Chronic kidney disease is a graded and independent risk factor for substantial comorbidity and death. We aimed to examine new onset of chronic kidney disease in patients with small, renal cortical tumours undergoing radical or partial nephrectomy. We did a retrospective cohort study of 662 patients with a normal concentration of serum creatinine and two healthy kidneys undergoing elective partial or radical nephrectomy for a solitary, renal cortical tumour (≤4 cm) between 1989 and 2005 at a referral cancer centre. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated with the abbreviated Modification in Diet and Renal Disease Study equation. Separate analysis was undertaken, with chronic kidney disease defined as GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m and GFR lower than 45 mL/min per 1·73 m . 171 (26%) patients had pre-existing chronic kidney disease before surgery. After surgery, the 3-year probability of freedom from new onset of GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m was 80% (95% CI 73–85) after partial nephrectomy and 35% (28–43; p<0·0001) after radical nephrectomy; corresponding values for GFRs lower than 45 mL/min per 1·73 m were 95% (91–98) and 64% (56–70; p<0·0001), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that radical nephrectomy remained an independent risk factor for patients developing new onset of GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m (hazard ratio 3·82 [95% CI 2·75–5·32]) and 45 mL/min per 1·73 m (11·8 [6·24–22·4]; both p<0·0001). Because the baseline kidney function of patients with renal cortical tumours is lower than previously thought, accurate assessment of kidney function is essential before surgery. Radical nephrectomy is a significant risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease and might no longer be regarded as the gold standard treatment for small, renal cortical tumours.
Purpose: To assess the current indications, perioperative morbidity, and stone-free outcomes for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) worldwide. Patients and Methods: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) collected prospective data for consecutive patients who were treated with PCNL at centers around the world for 1 year. PCNL was performed according to study protocol and local clinical practice guidelines. Stone load and location were recorded, and postoperative complications were graded according to the modified Clavien grading system. Results: Between November 2007 and December 2009, 5803 patients were treated at 96 centers in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, and Australia. Staghorn calculus was present in 1466 (27.5%) patients, and 940, 956, and 2603 patients had stones in the upper, interpolar, and lower pole calices, respectively. The majority of procedures (85.5%) were uneventful. Major procedure-related complications included significant bleeding (7.8%), renal pelvis perforation (3.4%), and hydrothorax (1.8%). Blood transfusion was administered in 328 (5.7%) patients, and fever >38.5 degrees C occurred in 10.5% of patients. The distribution of scores in modified Clavien grades was: No complication (79.5%), I (11.1%), II (5.3%), IIIa (2.3%), IIIb (1.3%), IVa (0.3%), IVb (0.2%), or V (0.03%). At follow-up. the 30-day stone-free rate was 75.7%, and 84.5% of patients did not need additional treatment. Conclusion: With a high success rate and a low major complication rate, PCNL is an effective and safe technique overall for minimally invasive removal of kidney stones
Purpose: To assess the current indications for ureteroscopy (URS) treatment, outcome in terms of stone-free rate, and intra- and postoperative complications using the modified Clavien grading system. Patients and Methods: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society collected prospective data as part of the URS Global Study for consecutive patients treated with URS at centers around the world for 1 year. URS was performed according to study protocol and local clinical practice guidelines. The stone size and location were recorded and postoperative outcome and complications, graded according to the modified Clavien grading system, reported. Results: Between January 2010 and October 2012, 11,885 patients received URS at 114 centers in 32 countries; 1852 had only renal stones, 8676 had only ureteral stones, and 1145 patients had both types of stone. Fragmentation was performed principally using a laser device (49.0%) or a pneumatic device (30.3%); no device was used in 17.9% of the patients. A high stone-free rate (85.6%) was achieved. The large majority of patients did not receive any further treatment for renal or ureter stones (89.4%). The postoperative complication rate was low (3.5%). The most frequent complication was fever (1.8%); a blood transfusion was required in 0.2% of patients. The majority of complications were Clavien grade I or II (2.8% of patients). Conclusion: URS is an established minimal invasive treatment for urinary stones with a high success rate and low morbidity. Recent advances have expanded the indication for urinary stones, which now ranges from treatment of smaller sized distal ureter stones by semirigid URS to larger sized renal pelvis stones treated by flexible URS.
