Considers the relationships between ISO 9000, TQM and business performance. Argues that the correlation between ISO 9000 and success is still weak, and that many organizations still have difficulty reconciling the apparent conflict between the "compliance" philosophy of ISO 9000, and the strong innovative demands of TQM. Suggests a way of reconciling these apparent conflicts, which entails the use of a third package of management tools, introduced through a programme of empowered training, to provide performance-driven quality. This additional package harnesses the output of TQ initiatives to the continuous improvement of delivered quality of goods and services, and to the development of new customer-pleasing products - the elements that are missing from ISO 9000. Provides a specific example of the ISO 9000 TQM conflicts, and of successful use of a particular third package - all within the same company.
Reviews the process of ISO 9000 registration for the construction industry, with insight from the author's rich experience in helping construction firms to register for this international standard. Addresses the questions: the first-meeting, the courting process, the relationship and a life-time together. Concludes that the paper challenges the fundamentals of the need for ISO 9000 for the UK construction industry.
Argues for the importance of self-management in ensuring quality of teacher performance. Aims to propose a framework of teacher self-management and draw implications for teacher training. Teacher self-management is a continuous process comprising two self-propelling cycles. The major cycle consists of five sequential stages, in which teachers as strategic actors will be aware of the changing education environment and able to readjust their personal goals and action plans to meet emerging challenges. The support cycle facilitates action learning in various stages of the major cycle. Practising in the major and support cycles, teachers may develop the necessary self-renewal and competence for ensuring the quality of their professional work in the changing environment. From this conception of self-management, the traditional staff development practice in school can be re-engineered to maximize opportunities for facilitating teachers' self-management and self-learning. For both pre-service and in-service teacher training, the self-management theory can also bring alternative ideas for reforming teacher education programmes and preparing teachers for quality performance in a changing education environment. The implications should be useful not only to educational organizations but also to other professional organizations.
Shows that the communication style that team and project leaders use to enhance team creativity is of paramount importance in trying to promote creativity in the workplace. Team leaders need to be trained to exhibit a communication pattern that enhances team creativity, but they should be trained in such a way that team members perceive accurately the message the team leader is portraying. Explains how team leaders can be trained to exhibit a consultative team-oriented communication style to enhance team creativity, as opposed to a directive assertive style, such that team members perceive the team leader's message accurately. Describes a follow-up evaluation process, including sample questions for a survey of team members' perceptions of leader style.
Traditionally, clients' expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems (QMS), however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied QMS in their organizations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. Examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between standard forms of building contract and QMS. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a QMS contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise.
Shows an in-depth research focusing on the concerns of organizations in improving productivity and profitability levels by effective and efficient means using TQM. Evaluates the findings of TQM implementations from manufacturing and service industries and provides techniques on how TQM can be made to work successfully for any organization are provided.
A survey instrument based on the fundamental concepts of TQM in BS 7850 was developed to measure employees' motivation and behaviour towards practising TQM in Hong Kong. Principle-component factor analysis was employed to analyse the data. Three factors were found, namely the technology, the system and the philosophy, with emphasis on different aspects of TQM. Factor scores were then computed and empirical results showed that there exist three dimensions of quality and that Hong Kong employees are more motivated by the technical aspects of TQM, such as reducing quality losses and continuous improvement. On the other hand, the philosophy aspect of quality has not been emphasized.
During 1996 the facilities management department at the Sanofi Research Centre in Alnwick implemented an ISO 9000 quality system. The primary aim for implementing the system was to improve the services provided to the department's internal customers. Describes how the implementation was carried out, with particular reference to improving customer service, but also identifying some of the issues relating to implementing ISO 9000 within part of a larger organization. Focuses primarily on in-house service providers, but the information may be relevant to all service organizations.
The most commonly used method - the use of a formal questionnaire, administered at the end of term or end of semester - is not useful for generating continuous improvement in the short term. Aims to explain the perceptions minus expectations gap analysis approach to obtain informal feedback from students and use it for formative purposes. Summarizes the reasons for the increased interest in student feedback. Describes the process of obtaining feedback to generate the perceptions minus expectations gap. Presents evidence to show that the key factors that aid or hinder learning are situational. Finally, gives an example of the application of gap analysis.
Nortel Fixed Wireless Access identified a need to move from a very functional-based management system to that of a process-based system. This need was identified by the audit group and also via feedback from the employees assessed during functional audits. The functional audits up to that point had been perceived as not giving full value to the business. The feedback received highlighted the fact that people performing individual functional tasks knew what was wrong in the process and did not need auditors to tell them this. So it was felt that a completely new process-based audit was needed. Describes how, as a result, the audit methodology was completely redesigned, with a new focus on process improvement. Outlines some significant improvements in the auditing process which have been achieved using the new audit methodology. Generalizes the experience so as to make it available to similar settings.
