To explore the clinical significance of seven diabetes-related serum microRNAs (miR-9, miR-29a, miR-30d, miR34a, miR-124a, miR146a and miR375) during the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), 56 subjects were recruited to this study: 18 cases of newly diagnosed T2D (n-T2D) patients, 19 cases of pre-diabetes individuals (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and/or impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) and 19 cases of T2D-susceptible individuals with normal glucose tolerance (s-NGT). Serum miRNAs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Expression levels of single miRNAs and the expression signatures of miRNAs as a panel were analysed among the three groups. In n-T2D, all 7 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated compared with s-NGT and five were significantly up-regulated compared with pre-diabetes, while miRNA expression was not significantly different between s-NGT and pre-diabetes. By Canonical discriminant analysis, 70.6% of n-T2D subjects (12/17) were recognized by canonical discriminant function, while s-NGT and pre-diabetes subjects could not be discriminated from each other. Similar results were found in Hierarchical Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of all seven miRNAs. In different statistical analysis, miR-34a always showed the most significant differences. We conclude that the expression levels of seven diabetes-related miRNAs in serum were significantly elevated in n-T2D compared with pre-diabetes and/or s-NGT, and the latter two groups featured similar expression patterns of these miRNAs, suggesting that during the pathogenesis of T2D, the peripheral diabetes-related miRNAs have not changed significantly from s-NGT at pre-diabetic stage.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the characteristic expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM.CircRNAs in the peripheral blood from six healthy individuals and six T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis, and an independent cohort study consisting of 20 normal cases, 20 pre-diabetes patients and 20 T2DM patients was conducted to verify the five chosen circRNAs. We then tested hsa_circ_0054633 in a third cohort (control group, n = 60; pre-diabetes group, n = 63; and T2DM group, n = 64) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR).In total, 489 circRNAs were discovered to be differentially expressed between the two groups, and of these, 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Five circRNAs were then selected as candidate biomarkers and further verified in a second cohort. Hsa_circ_0054633 was found to have the largest area under the curve (AUC). The diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested in a third cohort. After introducing the risk factors of T2DM, the hsa_circ_0054633 AUCs for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and T2DM slightly increased from 0.751 (95% confidence interval [0.666–0.835], P < 0.001) to 0.841 ([0.773–0.910], P < 0.001) and from 0.793 ([0.716–0.871], P < 0.001) to 0.834 ([0.762–0.905], P < 0.001), respectively.Hsa_circ_0054633 presented a certain diagnostic capability for pre-diabetes and T2DM.
A state of subclinical systemic inflammation is characteristically present in obesity/insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the study was to develop an integrated measure of the circulating cytokines involved in the subclinical systemic inflammation and evaluate its relation with whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in T2DM. T2DM patients (n = 17, M/F 13/4, age = 55.0 ± 1.7 years, BMI = 33.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2, HbA1c = 7.7 ± 0.3 %) and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) subjects (n = 15, M/F 7/8, age = 49.1 ± 2.5 years, BMI = 31.8 ± 1.2 kg/m2, HbA1c = 5.6 ± 0.1 %) were studied in a cross-sectional design. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was quantified by the euglycemic clamp. Beta-cell function [disposition index (DI)] was calculated using insulin and glucose values derived from an oral glucose tolerance test and the euglycemic clamp. Body fat mass was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma cytokine [TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, osteopontin, fractalkine and adiponectin] values were divided into quintiles. A score ranging from 0 (lowest quintile) to 4 (highest quintile) was assigned. The inflammatory score (IS) was the sum of each cytokine score from which adiponectin score was subtracted in each study subject. Inflammatory cytokine levels were all higher in T2DM. IS was higher in T2DM as compared to NGT (10.0 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.8; p < 0.001). IS positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.638, p < 0.001), 1-h plasma glucose (r = 0.483, p = 0.005), 2-h plasma glucose (r = 0.611, p < 0.001) and HbA1c (r = 0.469, p = 0.007). IS was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = −0.478, p = 0.006) and DI (r = −0.523, p = 0.002). IS did not correlate with BMI and body fat mass. IS was an independent predictor of fasting plasma glucose and had a high sensibility and sensitivity to predict insulin resistance (M/I < 4). A state of subclinical inflammation defined and quantifiable by inflammatory score including TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, osteopontin, fractalkine and adiponectin is associated with both hyperglycemia and whole-body insulin resistance in T2DM.
