Sustainability is and will be a crucial issue for the present and future generations. The current assumption that natural resources are infinite and that the regenerative capacity of the environment is able to compensate for all human action is no longer acceptable. Hence, sustainability issues will influence all organisational aspects of the human life, from the economical, political, social and environmental points of view. The reason is simple: until now, all human activities have been based on the paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited world's capacity for regeneration; from now on, the awareness of the termination of this assumption means that all related behavioural models must be changed. This is a very impressive objective embracing all fields of culture, economy, technology and much more. A continuing effort, together with a reasonable time span, will be required to pursue this goal. Fortunately, nature and the environment are capable of self-regulation and will give man a chance to recover from the damage he is causing to the earth mother, provided that the will to do so is firmly established. Manufacturing, as the main pillar of the civilised lifestyle, will be strongly affected by the sustainability issues and it will play an important role in establishing a sustainable way ahead. Today, nearly all manufacturing models are based on the old paradigm. Technology, on which the manufacturing is largely based, is asked, together with culture and economy, to give the tools and options for building new solutions towards a sustainable manufacturing concept. Generally speaking, new technology, new business models and new lifestyle models will be the cornerstones of the new sustainable world and this will be particularly true for what concerns the manufacturing sector. Impressive constraints and requirements will affect the industrial sector on the way ahead towards sustainability. Research and development will play a crucial role to this concern, having the responsibility to offer appropriate options to the society for answering the above-mentioned needs. The main evidences on researches challenges expected for sustainable manufacturing are outlined by the authors that have been involved in the IMS international project 'IMS2020: Supporting Global Research for IMS2020 Vision', promoted by the European Commission to prepare a roadmap for future (2020) manufacturing research.
The purpose of this paper is to delineate a green supply chain (GSC) performance measurement framework using an intra-organisational collaborative decision-making (CDM) approach. A fuzzy analytic network process (ANP)-based green-balanced scorecard (GrBSc) has been used within the CDM approach to assist in arriving at a consistent, accurate and timely data flow across all cross-functional areas of a business. A green causal relationship is established and linked to the fuzzy ANP approach. The causal relationship involves organisational commitment, eco-design, GSC process, social performance and sustainable performance constructs. Sub-constructs and sub-sub-constructs are also identified and linked to the causal relationship to form a network. The fuzzy ANP approach suitably handles the vagueness of the linguistics information of the CDM approach. The CDM approach is implemented in a UK-based carpet-manufacturing firm. The performance measurement approach, in addition to the traditional financial performance and accounting measures, aids in firm's decision-making with regard to the overall organisational goals. The implemented approach assists the firm in identifying further requirements of the collaborative data across the supply-cain and information about customers and markets. Overall, the CDM-based GrBSc approach assists managers in deciding if the suppliers' performances meet the industry and environment standards with effective human resource.
The aim of this study was to identify and analyse the key success factors behind successful achievement of environment sustainability in Indian automobile industry supply chains. Here, critical success factors (CSFs) and performance measures of green supply chain management (GSCM) have been identified through extensive literature review and discussions with experts from Indian automobile industry. Based on the literature review, a questionnaire was designed and 123 final responses were considered. Six CSFs to implement GSCM for achieving sustainability and four expected performance measures of GSCM practices implementation were extracted using factor analysis. interpretive ranking process (IRP) modelling approach is employed to examine the contextual relationships among CSFs and to rank them with respect to performance measures. The developed IRP model shows that the CSF 'Competitiveness' is the most important CSF for achieving sustainability in Indian automobile industry through GSCM practices. This study is one of the few that have considered the environmental sustainability practices in the automobile industry in India and their implications on sectoral economy. The results of this study may help the mangers/SC practitioners/Governments/Customers in making strategic and tactical decisions regarding successful implementation of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry with a sustainability focus. The developed framework provides a comprehensive perspective for assessing the synergistic impact of CSFs on GSCM performances and can act as ready reckoner for the practitioners. As there is very limited work presented in literature using IRP, this piece of work would provide a better understanding of this relatively new ranking methodology.
Strategic networks such as collaborative networked organisations (CNOs) and virtual customer communities (VCCs) show a high potential as drivers of value co-creation and co-innovation. Both look at the network structures as a source of jointly value creation and open innovation through access to new skills, knowledge, markets and technologies by sharing risk and integrating complementary competencies. This collaborative endeavour is able to enhance the adaptability and flexibility of CNOs and VCCs value creating systems in order to react in response to external drivers such as collaborative (business) opportunities. Strategic business networks are active entities continuously adapting to their environment in order to enhance their capabilities to respond to short-term business opportunities, and therefore allow their business ecosystems to follow the rhythm of industry dynamics, and customers' changing needs and preferences. Value co-creation is the new trend in open-business models trying to integrate organisations' competencies and involve customers' individual preferences into network and community formations for the co-creation of the next level of value for products, services and experiences to be launched into the market. This article presents a literature review on value co-creation and co-innovation concepts and styles, and proposes a reference framework for creating interface networks, also known as 'experience-centric networks', as enablers for linking networked organisations and customer communities in order to support the establishment of sustainable user-driven and collaborative innovation networks.
