Health care providers offer an ideal setting to study the effectiveness of resilient behavior. The notion of a resilient organization is an emerging concept for understanding and coping with the modern-day pace of change and associated work stress. Resilience is the ability of an individual or organization to expeditiously design and implement positive adaptive behaviors matched to the immediate situation, while enduring minimal stress. This paper reports on the development and testing of several scales designed to measure aspects of resilience in the health care provider industry. Six factors explaining over half the instrument variance were found, including: goal-directed solution seeking; avoidance; critical understanding; role dependence; source reliance; and resource access. Results are discussed and future research is outlined.
The Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) was used to investigate job stress in an ambulance service in the north-west of England. Seven different aspects of the stress-strain relationship were assessed and the findings compared with those from the fire service. Ambulance service employees were found to be experiencing major stress outcomes of low job satisfaction and poor mental and physical health. Fire service employees revealed significantly poorer physical health. Assesses the sources of job stress, type A behaviour, locus of control and coping styles and discusses them in the light of change in the public services.
The EFQM model for organisational excellence is used in the health care sector as a tool to diagnose and assess the starting position for an effective QM programme. Feedback reports cover the fields of acute medical care, rehabilitation and ambulant care and contain strengths areas for improvement. Building on the EFQM feedback reports, the Modular Concept for Quality in Health Care ("Heidelberg Model") improves QM both holistically and specifically by implementing so-called "Modules for Excellence". The implementation process follows principles of project management covering medical, nursing and managing issues and the performance is periodically evaluated against targets. QM projects that are designed in the dichotomic way follow three goals. Organisational diagnosis and therapy lead to numerical health care improvements in "Prevention of nosocomial infections" and "Optimising out-patient treatment". Different assessment approaches lead to a diagnosing feedback report for QM in health care. The Modular Concept for Quality in Health Care ("Heidelberg Model") clusters, prioritises, implements and evaluates the organisation's key areas for improvement.
The success of Health care professionals (nurses, a midwife, a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist) working in a large NHS Trust hospital who had completed the Certificate in Health Education with the support of their employer, were interviewed. The study objectives were to seek their views on the quality of the course, to determine the extent to which participants were able to apply their new found knowledge and skills in the care they provided to patients and the level of support received to allow them to do this. Barriers that prevented staff from routinely applying health education in their work were identified. The findings indicated that the majority found the course content to be good and relevant to their clinical work but they identified lack of time due to the pressure of routine clinical work as the main barrier to the promotion of health education in their clinical area.
Government interest in health service "did not attend" (DNA) rates was seen to occur by accident, following which efforts to reduce DNAs have tended to concentrate on operational rather than strategic issues. Considers the effect hospital culture has had on DNA rates from an organizational and patient perspective. Identifies some of the key cultural issues that impacted on DNA rates by utilizing observation and telephone survey research methods. Concludes that , in the main, the lack of customer-oriented organizational culture was seen to affect DNA rates adversely within one NHS provider trust.
The role of the chief executive in a transformed organisation is an extremely challenging one. The development of vision, building a commitment to it and communicating it constantly are key skills for a chief executive. However, the need to build and empower the stakeholders within and outside the organisation to support the changes required to deliver the vision requires leaders who can connect with a wide range of people and build alliances and partnerships to secure organisational success. A passion for understanding human intervention and behaviour is needed to encourage, cajole and drive teams and individuals to own and commit to change and a new direction. This requires leaders who have imagination and creativity - who seek connections and thread them together to create order out of incoherence. These skills are not taught in schools or textbooks, but are probably innate. They are what separate leaders from the rest. These skills need to be developed. A movement towards encouraging experimentation, career transfers and more individuality is needed if capable leaders of the future are to appear.
The success ofIn this paper, key changes taking in the development of the UK health sector from the 1940s to the mid-1990s are briefly sketched. The changes originating from a variety of socio-economic and political circumstances have largely been responsible for the current shape and position of the NHS. In a forthcoming paper, we will review the status of the NHS under the new Labour Government and examine implications of new changes for the future of the NHS.
Health care costs continue to rise because increased demand for services and limited budgets put pressure on resources, however efficiently they may be used. Proposes discrete event simulation as an effective tool in the search for more efficient health care systems. Looks at the application of a desktop computer simulation package to model part of a hospital subsystem. The simulation package shows how efficiency might be improved by moderating available resources and times taken to complete tasks. Maintains that the principles expounded here are applicable to many different aspects of health care management.
This paper, which is presented in two parts, is intended to demonstrate that practices related to the area of human resources management, adopted by model organisations that have dominated their markets consistently, can lend themselves very well to the healthcare sector, which is primarily a "people-oriented" sector. As change in a modern business context is set to continue in an unrelenting way, most organisations will be presented with the challenge of developing the necessary skills and areas of expertise to enable them to cope with the demands on them, master technological opportunities at their disposal, learn how to exploit modern management concepts and optimise value to all the stakeholders they intend to serve. This paper draws from best practices using the experiences of quality recognised organisations and many admired names through pioneering human resource policies and practices and through clear demonstrations on the benefits of relying on people as the major "asset". Part I of this article addresses the importance of human resources as revealed through models of management for organisational excellence. In particular, the paper refers to the criteria for excellence in relation to people management using the following prestigious and integrative management models: Deming Prize (Japan); European Quality Award Model (Europe); and Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (USA). In addition, this paper illustrates several case studies using organisations known for their pioneering approaches to people management and which led them to win very prestigious quality awards and various international accolades. The paper concludes by reinforcing the point that human resource management in a healthcare context has to be viewed as an integrated set of processes and practices which need to be adhered to from an integrated perspective in order to optimise individuals' performance levels and so that the human potential can be exploited fully.