An increased oxidative stress and a decreased life span of erythrocytes (RBCs) are reported in patients with diabetes. Aim of this study was to assess in RBCs from patients with type 2 diabetes whether downstream effector mechanisms of apoptosis, such as activation of caspase-3, is operative, and whether an iron-related oxidative imbalance, occurring inside RBCs and in plasma, could be involved in caspase-3 activation. In 26 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 12 healthy subjects, oxidative stress was evaluated by means of different markers; non-protein-bound iron, methemoglobin and glutathione were determined in RBCs, and non-protein-bound iron was also determined in plasma. Erythrocyte caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an immunosorbent enzyme assay. Arterial hypertension, demographic and standard biochemical data were also evaluated. The results show, for the first time, that type 2 diabetic RBCs put into motion caspase-3 activation, which is significantly higher than in control RBCs. Such an effector mechanism of “eryptosis” was positively correlated to blood glucose levels and to the increased plasma NPBI level. Caspase-3 activation was also positively correlated to occurrence of arterial hypertension. The results suggest that an extracellular oxidative milieu can be responsible for erythrocyte caspase-3 activation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In turn, caspase-3 activation can be envisaged as a novel mechanism which, by impairing the maintenance of erythrocyte shape and function, might contribute to the shortened life span of RBCs from patients with type 2 diabetes and to hemorheological disorders observed in these patients.
The aim of the English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme is to reduce the risk of sight loss amongst people with diabetes by the prompt identification and effective treatment if necessary of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, at the appropriate stage during the disease process. In order to achieve the delivery of evidence-based, population-based screening programmes, it was recognised that certain key components were required. It is necessary to identify the eligible population in order to deliver the programme to the maximum number of people with diabetes. The programme is delivered and supported by suitably trained, competent, and qualified, clinical and non-clinical staff who participate in recognised ongoing Continuous Professional Development and Quality Assurance schemes. There is an appropriate referral route for those with screen-positive disease for ophthalmology treatment and for assessment of the retinal status in those with poor-quality images. Appropriate assessment of control of their diabetes is also important in those who are screen positive. Audit and internal and external quality assurance schemes are embedded in the service. In England, two-field mydriatic digital photographic screening is offered annually to all people with diabetes aged 12 years and over. The programme commenced in 2003 and reached population coverage across the whole of England by 2008. Increasing uptake has been achieved and the current annual uptake of the programme in 2015-16 is 82.8% when 2.59 million people with diabetes were offered screening and 2.14 million were screened. The benefit of the programme is that, in England, diabetic retinopathy/maculopathy is no longer the leading cause of certifiable blindness in the working age group.
To analyze retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer (GCL) by structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR). A total of 25 eyes of 25 consecutive T1DM patients without signs of DR were prospectively recruited and compared to 25 healthy subjects (control eyes). All patients underwent OCT-A (CIRRUS HD-OCT model 5000, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and structural OCT. Qualitative and quantitative analyses with vessel density were performed on OCT-A images in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and choriocapillaris for all patients. By means of OCT-A, a rarefaction of the perifoveal capillary network in SCP was detected in 7 out of 25 eyes. No significant difference was found in FAZ area of both SCP and DCP comparing diabetic and control groups. By analyzing the DCP, diabetic eyes revealed a significant decreased vessel density compared to control eyes [0.464 +/- 0.016 and 0.477 +/- 0.014, respectively (p = 0.005)]. Instead, no significant difference was found in the vessel density of all-retina plexus, SCP and choriocapillaris. By RFNL and GCL thickness analysis, no significant differences were disclosed between diabetics and healthy subjects. We demonstrated the ability of OCT-A to disclose early vascular alterations in patients with T1DM diagnosed as without any signs of DR on the basis of fundus biomicroscopy. Our results also suggest that microvascular changes could precede detectable damage of diabetic neuroretinopathy.