The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and operationalise the concept of supply chain management sustainability practices. Based on a multi-stage procedure involving a literature review, expert Q-sort and pre-test process, pilot test and survey of 156 supply chain directors and managers in Ireland, we develop a multidimensional conceptualisation and measure of social and environmental supply chain management sustainability practices. The research findings show theoretically sound constructs based on four underlying sustainable supply chain management practices: monitoring, implementing systems, new product and process development and strategy redefinition. A two-factor model is then identified as the most reliable: comprising process-based and market-based practices.
This study explored contextual or determining factors and their impacts on lean manufacturing in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in food-processing industries. In order to get an in-depth insight into the real situation at the work floor, this study adopted a multiple-case-study research approach. The inherent characteristics of food industries, such as mandatory quality assurance requirements, low shelf life of food products, and the extremely volatile demand and supply presented barriers to lean manufacturing adoption. In addition, the challenges of 'change' in an SME environment are distinct from those faced by large organizations. The small size of the plant, the traditional setup, and inflexible layout make it difficult to implement lean manufacturing in food-processing SMEs. The knowledge of contextual factors influencing lean manufacturing adoption in food processing SMEs will be a contribution to current knowledge. Many studies have explored lean constructs and tools, while far fewer have explored the crucial element of actually implementing these. The study will also help practitioners to anticipate potential obstacles and take proper measures to deal with them during lean implementation.
India is emerging as a new manufacturing destination and many companies are seeking ways to increase the value of their products and services by eliminating unnecessary processes and wasteful practices from their production systems. The powerful lean manufacturing approach that has proved successful as an operations model in developed economies, as well as in some large Indian companies, is now increasingly being recognised by the small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this research is to investigate the adoption of lean production in India and to examine the lean practices deployed by the SMEs. The case study methodology was utilised and this article presents the findings of four SMEs in India that have implemented lean strategy to drive significant improvement in manufacturing performance.
In today's competitive globalised business environment, production cost cutting is a primary issue before operation managers. As a research area, green lean six sigma (GLS) is proposed to have strategic importance in product development towards cutting costs, contributing to optimisation, and achieving sustainability. This research requirement has been realised to draw benefits out of three recent and involved approaches (green, lean and six sigma). In this research, an attempt has been made to address barriers in GLS product development (GLSPD) from an extensive literature review and from experts' opinions towards developing a hierarchical model structuring these barriers. Twenty-one barriers have been identified and sorted from the review of literature and were then validated through discussions with experts. Relationships (contextual in nature) among these barriers have been realised during a brainstorming session. An interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique has been utilised for developing a hierarchical model of barriers in implementing the GLSPD process in the automobile sector of India. A nine-level structural model has been deduced after application of the ISM technique, which shows 'Competition and Uncertainty' as the topmost output of the model and 'Lack of Total Top Management Commitment' as the bottom-level input to other barriers of the model. Further, MICMAC analysis has been also done to classify these barriers for better understanding; seven barriers are identified as driver barriers, nine as dependent, five barriers as linkage and no barrier as autonomous. An analysis of interdependence and interactions among these barriers may help supply chain managers reach a better understanding of barriers. Thus, managers may be helped in prioritising and managing barriers in order to gain a competitive advantage from GLS concept implementation in product development.
Systematic literature review (SLR) is a well-known research method. However, there is a paucity of detailed SLR guidelines in operations management (OM). The recent interest in SLR in OM has not been followed by the same rigour observed in disciplines as medical sciences and public policy. There are no OM-specific SLR protocols, detailed step-by-step methods and reporting procedures. Therefore, this paper provides a step-by-step approach to SLR for OM scholars and an overview of SLR's evolution as a research method in OM and the resulting progression of themes. The step-by-step approach aims to serve as a guideline sufficiently broad to avoid skipping any significant step, but still being easy to be understood and applied. The paper describes procedures for rigourous SLR, reveals a growing use of literature review in OM, specially for qualitative SLR and traditional narrative reviews, assesses contemporary and emerging themes in OM, and provides a research agenda.