Abstract Background The advantages of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) over laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) have rarely been investigated in randomised controlled trials. Objective To compare RARP and LRP in terms of the functional, perioperative, and oncologic outcomes. The main end point of the study was changes in continence 3 mo after surgery. Design, setting, and participants From January 2010 to January 2011, 120 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer were enrolled and randomly assigned (using a randomisation plan) to one of two groups based on surgical approach: the RARP group and the LRP group. Intervention All RARP and LRP interventions were performed with the same technique by the same single surgeon. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The demographic, perioperative, and pathologic results, such as the complications and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, were recorded and compared. Continence was evaluated at the time of catheter removal and 48 h later, and continence and potency were evaluated after 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. The student t test, Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test, Pearson χ2 test, and multiple regression analysis were used for statistics. Results and limitations The two groups (RARP: n = 60; LRP: n = 60) were comparable in terms of demographic data. No differences were recorded in terms of perioperative and pathologic results, complication rate, or PSA measurements. The continence rate was higher in the RARP group at every time point: Continence after 3 mo was 80% in the RARP group and 61.6% in the LRP group ( p = 0.044), and after 1 yr, the continence rate was 95.0% and 83.3%, respectively ( p = 0.042). Among preoperative potent patients treated with nerve-sparing techniques, the rate of erection recovery was 80.0% and 54.2%, respectively ( p = 0.020). The limitations included the small number of patients. Conclusions RARP provided better functional results in terms of the recovery of continence and potency. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.
Purpose: To critically review perioperative outcomes, positive surgical margin (PSM) rates, and functional outcomes of several large series of retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), laparoscopic RP (LRP), and robotassisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) currently available in the literature. Methods: A Medline database search was performed from November 1994 to May 2009, using medical subject heading search terms "prostatectomy" and "Outcome Assessment (Health Care)" and text words "retropubic," "robotic," and "laparoscopic." Only studies with a sample size of 250 or more patients were considered. Weighted means were calculated for all outcomes using the number of patients included in each study as the weighing factor. Results: We identified 30 articles for RRP, 14 for LRP, and 14 for RARP. The mean intraoperative and postoperative RRP transfusion rates for RRP, LRP, and RARP were 20.1%, 3.5%, and 1.4%, respectively. The weighted mean postoperative complication rates for RRP, LRP, and RARP were 10.3% (4.8% to 26.9%), 10.98% (8.9 to 27.7%), and 10.3% (4.3% to 15.7%), respectively. RARP revealed a mean overall PSM rate of 13.6%, whereas LRP and RRP yielded a PSM of 21.3% and 24%, respectively. The weighted mean continence rates at 12 month follow-up for RRP, LRP, and RARP were 79%, 84.8%, and 92%, respectively. The weighted mean potency rates for patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral nerve sparing, at 12 month follow-up, were 43.1% and 60.6% for RRP, 31.1% and 54% for LRP, and 59.9% and 93.5% for RARP. Conclusion: RRP, LRP, and RARP performed in high-volume centers are safe options for treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer, presenting similar overall complication rates. LRP and RARP, however, are associated with decreased operative blood loss and decreased risk of transfusion when compared with RRP. Our analysis including high-volume centers also showed lower weighted mean PSM rates and higher continence and potency rates after RARP compared with RRP and LRP. However, the lack of randomized trials precludes definitive conclusions.