Irisin, a novel myokine, was proposed to be able to regulate glucose homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated with cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and vascular atherosclerosis in humans remain unsettled. To determine the associations between circulating irisin levels, cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of vascular atherosclerosis, a cross-sectional evaluation of circulating irisin levels and cardio-metabolic variables in 192 White adults was conducted. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance were assessed by euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp. Common carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, irisin levels were positively correlated with body fat mass (r = 0.12, P < 0.05), fasting (r = 0.17, P < 0.01), 2 h post-load insulin (r = 0.15, P < 0.02) levels, and IMT (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) and were negatively correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = −0.18, P = 0.007), Matsuda index (r = −0.13, P < 0.04), disposition index (r = −0.278, P < 0.0001), and insulin clearance (r = −0.26, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, individuals in the highest tertile of irisin levels exhibited higher body fat mass (P < 0.01), fasting (P < 0.05), 2 h post-load (P < 0.01) insulin levels, carotid IMT (P < 0.001), lower insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.001), Matsuda index (P < 0.01), disposition index (P < 0.01), and insulin clearance (P < 0.001) as compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of circulating irisin levels. Irisin is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and positively associated with carotid IMT in humans, suggesting either increased release by adipose/muscle tissue in response to deterioration of insulin sensitivity or a compensatory increase in irisin to overcome an underlying irisin resistance.
More than several hundreds of millions of people will be diabetic and obese over the next decades in front of which the actual therapeutic approaches aim at treating the consequences rather than causes of the impaired metabolism. This strategy is not efficient and new paradigms should be found. The wide analysis of the genome cannot predict or explain more than 10–20% of the disease, whereas changes in feeding and social behavior have certainly a major impact. However, the molecular mechanisms linking environmental factors and genetic susceptibility were so far not envisioned until the recent discovery of a hidden source of genomic diversity, i.e., the metagenome. More than 3 million genes from several hundreds of species constitute our intestinal microbiome. First key experiments have demonstrated that this biome can by itself transfer metabolic disease. The mechanisms are unknown but could be involved in the modulation of energy harvesting capacity by the host as well as the low-grade inflammation and the corresponding immune response on adipose tissue plasticity, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and even the secondary cardiovascular events. Secreted bacterial factors reach the circulating blood, and even full bacteria from intestinal microbiota can reach tissues where inflammation is triggered. The last 5 years have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota, at its molecular level, is a causal factor early in the development of the diseases. Nonetheless, much more need to be uncovered in order to identify first, new predictive biomarkers so that preventive strategies based on pre- and probiotics, and second, new therapeutic strategies against the cause rather than the consequence of hyperglycemia and body weight gain.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline. Impaired insulin signaling, inflammation, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and oxidative stress all play an essential role in the pathogenesis of both AD and diabetic complications. Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that these pathways are involved in the increased risk of dementia that occurs in the T2D population. The early diagnosis of cognitive impairment and the identification of the subset of patients at a higher risk of developing AD is a challenge for healthcare providers, and meeting it will permit us to implement a personalized medicine, which is an essential issue in diabetes care with significant therapeutic implications. The main gaps that should be filled to achieve this objective are examined.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D); they regulate several metabolic pathways including insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis, so their potential as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis has became increasingly appreciated. In this study, we explore serum miRNA profiles in T2D patients. A total of ten candidate miRNAs were identified by Solexa sequencing scanning and followed by a stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to assess these candidate serum miRNAs. The results of qRT-PCR assessment revealed low serum levels of miR-23a, let-7i, miR-486, miR-96, miR-186, miR-191, miR-192, and miR-146a in T2D. Except for significantly lower in T2D and pre-diabetes patients compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls (P = 2.87E−05 and P = 3.75E−02), the levels of miR-23a demonstrated also significant decline in T2D patients compared with pre-diabetes patients (P = 1.06E−02). This marker yielded an AUC of 0.835 (95 % CI 0.717–0.954). At a cutoff value of 1.645, the sensitivity was 79.2 % and the specificity was 75.0 % in discriminating T2D patients from NGT normal controls. These results revealed that serum miR-23a was a valuable biomarker for early detection of T2D and pre-diabetes with NGT.
