20 min postbreakfast and postlunch. Follow-up was done on 15thday. Analysis was done using independent t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc test. Significance level was kept at P < 0.05. Results: There was a significant reduction in plaque, gingival, and bleeding score in test group (P < 0.05) compared to control group. Conclusion: Sugar-free gum (xylitol and sorbitol) significantly reduced the plaque, gingival, and bleeding score.
Maxillo Mandibular injuries are most common through road traffic accident. The defects and deformities are usually prominent in case of facial injuries. The ultimate aim of recontouring and reconstruction of the facial defect is to achieve the maximum functional as well as esthetic part of the face. Here we present a case of fracture in to multiple fragment of the infra orbital rim, reconstructed with rib graft.
Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws is a benign, intraosseous, osteolytic lesion of debatable etiology. CGCG lacks in clinical and radiographical pathognomonic features to distinguish from common lesions occurring in this region. Histopathology still remains the predominant diagnostic modality to identify the disorder. Clinically aggressive lesions and atypical lesions can lead to early damage and may necessitate aggressive therapy to prevent recurrences. A case of an aggressive type of CGCG of the maxilla in a young adult male patient with diagnostic and treatment challenge is presented.
Background: Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior, it gives the reasons for people's action, desires, and needs, and it drives an individual to a certain action and determines human behavior. Aim: To determine the effect of motivation on oral hygiene and caries status among young adults in Hyderabad city. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 18–20-year-old engineering college students of Nagole Institute of Technology and Sciences. Materials and Methods: Intrinsic motivation was evaluated using a self-reported 12-item dental intrinsic motivation scale (DIM-S). The oral examination included simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and decayed, missing, filled teeth index (DMFT index). Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and ANOVA test were used for comparison among the variables included in the study. Spearman's correlation was used to correlate DIM-S with oral parameters. Results: A total of 393 students participated in the study with majority of them being male (61.8%). It was observed that 69% of the students were extrinsically motivated and only 31% of them were intrinsically motivated. However, intrinsically motivated females had a higher significant score for calculus index–simplified and OHI-S scores. All oral parameters showed a negative correlation, except decayed component and the overall DMFT. However, no statistical significance was noticed among the variables. Conclusion: The present study revealed that to motivate people successfully, one not only has to give them information but also has to pay attention to the individual reasons which restrict their behavior.