The purpose of this research study is to analyze sustainable supply chain (SSC) management practices for Indian automobile industry and to identify the critical factors for its successful implementation. Despite the fact that SSC has been frequently promoted as a means of improving business competitiveness, little empirical evidence exists in the literature validating its positive link with organizational performance. Sustainable supply chain practices (SSCP) not only help in reducing environmental degradation but it also has social and economic implications (as per tipple bottom line approach). For this purpose, empirical data is collected to measure the SSCP prevailing in Indian automobile industry. A structural equation modeling technique is used to build the measurement and structural models. Later, statistical estimates are used to validate the model that has been built. The data analysis helps to determine whether to accept or reject the hypothesis that has been stated based on the structural model. The result shows how SSCP are correlated and help in improving the supply chain performance among the industries being surveyed. It is also observed that environmental and social performance have a positive relationship with economic performance.
This paper presents an empirical study of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in the Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in India. Although the research in the area of GSCM has grown in recent times, the literature has yet to furnish an accepted explanation for why green practices are to be manifested in supply chain management given external and internal pressures. These MSMEs have been involved in such green supply chain practices only to the extent of their participation as suppliers, distributors and in other capacities as business partners. This study confirms and validates that Indian MSMEs face significant pressures from external stakeholders to adopt GSCM practices. Among internal pressures, on-the-job training forces MSMEs in India to adopt GSCM practices. It has been also established that external pressures and adoption of GSCM are fully mediated by internal pressures.
The aim of this article is to analyse the key factors behind the successful implementation of world-class manufacturing practices. Two distinct modelling approaches have been employed to examine the contextual relationship among the critical success factors (CSFs) and to rank them w.r.t. performance areas. CSFs and performance areas were identified through literature review and opinion of experts from industry and academia. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is used to develop a hierarchical structure for analysing the interactions among CSFs. Interpretive ranking process (IRP) is then used to examine the dominance relationship. ISM model highlights the importance of excellent top management over other CSFs, whereas IRP model revealed reduction in energy consumption and waste minimisations as the most important CSF when evaluated against various performance areas. This study also gives a comparative account of ISM and IRP and shows that IRP is a more powerful tool, as it goes one step further and considers the relationship of CSFs with measurable performance indicators.
This paper introduces a literature review of 83 studies dealing with the degree of adoption of lean manufacturing practices around the world, and the links between those practices and organisation performance. The results of this study revealed that lean practices application still occurs in a fragmented way, disregarding the systemic linkage that is essential to lean manufacturing. Forty-one articles have suggested a positive effect of lean practices in at least one operational, financial and/or environmental performance metric. Nevertheless, five studies indicated that some lean practices had a negative effect on operational or financial performance. High demand variability, a perceived result of long-term lean manufacturing implementation, a country/company's organisational culture and the difficulty of traditional costing production systems to measure and compare investments and economic gains from adopting lean manufacturing over time are some of the reasons to explain that negative effect of lean practice on performance.
The main purpose of this research is to develop and deploy an analytical framework for measuring the environmental performance of manufacturing supply chains. This work's theoretical bases combine and reconcile three major areas: supply chain management, environmental management and performance measurement. Researchers have suggested many empirical criteria for green supply chain (GSC) performance measurement and proposed both qualitative and quantitative frameworks. However, these are mainly operational in nature and specific to the focal company. This research develops an innovative GSC performance measurement framework by integrating supply chain processes (supplier relationship management, internal supply chain management and customer relationship management) with organisational decision levels (both strategic and operational). Environmental planning, environmental auditing, management commitment, environmental performance, economic performance and operational performance are the key level constructs. The proposed framework is then applied to three selected manufacturing organisations in the UK. Their GSC performance is measured and benchmarked by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multiple-attribute decision-making technique. The AHP-based framework offers an effective way to measure and benchmark organisations' GSC performance. This study has both theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically it contributes holistic constructs for designing a GSC and managing it for sustainability; and practically it helps industry practitioners to measure and improve the environmental performance of their supply chain.
The transport and logistics sector is of vital importance for the stimulation of trade and hence the economic development of nations. However, over the last few years, this sector has taken central stage in the green agenda due to the negative environmental effects derived from its operations. Several disciplines including operations research and sub-areas of supply chain management such as green supply chains, green logistics and reverse logistics have tried to address this problem. However, despite the work undertaken through these disciplines, theoretical or empirical research into the sequential or simultaneous deployment of the lean and green paradigms, particularly, in the road transport and logistics sector is limited. This paper presents a case study where both paradigms have been combined to improve the transport operations of a world leader logistics organisation in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. To do this, a systematic methodology and a novel tool called Sustainable Transportation Value Stream Map (STVSM) were proposed. The results obtained from the case study indicate that the concurrent deployment of the green and lean paradigms through such methodology and the STVSM tool is an effective approach to improve both operational efficiency and environmental performance of road transport operations. The paper can be used as a guiding reference for transport and logistics organisations to undertake improvement projects similar to the one presented in this paper. Additionally, this research also intends to stimulate scholarly research into the application of lean and green paradigms in the transport and logistics sector to expand the limited research pursued in this area.