Abstract Context Incorporation of bipolar technology in transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate (TURP) potentially offers advantages over monopolar TURP (M-TURP). Objective To evaluate the evidence by a meta-analysis, based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bipolar TURP (B-TURP) with M-TURP for benign prostatic obstruction. Primary end points included efficacy (maximum flow rate [Qmax ], International Prostate Symptom Score) and safety (adverse events). Secondary end points included operation time and duration of irrigation, catheterization, and hospitalization. Evidence acquisition Based on a detailed, unrestricted strategy, the literature was searched up to February 19, 2009, using Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library to detect all relevant RCTs. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration checklist. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0. Evidence synthesis Sixteen RCTs (1406 patients) were included. Overall trial quality was low (eg, allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessors were poorly reported). No clinically relevant differences in short-term (12-mo) efficacy were detected (Qmax : weighted mean difference [WMD]: 0.72 ml/s; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–1.35; p = 0.03). Data on follow-up of >12 mo are scarce for B-TURP, precluding long-term efficacy evaluation. Treating 50 patients (95% CI, 33–111) and 20 patients (95% CI, 10–100) with B-TURP results in one fewer case of TUR syndrome (risk difference [RD]: 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.9–3.0%; p = 0.01) and one fewer case of clot retention (RD: 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0–10%; p = 0.03), respectively. Operation times, transfusion rates, retention rates after catheter removal, and urethral complications did not differ significantly. Irrigation and catheterization duration was significantly longer with M-TURP (WMD: 8.75 h; 95% CI, 6.8–10.7 and WMD: 21.77 h; 95% CI, 19.22–24.32; p < 0.00001, respectively). Inferences for hospitalization duration could not be made. PlasmaKinetic TURP showed an improved safety profile. Data on TUR in saline (TURis) are not yet mature to permit safe conclusions. Conclusions No clinically relevant differences in short-term efficacy exist between the two techniques, but B-TURP is preferable due to a more favorable safety profile (lower TUR syndrome and clot retention rates) and shorter irrigation and catheterization duration. Well-designed multicentric/international RCTs with long-term follow-up and cost analysis are still needed.
Purpose With the exponential growth of robotic urological surgery, particularly with robot assisted radical prostatectomy, guidelines for safe initiation of this technology are a necessity. Currently no standardized credentialing system exists to our knowledge to evaluate surgeon competency and safety with robotic urological surgery performance. Although proctoring is a modality by which such competency can be evaluated, other training tools and guidelines are needed to ensure that the requisite knowledge and technical skills to perform this procedure have been acquired. We evaluated the current status of proctoring and credentialing in other surgical specialties to discuss and recommend its application and implementation specifically for robot assisted radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods We reviewed the literature on safety and medicolegal implications of proctoring and the safe introduction of surgical procedures to develop recommendations for robot assisted radical prostatectomy proctoring and credentialing. Results Proctoring is an essential mechanism for robot assisted radical prostatectomy institutional credentialing and should be a prerequisite for granting unrestricted privileges on the robot. This should be differentiated from preceptoring, wherein the expert is directly involved in hands-on training. Advanced technology has opened new avenues for long-distance observation through teleproctoring. Although the medicolegal implications of an active surgical intervention by a proctor are not clearly defined, the role as an observer should grant immunity from malpractice liability. Conclusions The implementation of guidelines and proctoring recommendations is necessary to protect surgeons, proctors, institutions and, above all, the patients who are associated with the institutional introduction of a robot assisted radical prostatectomy program. With no current guidelines we anticipate this article will serve as a catalyst of interorganizational discussion to initiate regulatory oversight of surgeon certification and proctorship.
Introduction: Numerous studies have reported on regional or national trends of stone disease treatment. However, no article has yet examined the global trends of intervention for stone disease. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of articles from 1996 to September 2016 for all English language articles reporting on trends of surgical treatment of stone disease was performed. Authors were contacted in the case of data not being clear. If the authors did not reply, data were estimated from graphs or tables. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 21, and trends were analyzed using linear regression. Results: Our systematic review yielded 120 articles, of which 8 were included in the initial review. This reflected outcomes from six countries with available data: United Kingdom, United States, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and Brazil. Overall ureteroscopy (URS) had a 251.8% increase in total number of treatments performed with the share of total treatments increasing by 17%. While the share of total treatments for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) remained static, the share for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and open surgery fell by 14.5% and 12%, respectively. There was significant linear regression between rising trends of total treatments year on year for URS ( p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the last two decades, the share of total treatment for urolithiasis across the published literature has increased for URS, stable for PCNL, and decreased for lithotripsy and open surgery.