The success of an organisation is measured by the progress its people make towards its goals and objectives. But, most organisations today operate in fast changing and competitive environments. In turn, these unpredictable conditions impact on the organisation's internal operations. As a result, established skills and competences can become obsolete. Strong and appropriate competences can enhance an organisation's performance. Strategic managers then need to ensure that their organisational skills and competences remain of an appropriate mix and measure. They need to continuously develop and or renew the skills and capabilities of their workforce. Identifying what skills need renewing is not easy but very necessary. Identifying them quickly is harder still. An easy to follow framework that can be adapted at the various levels within the organisation's structure could prove useful as a consistent and relatively speedy format for analysing the organisation's resources, capabilities and development needs. This paper supports the use of such a framework.
Notes the attempts by many companies today to identify innovative compensation strategies that are directly linked to improving organizational performance. Observes that there are many approaches to incentive compensation such as cash bonuses, stock purchase and profit sharing. Examines the individual and group incentive concepts that reward performance based on predetermined organizational goals and metrics, several behavioural theories that can be associated with reward and compensation, and convergent and divergent views and conclusions from the business community.
Multi-skilling has been the most enduring element of patient-focused care in the UK. A recent report from the Manchester University Health Service Management Unit (HSMU) extended the multi-skilling debate and offered a framework for changing National Health Service workforce policy along multi-skilling lines. Examines the main HSMU issues in the light of broader empirical and other evidence. Assesses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to multi-skilling. Concludes that multi-skilling protagonists still face a number of challenges.
Human resource management practices with special reference to the latest developments of the 1990s such as environmental effects and managing diversity, were investigated. The purpose of the study was to unveil how the health care industry can benefit from these new concepts, as well as to describe how the traditional health care facilities can adapt these new ideas. Specific examples were provided to illustrate this point. In compilation of this report, both primary and secondary research was used. As primary research, many reputable individuals in the health care industry were consulted, and asked to comment on the rough draft of this report. Secondary sources included many journal articles, original researches and books that were written on this technical subject. It can be concluded from this research, that the health care industry should adapt the latest methods to compete and survive, such as use more marketing tools to attract human resource management personnel from other industries, promote diversity at the work place, promote from within the company, and cross-train personnel whenever possible. Health care industry has generally lagged behind other industries in securing high-performance individuals and marketing personnel; however, with the development of health maintenance organizations, this trend is changing.
Substance abuse continues to increase and permeate all sectors of US society including the medical profession. This article details the importance of testing everyone associated with health care organizations, including physicians, as a means of protecting patient welfare, increasing quality of care, and reducing negligence lawsuits, as well as providing treatment and recovery opportunities for those with addictions.
This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance.
The "work attitudes-turnover" linkage was compared among four medical-sector occupational groups. In a sample of 707 employees, drawn from eight variously-sized medical-sector sites, intended and actual turnover behavior is predicted. Combining a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, and using two logistic regression models, the direct effect of work attitudes on intended and actual turnover was assessed. The "work attitudes-turnover" was shown to be occupationally-dependent.
This paper is one of a series of three, covering very comprehensively human resource practices in a global and generic context. The series of papers presents practices which are directly of relevance to the health-care context, and which are based on proven, effective and pioneering approaches. The first paper covers practices based on British and European experiences, gathered from world-class organisations that have either been finalists or went on to win prestigious quality awards such as the British and European Quality Awards. The benchmarking analysis presented in this paper is based on the sub-criteria prescribed by the European Quality Awards Model, which include: how people resources are planned and improved; how the skills and capabilities of people are preserved and developed through recruitment, training and career progression; how people and teams agree targets and continuously review performance; how the involvement of everyone in continuous improvement is prompted and people empowered to take appropriate action; how effective top-down and bottom-up communication is achieved.
The need to understand chaos and complexity in organisations has particular importance for health which is bedevilled by the complexity of organisations and the sometimes chaotic nature of its core activities. This article seeks to explore these issues in the context of one of the key functions which is expected to hold together this diversity: Human Resource Management (HRM). An exploration of the nature of HRM in health care as it has evolved indicates that in order for it to have a pivotal role for the future it will need to rethink this role in the changing paradigm which is now emerging; in so doing it could develop as the organisational intelligence for health care in the future facilitating organisational learning and creativity.
The success ofIn recent years, there has been significant interest in the application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) and total quality management (TQM), and patient-focused care (PFC) in health care organisations around the globe. The hospital industry has substantially embraced the concepts of CQI and TQM with the belief that these concepts and programmes will lead to an improvement in both the quality and efficiency with which health services are delivered. The objective of this article is to achieve better outcomes in health care services with fewer resources by studying the implementation of patient-focused care in the health care provision context and particularly in the area of pharmaceutical care management as an integrated process in the delivery of health care in a hospital setting. The changes in health care provision have in many instances meant that the provision of pharmaceutical services needed re-assessing.
This article describes the journey of managing the change from seven separate health providing units to one overall team providing a range of services. To facilitate the change the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award self-assessment model was used. The benefits and limitations of the model are described as are the activities undertaken to achieve a goal of delivering quality care within a customer driven rather than service driven focus. Finally the learning gained from the change is shared in an attempt to help others undertaking a similar journey.