The analysis of the root causes of information systems project failure has been the subject of intense scrutiny for some time within industry and the academic community. Researchers have developed various models, notions of failure and categorisations to succinctly classify project failure into a set of key factors for organisations and project managers to focus on in their attempts to avoid failure. This study incorporates a technique titled: interpretive structural modelling as the methodology to formalise the relationships between the selected failure factors. This approach is positioned as a mechanism that can yield greater insights into the relationships between the factors surrounding project failure, thereby developing a better understanding of how these relationships can have a bearing on project outcomes. The findings identify key driving variables that are presented as having significant impact on the other factors within the model. A number of variables are also identified as being heavily dependent on other connected factors highlighting that a failure in one or more of these connected factors is likely to result in a failure in one or more of the dependent factors unless timely steps are taken to address these key issues. This research details a number of practical implications for senior management and project managers as well as the academic community. These considerations form an underlying thread within this study as specific practice-related implications are highlighted and discussed throughout the study.
Increasing social awareness together with the new regulations for carbon and waste management are forcing enterprises to reconsider their supply chains with respect to economic, social and environmental objectives. Furthermore, cap and trade legislation for greenhouse gas emissions introduces a new level of complexity. This article presents a comprehensive methodology to address sustainable supply chain design problems where carbon emissions and total logistics costs, including suppliers and sub-contractors selection, technology acquisition and the choice of transportation modes, are considered in the design phase. The proposed methodology provides decision makers with a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model to determine the trade-off between economic and environmental considerations. This methodology is illustrated through the study of a Canadian firm operating in the steel industry which is facing a new legislation that caps carbon emissions. The results show how emission trading market can be used to reduce the carbon dioxide abatement cost.
Green Lean has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for organisations to pursue both operational and sustainability excellence. The interest on this approach has rapidly risen in both academic and industry circles. However, despite this interest, very limited research has focused on its implementation, and no research has investigated the barriers that hinder the success of such activity. This study investigates the Green Lean implementation barriers and their contextual relationships and effects on the integration and deployment of this approach. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR), Interpretative Structural Modelling and fuzzy Matriced' Impacts Croise's Multiplication Appliqée a UN Classement (MICMAC) analyses were carried out. Fifteen barriers were extracted from the SLR and then validated in consultation with industry and academic experts. The Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method was used to understand the relationship between the fifteen barriers and to develop a hierarchical model of these. The different barriers were classified into 'linkage' and 'dependent' barriers by using MICMAC analysis. The results suggested that all the identified barriers play an important role, and hence can equally act as a significant hurdle to the implementation of Green Lean projects. This study can help managers and policy-makers in better understanding these barriers. Thus, they can be assisted in managing and prioritising barriers towards the successful implementation of Green Lean initiatives for better financial and environmental performance.
Circular supply chain (CSC) emphasises surge in application of reuse, recycling, remanufacturing and thereby promotes transformation from linear to circular model of flow of products. Supply chains of manufacturing industries have become global over the years. Products manufactured in developing nations are being sent to developed nations for mass consumption. Developed nations have regulatory policies, technological knowhow and modern infrastructure to adopt CSC model. Their counterpart is trailing in these aspects. In literature, limited work has been performed on identifying challenges of implementing CSC in developing nations. Therefore, employing literature review and feedback received from experts, 16 important barriers were identified to CSC adoption in India. These barriers were analysed using integrated Interpretive Structural Modelling ? MICMAC approach. The findings will contribute in transforming supply chains thereby bringing economic prosperity, addressing global warming and generating employment opportunities. Finally, crucial policy measures and recommendations are proposed to assist managers and government bodies.
This study presents a literature review of 107 papers on lean healthcare to evaluate its evolution by updating previous literature reviews and to propose a classification and analysis of the papers reviewed. The literature classification was performed based on six parameters: research method, country, healthcare area, implementation, lean tools and methods and results. From the analysis performed, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of the state of the art concerning lean healthcare and indicates current research trends, based on the stage of evolution of the area, that may guide further studies on the subject. An example is lean healthcare expansion to other countries, such as Brazil and the Netherlands. Another aspect is the application of lean healthcare in hospital as a whole, not limited to a specific setting. Finally, a few studies detail the lean implementation process and use infrequently applied tools, present the barriers and main critical factors found in the lean implementation.