Purpose We evaluated the utility of near infrared fluorescence of intravenously injected indocyanine green in performing robotic assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. In addition, we evaluated the initial performance of a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system integrated into the da Vinci® Si Surgical System during robotic assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy. Materials and Methods Fluorescence imaging for the da Vinci Si Surgical System was used for all cases. Indocyanine green was injected before near infrared imaging. Immediate imaging assessed the renal vasculature while delayed imaging differentiated renal cortical tumors from normal parenchyma. The intraoperative performance of near infrared fluorescence of intravenous indocyanine green was evaluated for tumor appearance relative to surrounding renal parenchyma as well as identification of the renal vasculature. Results A total of 11 patients underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy with 2 converted to robotic assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Indocyanine green injections were repeated up to a total of 5 times depending on the goal of visualization. Of the 11 patients 10 demonstrated malignancy on final pathology. Of the malignant tumors 7 were hypofluorescent and 3 were isofluorescent compared to the surrounding renal parenchyma. Near infrared fluorescence imaging delineated the vascular anatomy in all cases. All surgical margins were negative on final pathology. Conclusions Intraoperative imaging of indocyanine green with near infrared fluorescence is a safe and effective method to accurately identify the renal vasculature and to differentiate renal tumors from surrounding normal parenchyma. The capacity for multimodal imaging within the surgical console further facilitates this imaging. Further study is needed to determine if this technique will help improve outcomes of robotic assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy.
Background and Purpose: Urinary stones >2 cm are traditionally managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Recently, flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy) (FURSL) has been used to manage them with comparable results. In a comparative study of renal stones between 2 and 3 cm, FURSL was reported to need less second-stage procedures and be just as effective as PCNL. Our purpose was to review the literature for renal stones >2 cm managed by ureteroscopy and holmium lasertripsy. Materials and Methods: A systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis was performed using studies identified by a literature search from 1990s (the first reported large renal stones treated ureteroscopically) to August 2011. All English language articles reporting on a minimum of 10 patients treated with FURSL for renal stones >2 cm were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. The data of studies with comparable results were included into a meta-analysis. Results: In nine studies, 445 patients (460 renal units) were reportedly treated with FURSL. The mean operative time was 82.5 minutes (28–215 min). The mean stone-free rate was 93.7% (77%–96.7%), with an average of 1.6 procedures per patient. The mean stone size was 2.5 cm. An overall complication rate was 10.1%. Major complications developed in 21 (5.3%) patients and minor complications developed in 19 (4.8%) patients. A subgroup analysis shows that FURSL has a 95.7% stone-free rate with stones 2–3 cm and 84.6% in those >3 cm ( P =0.01), with a minor complication rate of 14.3% and 15.4%, respectively, and a major complication rate of 0% and 11.5%, respectively. Conclusion: In experienced hands, FURSL can successfully treat patients with stones >2 cm with a high stone-free rate and a low complication rate. Although the studies are from high-volume experienced centers and may not be sufficient to alter everyday routine practice, this review has shown that the efficacy of FURSL allows an alternative to PCNL.
Study Type – Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add? Improved patient selection for conservative management, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and/or extended lymphadenectomy is urgently needed. We developed a highly accurate preoperative model to predict muscle‐invasive and non‐organ‐confined upper tract urothelial carcinoma based on standard imaging and ureteroscopy features. OBJECTIVE • To create a preoperative multivariable model to identify patients at risk of muscle‐invasive (pT2+) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and/or non‐organ confined (pT3+ or N+) UTUC (NOC‐UTUC) who potentially could benefit from radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or an extended lymph node dissection. PATIENTS AND METHODS • We retrospectively analysed data from 324 consecutive patients treated with RNU between 1995 and 2008 at a tertiary cancer centre. • Patients with muscle‐invasive bladder cancer were excluded, resulting in 274 patients for analysis. • Logistic regression models were used to predict pT2+ and NOC‐UTUC. Pre‐specified predictors included local invasion (i.e. parenchymal, renal sinus fat, or periureteric) on imaging, hydronephrosis on imaging, high‐grade tumours on ureteroscopy, and tumour location on ureteroscopy. • Predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS • The median follow‐up for patients without disease recurrence or death was 4.2 years. • Overall, 49% of the patients had pT2+, and 30% had NOC‐UTUC at the time of RNU. • In the multivariable analysis, only local invasion on imaging and ureteroscopy high grade were significantly associated with pathological stage. • AUC to predict pT2+ and NOC‐UTUC were 0.71 and 0.70, respectively. CONCLUSIONS • We designed a preoperative prediction model for pT2+ and NOC‐UTUC, based on readily available imaging and ureteroscopic grade. • Further research is needed to determine whether use of this prediction model to select patients for conservative management vs RNU, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and/or extended lymphadenectomy will improve patient outcomes.