Reports on research which examined cultural values in a professional services firm. Data were collected from 1,608 women and men using anonymously completed questionnaires. Describes the cultural values of the firm, then examines correlates - personal demographic, work-setting factors and work outcomes - of these values. Finds that personal demographic characteristics are inconsistently and weakly related to cultural values and that both work-setting characteristics and work outcomes are consistently and strongly related to cultural values. Women and men describing cultural values in more favourable terms were more satisfied with their jobs, had lower intentions to quit, experienced more opportunities for on-the-job learning and development and compared the firm's service quality and products more favourably with their competitors.
Knocks the final few nails into the coffin which contains the remains of the notion that the theory and practice of control charting depend on assumptions of normality. The subject's creator, Dr Walter Shewhart, denied this as long ago as 1939! His most famous student, Dr W. Edwards Deming, denied it repeatedly thereafter. There appear to be two most crucial arguments as to why the "orthodox" statistician claims that normality is necessary. One is to enable probability interpretations of control limits. The other is to justify the conversion factors which are in common use in control-chart calculations. The truth is that, even under normality, the usual probability interpretations are meaningless in practice and that, in the latter case, the behaviour of the conventional conversion factors is not at all dependent on normality but is in fact very similar over a wide range of differently-shaped probability distributions.
Aims to provide an overview of major work that has been carried out in the area of strategy development in the past and outlines how it will develop in the future. Presents an analysis of the term "strategy". Discusses the evolution of different conceptual frameworks over time together with their impact on today's understanding of strategy formulation and implementation. Concludes by presenting the requirements for a dynamic approach to strategy development together with the way in which it can be realized.
Highlights the need to improve organizational communication and training. Discusses the need for organizations to develop staff values and objectives before considering the role of communications in such a company.
In an age when everything is moving at a faster pace and change has become the order of the day, companies large and small have to be more alert to the opportunities and threats that could make or break them. British Steel has raised the business awareness of all its employees and is nurturing a learning culture by placing great emphasis on education and training. However, stand-alone training programmes, to be fully effective, have to be part of an integrated strategy for quality improvement. Outlines the efforts of one part of British Steel, the Coated Products group of works within the Strip Products portfolio, which has developed and implemented a co-ordinated multifaceted approach to continuous improvement through its people.
Explains why companies wishing to make the transition to TQM must address the issue of organizational learning. Also provides some evidence that quality circles (QC) can facilitate organizational learning in the quality context. Discusses three theoretical stages of organizational learning, and demonstrates how QCs can assist organizations in progressing through the first two of these. Explores specific aspects of organizational learning relevant to TQM, which can be effected through the medium of QCs. Concludes that QCs could prove a useful vehicle for initiating some of the changes and attendant learning which the transition to TQM entails.
Describes the elements of a successful employee training programme. Explains the distinction between training and education, along with a discussion of why "soft skills" training initiatives are less effective than skills-based approaches. Discusses the critical role of the training manager in implementing a training programme, as well as important considerations when developing a strategic training plan. Finally, describes several key factors which determine how employee training programmes can best support company profitability.
Argues that empowerment programmes aim at inducing "entrepreneurial" behaviours and attitudes in employees, and that this aim ignores a fundamental internal inconsistency. Further, the traditional structure of formal organizations excludes a number of the conditions necessary to sustain such behaviour. Poor or diminished job security, the absence of real ownership stakes for employees, the continued power of formal authority, all militate against the objectives of true empowerment. In addition, the lack of adequate "reality-testing" mechanisms for internal communications puts organizations seeking to reap the benefits of an empowered culture in a difficult and possibly dangerous position. Uses evidence from senior HR OD executives in organizations which have introduced empowerment to substantiate the claims made.
Suggests that formal mentoring schemes are on the increase in response to the rapid pace of change and the need for people to network in lean delayered organizations. Defines mentoring as a one-to-one process of helping individuals to learn and develop and takes a longer-term perspective which focuses on the person's career and their development. Reviews the experience of best practice organizations using mentoring and draws on a feasibility survey of managers in a 10,000 strong global engineering company. Typical problem areas are that expectations and objectives may be misunderstood, the formal framework may not fit the culture and it can be hard to find suitable mentors. Discusses the strengths of mentoring, some of the pitfalls, and factors which help to make mentoring work effectively. Asserts that you should be clear what you want out of mentoring, communicate thoroughly, carefully tailor the programme to the needs of participants and the culture, train the mentor and set up evaluation and review methods.