MicroRNAs are a class of negative regulators of gene expression, which have been shown to be involved in the development of endocrine pancreas and in the regulation of insulin secretion. Since type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by beta cell dysfunction, we aimed at evaluating expression levels of miR-124a and miR-375, both involved in the control of beta cell function, in human pancreatic islets obtained from T2D and from age-matched non-diabetic organ donors.We analyzed miR-124a and miR-375 expression by real-time qRT-PCR in human pancreatic islets and evaluated the potential role of miR-124a by overexpressing or silencing such miRNA in MIN6 pseudoislets.We identified a major miR-124a hyperexpression in T2D human pancreatic islets with no differential expression of miR-375. Of note, miR-124a overexpression in MIN6 pseudoislets resulted in an impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition, miR-124a silencing in MIN6 pseudoislets resulted in increased expression of predicted target genes (Mtpn, Foxa2, Flot2, Akt3, Sirt1 and NeuroD1) involved in beta cell function. For Mtpn and Foxa2, we further demonstrated the actual binding of miR-124a to their 3UTR sequences by luciferase assay.We uncovered a major hyperexpression of miR-124a in T2D islets, whose silencing resulted in increased expression of target genes of major importance for beta cell function and whose overexpression impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, leading to the hypothesis that an altered miR-124a expression may contribute to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
The role of neutrophils in diabetes and its complications is unclear. Upon challenge with microbes and inflammatory triggers, neutrophils release enzymes and nuclear material, forming neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) and thereby dying by NETosis. We herein tested NET formation and NETosis products in high glucose and in the setting of type 2 diabetes (T2D).NETosis was assessed in vitro in cells exposed to 0, 5, 25 mM glucose and 25 mM mannitol, DMSO and PMA using immunofluorescence staining for elastase, DNA and chromatin. Single-cell morphometric analysis was used to detect enter of elastase in the nucleus and extrusion of nuclear material. Release of NETs was quantified by staining with Hoechst 33342. In 38 T2D and 38 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic individuals, we determined plasma elastase, mono- and oligonucleosomes and double-strand (ds) DNA, as circulating NETosis products.NETosis was accurately reproduced in vitro: high (25 mM) glucose increased NETosis rate and release of NETs compared with 5 mM glucose and 25 mM mannitol. T2D patients showed increased plasma elastase, mono- and oligonucleosomes and dsDNA compared with non-diabetic control individuals. A positive correlation was found between HbA1c and mono- and oligonucleosomes, whereas dsDNA was correlated with the presence of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Serum IL-6 concentrations were higher in T2D compared with CTRL and correlated with serum dsDNA levels. High glucose and hyperglycemia increase release of NETs and circulating markers of NETosis, respectively. This finding provides a link among neutrophils, inflammation and tissue damage in diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline. Impaired insulin signaling, inflammation, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and oxidative stress all play an essential role in the pathogenesis of both AD and diabetic complications. Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that these pathways are involved in the increased risk of dementia that occurs in the T2D population. The early diagnosis of cognitive impairment and the identification of the subset of patients at a higher risk of developing AD is a challenge for healthcare providers, and meeting it will permit us to implement a personalized medicine, which is an essential issue in diabetes care with significant therapeutic implications. The main gaps that should be filled to achieve this objective are examined.