Introduction: Flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) is increasingly used in the treatment of renal stones. However, wide variations exist in technique, use, and indications. To better inform our knowledge about the contemporary state of fURS for treating renal stones, we conducted a survey of endourologists worldwide. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire assessing fURS treatment of renal stones, consisting of 36 items, was sent to members of the Endourology Society in October 2014. Responses were collected through the SurveyMonkey system over a 3-month period. Results: Questionnaires were answered by 414 surgeons from 44 countries (response rate 20.7%). U.S. surgeons accounted for 34.4% of all respondents. fURS was routinely performed in 80.0% of institutions, with 40.0% of surgeons performing >100 cases/year. Respondents considered fURS to be first-line therapy for patients with renal stones 2 cm. Basket displacement for lower pole stones was routinely performed by 55.8%. Ureteral access sheaths (UAS) were preferred for every case by 58.3%. Respondents frequently utilized high-power lasers and dusting techniques. Criteria for determining stone-free rate were defined as zero fragments or residual fragment (RF) <1, <2, <3, and <4 mm by 30.9%, 8.9%, 31.5%, 15.8%, and 11.2% of respondents, respectively. Conclusion: The overwhelming majority of endourologists surveyed consider fURS as a first-line treatment modality for renal stones, especially those <2 cm. Use of UAS, high-power holmium lasers, and dusting technique has become popular among practitioners. When defining stone free after fURS, the majority of endourologists used a zero fragment or RF <2 mm definition.
Purpose We evaluated the incidence of perioperative complications after robotic partial nephrectomy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated with robotic assisted partial nephrectomy across the 4 participating institutions. Demographic, blood loss, warm ischemia time, and intraoperative and postoperative complication data were collected. All complications were graded according to the Clavien classification system. Results A total of 450 consecutive robotic assisted partial nephrectomies were done between June 2006 and May 2009. Overall 71 patients (15.8%) had a complication, including intraoperative and postoperative complications in 8 (1.8%) and 65 (14.4%), respectively. Hemorrhage developed in 2 patients (0.2%) intraoperatively and in 22 (4.9%) postoperatively. Seven patients (1.6%) had urine leakage. As classified by the Clavien system, complications were grade I-II in 76.1% of cases and grade III-IV in 23.9%. Robotic assisted partial nephrectomy was converted to open or conventional laparoscopic surgery in 3 patients (0.7%) and to radical nephrectomy in 7 (1.6%). There were no deaths. Conclusions Current data indicate that robotic assisted partial nephrectomy is safe. Most postoperative complications are Clavien grade I or II, or can be managed conservatively.
Purpose: To evaluate LithoVue, the new single-use digital flexible ureteroscope, in a human cadaveric model and compare it with a nondisposable fiber optic and digital flexible ureteroscopes. Materials and Methods: LithoVue, a conventional fiber optic, and digital flexible ureteroscopes were each tested in four renal units of recently deceased female cadavers by three surgeons. The following parameters were analyzed: accessibility to the kidney and navigation of the entire collecting system with and without ureteral access sheath (UAS), lower pole access measuring the deflection of the ureteroscope with the working channel empty, and with inside two different baskets and laser fibers. A subjective evaluation of maneuverability and visibility was assessed by each surgeon at the end of every procedure. Results: Kidney access into the Renal unit 1 was not possible without UAS for all ureteroscopes because of noncompliant ureter at the level of sacroiliac joint. The reusable digital ureteroscope was unable to reach one calix of the lower pole and one calix of the upper pole (Renal units 2 and 3) without UAS placement. Lower pole access with baskets and laser fibers was possible for each ureteroscope after UAS placement. No statistically significant differences were detected in angle deflection between ureteroscopes. The digital ureteroscope was preferred for visibility in all procedures: LithoVue for maneuverability in six procedures, fiber optic in five procedures, and the digital ureteroscope in one procedure. Conclusions: LithoVue seems to be comparable with conventional ureteroscopes in terms of visibility and manipulation into the collecting system in fresh human cadavers. Further studies in humans are needed to determine the clinical value of this new instrument.
