The Coulomb force, established in the rest frame of a source-charge Q, when transformed to a new frame moving with a velocity V has a form F = q E + q v × B, where E = E′∥ + γE′⊥ and B = (1/c 2)v × E and E′ is the electric field in the rest frame of the source. The quantities E and B are then manifestly interdependent. We prove that they are determined by Maxwell's equations, so they represent the electric and magnetic fields in the new frame and the force F is the well known from experiments Lorentz force. In this way Maxwell's equations may be discovered theoretically for this particular situation of uniformly moving sources. The general solutions of the discovered Maxwell's equations lead us to fields produced by accelerating sources.
We show that the Dirac-von Neumann formalism for quantum mechanics can be obtained as an approximation of classical statistical field theory. This approximation is based on the Taylor expansion (up to terms of the second order) of classical physical variables – maps f : Ω → R, where Ω is the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. The space of classical statistical states consists of Gaussian measures ρ on Ω having zero mean value and dispersion σ2(ρ) ≈ h. This viewpoint to the conventional quantum formalism gives the possibility to create generalized quantum formalisms based on expansions of classical physical variables in the Taylor series up to terms of nth order and considering statistical states ρ having dispersion σ2(ρ) = hn (for n = 2 we obtain the conventional quantum formalism).
We present a three-stage quantum cryptographic protocol based on public key cryptography in which each party uses its own secret key. Unlike the BB84 protocol, where the qubits are transmitted in only one direction and classical information exchanged thereafter, the communication in the proposed protocol remains quantum in each stage. A related system of key distribution is also described.
We develop a prequantum classical statistical model in that the role of hidden variables is played by classical (vector) fields. We call this model Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory (PCSFT). The correspondence between classical and quantum quantities is asymptotic, so we call our approach asymptotic dequantization. We construct the complex representation of PCSFT. In particular, the conventional Schrödinger equation is obtained as the complex representation of the system of Hamilton equations on the infinite-dimensional phase space. In this note we pay the main attention to interpretation of so called pure quantum states (wave functions) in PCSFT, especially stationary states. We show, see Theorem 2, that pure states of QM can be considered as labels for Gaussian measures concentrated on one dimensional complex subspaces of phase space that are invariant with respect to the Schrödinger dynamics. “A quantum system in a stationary state ψ” in PCSFT is nothing else than a Gaussian ensemble of classical fields (fluctuations of the vacuum field of a very small magnitude) which is not changed in the process of Schrödinger's evolution. We interpret in this way the problem of stability of hydrogen atom. One of unexpected consequences of PCSFT is the infinite dimension of physical space on the prequantum scale.
Herein we present a whole new approach that leads to the end results of the general theory of relativity via just the law of conservation of energy (broadened to embody the mass and energy equivalence of the special theory of relativity) and quantum mechanics. We start with the following postulate. Postulate: The rest mass of an object bound to a celestial body amounts less than its rest mass measured in empty space, and this, as much as its binding energy vis-á-vis the gravitational field of concern.The decreased rest mass is further dilated by the Lorentz factor if the object in hand is in motion in the gravitational field of concern. The overall relativistic energy must be constant on a stationary trajectory. This yields the equation of motion driven by the celestial body of concern, via the relationship e α / √ 1 − r 0 2 / e 0 2 = constant, along with the definition α = GM / re 0 2 ; here M is the mass of the celestial body creating the gravitational field of concern; G is the universal gravitational constant, measured in empty space it comes into play in Newton's law of gravitation, which is assumed though to be valid for static masses only; r points to the location picked on the trajectory of the motion, the center of M being the origin of coordinates, as assessed by the distant observer; v 0 is the tangential velocity of the object at r; c 0 is the ceiling of the speed of light in empty space; v 0 and c 0 remain the same for both the local observer and the distant observer, just the same way as that framed by the special theory of relativity.The differentiation of the above relationship leads to− GM / r 2 (1 − v 0 2 / c 0 2 ) = v 0 dr dv0 or, via v 0 = dr / dt, − GM / r 2 (1 − v 0 2 / c 0 2 ) ṟ / r = d?? 0 / dt: ?? is the outward looking unit vector along r; the latter differential equation is the classical Newton's Equation of Motion, were v 0, negligible as compared to c 0; this equation is valid for any object, including a light photon.Taking into account the quantum mechanical stretching of lengths due to the rest mass decrease in the gravitational field, the above equation can be transformed into an equation written in terms of the proper lengths, yielding well the end results of the general theory of relativity, though through a completely different set up.