Increasing evidence suggests a potential role of circulating miRNAs as clinical biomarkers, and loss of miRNA-126 has been proposed as a predictor of type 2 diabetes onset. However, a systematic analysis of circulating miRNAs in type 1 diabetic patients with micro-/macrovascular complications has not yet been performed.A cross-sectional nested case–control study from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study of 455 type 1 diabetic patients was performed. Case subjects (n = 312) were defined as those with one or more complications of diabetes; control subjects (n = 143) were those with no evidence of any complication. A differential miRNA expression profiling was performed in pooled serum samples from cases and controls. Furthermore, miR-126 levels were quantified by qPCR in all individual samples and associations with diabetic complications investigated.Twenty-five miRNAs differed in pooled samples from cases and controls. miR-126 levels were significantly lower in case than in control subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. In logistic regression analyses, miR-126 was negatively associated with all complications (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI 0.75–0.96) as well as with each micro-/macrovascular complication examined separately. This was likely dependent of diabetes as associations were no longer significant after adjustment for both hyperglycemia and diabetes duration. However, a significant 25 % risk reduction, independent of age, sex, A1C, and diabetes duration, was still observed for proliferative retinopathy (OR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.59–0.95).In this large cohort of type 1 diabetic subjects, we found that miR-126 levels are associated with vascular complications of diabetes, particularly with proliferative retinopathy.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with both types of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. The classical, five-stage natural history of DN, after an initial phase of hyperfiltration, is characterized by a progressive increase of albuminuria from normoalbuminuria to proteinuria, followed by a decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Accumulating evidence indicates that clinical course of DN has changed profoundly, likely as a consequence of changes in treatment. In fact, remission/regression of microalbuminuria is a common feature of both type 1 and 2 diabetes which far outweighs progression to proteinuria. Moreover, GFR loss has been shown to occur independently of albuminuria or even in the absence of it. Nonalbuminuric renal impairment probably represents a different pathway to loss of renal function, which might recognize different pathogenic mechanisms, prognostic implications, and possibly therapeutic measures, as compared with the albuminuric pathway. The nonalbuminuric phenotype might be related to macroangiopathy instead of microangiopathy and/or be the consequence of repeated and/or unresolved episodes of acute kidney injury, even of mild degree. Reduced GFR and albuminuria are both powerful risk factor for cardiovascular events, whereas albuminuria appears to predict death and progression to ESRD better than GFR loss. Finally, it is unclear whether reduced GFR and albuminuria warrant different interventions and whether GFR decline may also regress in response to treatment, as proteinuria does. Further epidemiological, pathologic, pathophysiological, and intervention studies are needed to clarify the distinctive features of nonalbuminuric renal impairment.
There is concern about the infection-related safety profile of sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. We aimed to determine the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on genitourinary and other infections via systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify double-blinded RCTs enrolling ≥ 50 patients with type 2 diabetes which compared an SGLT-2 inhibitor to placebo or active comparator. Two independent reviewers extracted data and appraised study quality. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Eighty-six RCTs enrolling 50,880 patients were included. SGLT-2 inhibitors increased the risk of genital infections compared to placebo (relative risk [RR] 3.37, 95% CI 2.89–3.93, I 2 0%) and active comparator (RR 3.89, 95% CI 3.14–4.82, I 2 0.3%). The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) was not increased with SGLT-2 inhibitors compared to placebo (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.11, I 2 0%) or active comparator (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.25, I 2 22%). In drug-specific analyses, only dapagliflozin 10 mg daily was associated with a significantly increased risk of UTI compared to placebo (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10–1.61, I 2 0%). SGLT-2 inhibitors were associated with a reduced risk of gastroenteritis (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20–0.72, I 2 0%) but did not affect the risk of respiratory tract infections.SGLT-2 inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of genital tract infections. Although there is no association overall between SGLT-2 inhibitors and UTI, higher doses of dapagliflozin are associated with an increased risk.
Type 2 diabetes, a common metabolic disease in older people, is a major risk factor for functional limitation, impaired mobility, and loss of independence. In older people, the pathogenesis of functional limitation and disability is complex and multifactorial. A number of potential pathways are involved including cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, overweight, osteoarthritis, visual deficit, and cognitive impairment, conditions that are all more prevalent among patients with diabetes. Sarcopenia, a geriatric condition characterized by a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, is also involved in the pathogenesis of functional limitations and disability. Recent research has shown that older patients with type 2 diabetes are often affected by skeletal muscle impairment, leading to reduced muscle strength and physical function. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, muscle fat infiltration, and peripheral neuropathies are hypothesized as the fundamental biological mechanisms leading to muscle impairment in people with diabetes. This review summarizes the current literature on the biological pathways responsible for skeletal muscle dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and analyzes the role of decline in muscle strength and quality on the association between diabetes and mobility disability.