Purpose It is not yet possible to estimate the number of cases required for a beginner to become expert in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. We estimated the learning curve of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for positive surgical margins compared to a published learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods We reviewed records from 8,544 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated laparoscopically by 51 surgeons at 14 academic institutions in Europe and the United States. The probability of a positive surgical margin was calculated as a function of surgeon experience with adjustment for pathological stage, Gleason score and prostate specific antigen. A second model incorporated prior experience with open radical prostatectomy and surgeon generation. Results Positive surgical margins occurred in 1,862 patients (22%). There was an apparent improvement in surgical margin rates up to a plateau at 200 to 250 surgeries. Changes in margin rates once this plateau was reached were relatively minimal relative to the CIs. The absolute risk difference for 10 vs 250 prior surgeries was 4.8% (95% CI 1.5, 8.5). Neither surgeon generation nor prior open radical prostatectomy experience was statistically significant when added to the model. The rate of decrease in positive surgical margins was more rapid in the open vs laparoscopic learning curve. Conclusions The learning curve for surgical margins after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy plateaus at approximately 200 to 250 cases. Prior open experience and surgeon generation do not improve the margin rate, suggesting that the rate is primarily a function of specifically laparoscopic training and experience.
Abstract Context Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has been rapidly adopted as a new approach for radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). The use of new technology may increase costs for RP. Objective To summarize data on direct costs of various approaches to RP and to discuss the consequences of cost differences. Evidence acquisition A systematic literature search was performed in March 2012 using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A complex search strategy was applied. Articles were selected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Articles reporting on direct costs of RP (open retropubic [RRP], radical perineal [RPP], laparoscopic [LRP], RALP) in men with clinically localized PCa were eligible for study inclusion. Evidence synthesis Of 1218 articles initially screened by title, the multistep, systematic search identified 11 studies presenting direct costs of different approaches to RP. Of the 11 studies, 7 compared the costs of different RP approaches. Minimally invasive RP (MIRP) (ie, LRP or RALP) was more expensive than RRP in most studies, mainly due to increased surgical instrumentation costs. In the comparative studies, costs ranged from (in US dollars) $5058 to $11 806 for MIRP and from $4075 to $6296 for RRP, with RALP having the highest direct costs. In one study applying standardized, health economic-evaluation criteria, RALP was not found to be cost effective. Limitations of this review include significant differences in observational study designs and an absence of prospective comparative studies. Moreover, there are limited post-RP data on the costs of adjuvant treatments and other health care–related expenses after PCa surgery. Conclusions Few studies compared direct costs of different approaches to RP. The use of new technology, particularly RALP, results in added costs for the procedure. Cost effectiveness of new technologies should be assessed before widespread adoption. To date, in the lone study to evaluate this, RALP was not found to be cost effective from a health care, economic standpoint. However, longer follow-up of patients is required to better evaluate its impact on overall costs and quality of PCa care.
Objective: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of Moses technology in Holmium laser and to compare it with the Regular mode in terms of lithotripsy efficiency and laser-tissue interactions. Methods: The Lumenis ® Pulse™ P120H holmium laser system together with Moses D/F/L fibers were used to compare the Regular mode with the Moses modes in stone retropulsion by using a high-speed camera, and stone ablation efficiency. In addition, a porcine ureteroscopy model was used to assess stone fragmentation and dusting as well as laser-tissue interaction with the ureteral wall. Results: After a laser pulse, in vitro stone displacement experiments showed a significant reduction in retropulsion when using the Moses mode. The stone movement was reduced by 50 times at 0.8 J and 10 Hz ( p < 0.01). The pronounced reduction of retropulsion in the Moses mode was clearly observed during fragmentation setting (high energy) and dusting (low energy, high Hz). In addition, stone fragmentation tests showed that the Moses modes resulted in a significantly higher ablation volume when compared with the Regular mode (160% higher; p < 0.001). In vivo assessment also supported the reduction in retropulsion when treating stones in the porcine kidney. Histological analysis of the porcine ureter after direct lasing in the Moses mode suggested less damage than in the Regular mode. Conclusions: The Moses technology resulted in more efficient laser lithotripsy, in addition to significantly reduced stone retropulsion, and displayed a margin of safety that may result in a shorter procedural time and safer lithotripsy.