Some aspects of the N dimensional Kratzer-Fues potential are discussed, which is an extension of the combined Coulomb-like potential with inverse quadratic potential in N dimensions. The analytical solutions obtained (eigenfunctions and eigenvalues) are dimensionally dependent, so also, the solutions depend on the value of the coefficient of the inverse quadratic term. The expectation values for , and the virial theorem for this potential are obtained and the values are also dimensions and parameter dependent.
Conventional relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the Klein-Gordon equation, does not possess a natural probabilistic interpretation in configuration space. The Bohmian interpretation, in which probabilities play a secondary role, provides a viable interpretation of relativistic quantum mechanics. We formulate the Bohmian interpretation of many-particle wave functions in a Lorentz-covariant way. In contrast with the nonrelativistic case, the relativistic Bohmian interpretation may lead to measurable predictions on particle positions even when the conventional interpretation does not lead to such predictions.
General arguments in favor of the necessity of a wave packet description of neutrino oscillations are presented, drawing from analogies with other wave phenomena. We present a wave packet description of neutrino oscillations in stationary beams using the density matrix formalism. Recent claims of the necessity of an equal energy of different massive neutrinos are refuted.
A modified de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) approach to quantum mechanics is presented. In this new deterministic theory, which uses complex methods in an intermediate step, the problem of zero velocity for bound states encountered in the dBB formulation does not appear. Also, this approach is equivalent to standard quantum mechanics when averages of observables like position, momentum and energy are taken.
It is demonstrated that hidden variables of a certain type follow logically from a certain local causality requirement (“Bell Locality”) and the empirically well-supported predictions of quantum theory for the standard EPR-Bell set up. The demonstrated hidden variables are precisely those needed for the derivation of the Bell Inequalities. We thus refute the widespread view that empirical violations of Bell Inequalities leave open a choice of whether to reject (i) locality or (ii) hidden variables. Both principles are indeed assumed in the derivation of the inequalities, but since, as we demonstrate here, (ii) actually follows from (i), there is no choice but to blame the violation of Bell's Inequality on (i). Our main conclusion is thus no Bell Local theory can be consistent with what is known from experiment about the correlations exhibited by separated particles. Aside from our conclusion being based on a different sense of locality this conclusion resembles one that has been advocated recently by H.P. Stapp. We therefore also carefully contrast the argument presented here to that proposed by Stapp.
The Schrödinger-Robertson inequality for relativistic position and momentum operators X μ, P ν, μ, ν = 0, 1, 2, 3, is interpreted in terms of Born reciprocity and ‘non-commutative’ relativistic position-momentum space geometry. For states which saturate the Schrödinger-Robertson inequality, a typology of semiclassical limits is pointed out, characterised by the orbit structure within its unitary irreducible representations, of the full invariance group of Born reciprocity, the so-called ‘quaplectic’ group U(3, 1) #x2297;s H(3, 1) (the semi-direct product of the unitary relativistic dynamical symmetry U(3, 1) with the Weyl-Heisenberg group H(3, 1)). The example of the ‘scalar’ case, namely the relativistic oscillator, and associated multimode squeezed states, is treated in detail. In this case, it is suggested that the semiclassical limit corresponds to the separate emergence of spacetime and matter, in the form of the stress-energy tensor, and the quadrupole tensor, which are in general reciprocally equivalent.