The progressive increase of insulin resistance observed in pregnancy contributes to the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is controversy whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to abnormal glycemic regulation in pregnancy. We tested the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and: 1) the risk of developing GDM; 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, beta cell function and compensation indices in a large population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women. Participants (n = 655) were seen at first (6–13 weeks) and second (24–28 weeks) trimesters for blood samples. At first trimester, 25OHD levels were measured. At second trimester, glucose and insulin were measured 3 times during the oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCins/gluc) and beta cell compensation (ISSI-2). Based on IADPSG criteria, 54 participants (8.2 %) developed GDM. Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM even after adjustment for vitamin D confounding factors and GDM risk factors (OR = 1.48 per decrease of one SD in 25OHD levels; P = 0.04). Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR (r = − 0.08; P = 0.03), lower Matsuda index (r = 0.13; P = 0.001) and lower ISSI-2 (r = 0.08; P = 0.04). After adjustment for confounders, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCins/gluc. Our results suggest that low levels of 25OHD at first trimester are (1) an independent risk factor for developing GDM and (2) associated with insulin resistance at second trimester.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with immunomodulatory properties. We tested the ability of MSCs to delay islet allograft rejection.Mesenchymal stem cells were generated in vitro from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice bone marrow, and their immunomodulatory properties were tested in vitro. We then tested the effect of a local or systemic administration of heterologous and autologous MSCs on graft survival in a fully allogeneic model of islet transplantation (BALB/c islets into C57BL/6 mice).In vitro, autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs abrogated immune cell proliferation in response to alloantigens and skewed the immune response toward a Th2 profile. A single dose of autologous MSCs co-transplanted under the kidney capsule with allogeneic islets delayed islet rejection, reduced graft infiltration, and induced long-term graft function in 30 % of recipients. Based on ex vivo analysis of recipient splenocytes, the use of autologous MSCs did not appear to have any systemic effect on the immune response toward graft alloantigens. The systemic injection of autologous MSCs or the local injection of heterologous MSCs failed to delay islet graft rejection.Autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs showed multiple immunoregulatory properties in vitro and delayed allograft rejection in vivo when co-transplanted with islets; however, they failed to prevent rejection when injected systemically. Autologous MSCs thus appear to produce a local immunoprivileged site, which promotes graft survival.
To determine cut-off points of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S), and fasting insulin for identifying the subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Iranian adults using data from a prospective population-based study. From participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 4942 Iranian subjects, aged 20–86 years, were followed for incident T2DM. Fasting serum insulin was determined by the electrochemiluminescence immunoasaay. The associations between HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, HOMA-S, and fasting insulin and incident T2DM were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, HOMA-S, and fasting insulin.After 9.2 year follow-up, 346 (7.0 %) incident cases of T2DM were identified; the risk-factor-adjusted hazard ratios for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, HOMA1-B, HOMA2-B, HOMA1-S, HOMA2-S, and insulin were 1.15, 1.70, 0.732, 0.997, 0.974, 0.986, and 1.01 in women and 1.37, 1.67, 0.588, 0.993, 0.986, 0.991, and 1.06 in men, respectively (all p < 0.05 except for HOMA2-B in women). Optimal cut-off points for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, HOMA1-B, HOMA2-B, HOMA1-S, HOMA2-S, and insulin were 1.85, 1.41, 86.2, 72.5, 54.1, 63.7, and 11.13 µU/ml in women and 2.17, 1.18, 67.1, 74.6, 46.1, 74.1, and 9.16 µU/ml in men, respectively.HOMA-IR, HOMA-B (except for HOMA2-B in women), HOMA-S, and fasting insulin were independent predictors of T2DM. Optimal cut-off points of HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, HOMA-S, and fasting serum insulin were determined from a population-based study for identifying incident T2DM.