A theoretical quantum neural network model is proposed using a nonlinear Schrödinger wave equation. The model proposes that there exists a nonlinear Schrödinger wave equation that mediates the collective response of a neural lattice. The model is used to explain eye movements when tracking moving targets. Using a recurrent quantum neural network(RQNN) while simulating the eye tracking model, two very interesting phenomena are observed. First, as eye sensor data is processed in a classical neural network, a wave packet is triggered in the quantum neural network.This wave packet moves like a particle. Second, when the eye tracks a fixed target, this wave packet moves not in a continuous but rather in a discrete mode. This result reminds one of the saccadic movements of the eye consisting of ‘jumps’ and ‘rests’. However, such a saccadic movement is intertwined with smooth pursuit movements when the eye has to track a dynamic trajectory. In a sense, this is the first theoretical model explaining the experimental observation reported concerning eye movements in a static scene situation. The resulting prediction is found to be very precise and efficient in comparison to classical objective modeling schemes such as the Kalman filter.
Our recently proposed inertial transformations of the space and time variables based on absolute simultaneity imply the existence of a single isotropic inertial reference system (“privileged system”). We show, however, that aresynchronization of clocks in all inertial systems is possible leading to a different, arbitrarily chosen,isotropic “privileged” system. Such a resynchronization does not modify any one of the empirical consequences of the theory,which is thus compatible with a formulation of the relativity principle weaker than adopted in Einstein’s theory of special relativity.
We discuss the time analysis of multiple internal reflections during one-dimensional tunneling of non-relativistic particles and photons with sub-barrier energies through potential barriers. The approach exploited is a simple analytic continuation from real (over-barrier) wave numbers to imaginary (sub-barrier) wave numbers. It is shown in particular that not only the general effective tunneling velocity, but also every effective transmission (tunneling) velocity for at least the first intermediate stage between successive internal reflections is superluminal. An interpretation of this seemingly strange fact is given in terms of an effective deformation of spacetime inside the barrier. The results obtained are interpreted with the help of the Fourier expansion over the virtual momentum space. A comparison with the instanton approach is also made.
A new relation for the density parameter Ω is derived as a function of expansion velocity υ based on Carmeli's cosmology. This density function is used in the luminosity distance relation D L. A heretofore neglected source luminosity correction factor (1 − (υ/c)2)−1/2 is now included in D L. These relations are used to fit type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data, giving consistent, well-behaved fits over a broad range of redshift 0.1 < z < 2. The best fit to the data for the local density parameter is Ωm = 0.0401 ± 0.0199. Because Ωm is within the baryonic budget there is no need for any dark matter to account for the SNe Ia redshift luminosity data. From this local density it is determined that the redshift where the universe expansion transitions from deceleration to acceleration is z t = 1.095+0.264 −0.155. Because the fitted data covers the range of the predicted transition redshift z t, there is no need for any dark energy to account for the expansion rate transition. We conclude that the expansion is now accelerating and that the transition from a closed to an open universe occurred about 8.54 Gyr ago.
We study the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of bosonic relativistic quantum mechanics and argue that the negative densities and superluminal velocities that appear in this interpretation do not lead to inconsistencies. After that, we study particle trajectories in bosonic quantum field theory. A new continuously changing hidden variable - the effectivity of a particle (a number between 0 and 1) - is postulated. This variable leads to a causal description of processes of particle creation and destruction. When the field enters one of nonoverlapping wave-functional packets with a definite number of particles, then the effectivity of the particles corresponding to this packet becomes equal to 1, while that of all other particles becomes equal to 0.
The dynamics of complex systems can be mapped onto trajectories on their energy landscape. The properties of such trajectories as a function of temperature, and thus the chances of the system to enter certain regions of the state space, can be understood in terms of such energy landscapes. Here we show that their kinetic features are of equal importance as the previously discussed energetic and entropic features. Especially for barrier-crossing movements on mountainous landscapes, we observe competing effects between these three aspects, which can lead to surprising inversions in the chances to find certain states such as local minima in the systems.
The de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory is generalized in such a way that it describes trajectories of relativistic fermionic particles and antiparticles and provides a causal description of the processes of their creation and destruction. A general method of causal interpretation of quantum systems is developed and applied to a causal interpretation of fermionic quantum field theory represented by e-number valued wave functionals.